Kenneth S. Olson

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Illustrations of the IPA

Illustrations of the IPA is a series of short articles in the Journal of the International Phonetic Association (JIPA) that exemplify the use of the symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet. Each IPA Illustration describes the consonants, vowels, and prosodic features of the language, and provides a short text in the language, usually the well-known fable The North Wind and the Sun, attributed to Aesop. The Illustrations published in JIPA up through 1997 are also published in the Handbook of the International Phonetic Association (Cambridge University Press, 1999). Below is a list of languages for which an Illustration of the IPA exists.

To access the International Phonetic Association website, go to: https://www.internationalphoneticassociation.org.

ISO 639–3 language codes are included for reference. Each language code link takes you to a brief description of the language found in the seventeenth edition of Ethnologue: Languages of the World, ed. by M. Paul Lewis, Gary F. Simons and Charles D. Fennig (SIL International, 2013). To access the Ethnologue online, go to: http://www.ethnologue.com.

Audio recordings of the data in the Illustrations of the IPA published in JIPA are available to IPA members at: https://www.internationalphoneticassociation.org/member/audio-files-illustrations-ipa. They are also available to JIPA subscribers by clicking on the "Supplementary materials" or "Sound files" link included with the description of the article on the Table of Contents page for the relevant journal issue.

Access to the recordings for Illustrations from the Handbook can be downloaded free of charge. To access them, go to: https://www.internationalphoneticassociation.org/content/ipa-handbook-downloads.

I welcome your comments on this page! Please email me at ken1 (AT) awuka.com.

Language Name ISO 639–3 Code Reference
Amharic [amh] Hayward, Katrina & Richard J. Hayward. 1992. JIPA 22(1–2). 48–52. (Handbook, 45–50.)
Apache, Jicarilla [apj] Tuttle, Siri G. & Merton Sandoval. 2002. JIPA 32(1). 105–112.
Arabic [arb] Thelwall, Robin & M. Akram Sa'adeddin. 1990. JIPA 20(2). 37–39. (Handbook, 51–54.)
Arrernte, Central [aer] Breen, Gavan & Veronica Dobson. 2005. JIPA 35(2). 249–254.
Assamese [asm] Mahanta, Shakuntala. 2012. JIPA 42(2). 217–224.
Bardi [bcj] Bowern, Claire, Joyce McDonough & Katherine Kelliher. 2012. JIPA 42(3). 333–351. DOI
Basque, Goizueta [eus] Hualde, José Ignacio, Oihana Lujanbio & Juan Joxe Zubiri. 2010. JIPA 40(1). 113–127.
Bengali (Bangladeshi Standard) [ben] Khan, Sameer ud Dowla. 2010. JIPA 40(2). 221–225.
Bulgarian [bul] Ternes, Elmar & Tatjana Vladimirova-Buhtz. 1990. JIPA 20(1). 45–47. (Handbook, 55–57.)
Burmese [mya] Watkins, Justin W. 2001. JIPA 31(2). 291–295.
Catalan [cat] Carbonell, Joan F. & Joaquim Llisterri. 1992. JIPA 22(1–2). 53–56. (Handbook, 61–65.)
Chickasaw [cic] Gordon, Matthew, Pamela Munro & Peter Ladefoged. 2001. JIPA 31(2). 287–290.
Chinese, Hakka [hak] Lee, Wai-Sum & Eric Zee. 2009. JIPA 39(1). 107–111.
Chinese (Hong Kong Cantonese) [yue] Zee, Eric. 1991 JIPA 21(1). 46–48. (Handbook, 58–60.)
Chinese, Standard (Beijing) [cmn] Lee, Wai-Sum & Eric Zee. 2003. JIPA 33(1). 109–112.
Chistabino (Pyrenean Aragonese) [arg] Mott, Brian. 2007. JIPA 37(1). 103–114.
Croatian [hrv] Landau, Ernestina, Mijo Lončarić, Damir Horga & Ivo Škarić. 1995. JIPA 25(2). 83–86. (Handbook, 66–69.)
Czech [ces] Dankovičová, Jana. 1997. JIPA 27(1–2). 77–80. (Handbook, 70–73.)
Czech spoken in Bohemia and Moravia [ces] Šimáčková, Šárka, Václav Jonáš Podlipský & Kateřina Chládková. 2012. JIPA 42(2). 225–232.
Danish [dan] Grønnum, Nina. 1998. JIPA 28(1–2). 99–105.
Dinka, Luanyjang [dik] Remijsen, Bert & Caguor Adong Manyang. 2009. JIPA 39(1). 113–124.
Dutch [nld] Gussenhoven, Carlos. 1992. JIPA 22(1–2). 45–47. (Handbook, 74–77.)
Dutch, Belgian Standard [nld] Verhoeven, Jo. 2005. JIPA 35(2). 243–247.
Dutch, dialect of Hasselt [nld] Peters, Jörg. 2006. JIPA 36(1). 117–124.
Dutch, dialect of Maastricht [nld] Gussenhoven, Carlos & Flor Aarts. 1999. JIPA 29(2). 155–166.
Dutch, dialect of Weert [nld] Heijmans, Linda & Garlos Gussenhoven. 1998. JIPA 28(1–2). 107–112.
Dutch, the Belgian Limburg dialect of Hamont [nld] Verhoeven, Jo. 2007. JIPA 37(2). 219–225.
Dutch (The Flemish-Brabant dialect of Orsmaal-Gussenhoven) [nld] Peters, Jörg. 2010. JIPA 40(2). 239–246.
Ega [ega] Connell, Bruce, Firmin Ahoua & Dafydd Gibbon. 2002. JIPA 32(1). 99–104.
English, American [eng] Ladefoged, Peter. 1989. JIPA 19(2). 77–80. (Part of the report from the Kiel convention) (Handbook, 41–44.)
English, American: Southern Michigan [eng] Hillenbrand, James M. 2003. JIPA 33(1). 121–126.
English, Australian [eng] Cox, Felicity & Sallyanne Palethorpe. 2007. JIPA 37(3). 341–350.
English, British: Received pronunciation [eng] Roach, Peter. 2004. JIPA 34(2). 239–245.
English, Liverpool [eng] Watson, Kevin. 2007. JIPA 37(3). 351–360.
English, New Zealand [eng] Bauer, Laurie, Paul Warren, Dianne Bardsley, Marianna Kennedy & George Major. 2007. JIPA 37(1). 97–102.
English, Tyneside [eng] Watt, Dominic & William Allen. 2003. JIPA 33(2). 267–271.
Estonian [est] Asu, Eva Liina & Pire Teras. 2009. JIPA 39(3). 367–372.
French [fra] Fougeron, Cécile & Caroline L. Smith. 1993. JIPA 23(2). 73–76. (Handbook, 78–81.)
Friulian [fur] Miotti, Renzo. 2002. JIPA 32(2). 237–247.
Galician [glg] Regueira, Xosé L. 1996. JIPA 26(2). 119–122. (Handbook, 82–85.)
Gayo [gay] Eades, Domenyk & John Hajek. 2006. JIPA 36(1). 107–115.
Georgian, Standard [kat] Shosted, Ryan K. & Vakhtang Chikovani. 2006. JIPA 36(2). 255–264.
German [deu] Kohler, Klaus. 1990. JIPA 20(1). 48–50. (Handbook, 86–89.)
German, Zurich [gsw] Fleischer, Jürg & Stephan Schmid. 2006. JIPA 36(2). 243–253.
Greek, Cypriot [ell] Arvaniti, Amalia. 1999. JIPA 29(2). 173–178.
Greek, Standard Modern [ell] Arvaniti, Amalia. 1999. JIPA 29(2). 167–172.
Hausa [hau] Schuh, Russell G. & Lawan D. Yalwa. 1993. JIPA 23(2). 77–82. (Handbook, 90–95.)
Hebrew [heb] Laufer, Asher. 1990 JIPA 20(2). 40–43. (Handbook, 96–99.)
Hindi [hin] Ohala, Manjari. 1994. JIPA 24(1). 35–38. (Handbook, 100–103.)
Hungarian [hun] Szende, Tamás. 1994. JIPA 24(2). 91–94. (Handbook, 104–107.)
Ibibio [ibb] Urua, Eno-Abasi E. 2004. JIPA 34(1). 105–109.
Igbo [ibo] Ikekeonwu, Clara I. 1991. JIPA 21(2). 99–101. (Handbook, 108–110.)
Indonesian [ind] Soderberg, Craig D. & Kenneth S. Olson. 2008. JIPA 38(2). 209–213.
Irish [gle] Ní Chasaide, Ailbhe. 1995. JIPA 25(1). 34–39. (Handbook, 111–116.)
Istanbul Judeo-Spanish [lad] Hualde, José Ignacio & Mahir Şaul. 2011. JIPA 41(1). 89–110.
Italian [ita] Rogers, Derek & Luciana d’Arcangeli. 2004. JIPA 34(1). 117–121.
Italian: The sound pattern of Standard Italian, as compared with the varieties spoken in Florence, Milan and Rome [ita] Bertinetto, Pier Marco & Michele Loporcaro. 2005. JIPA 35(2). 131–151.
Jamaican Creole [jam] Harry, Otelemate G. 2006. JIPA 36(1). 125–131.
Japanese [jpn] Okada, Hideo. 1991. JIPA 21(2). 94–96. (Handbook, 117–119.)
Kabiye [kbp] Padayodi, Cécile M. 2008. JIPA 38(2). 215–221.
Kalaḅarị-Ịjọ [ijn] Harry, Otelemate G. 2003. JIPA 33(1). 113–120.
Kéo [xxk] Baird, Louise. 2002. JIPA 32(1). 93–97.
Korean [kor] Lee, Hyun Bok. 1993. JIPA 23(1). 28–31. (Handbook, 120–123.)
Kunama [kun] Ashkaba, John Abraha & Richard Hayward. 1999. JIPA 29(2). 179–185.
Lizu [ers] Chirkova, Katia & Yiya Chen. 2013. JIPA 43(1). 75–86. DOI
Luxembourgish [ltz] Gilles, Peter & Jürgen Trouvain. 2013. JIPA 43(1). 67–74. DOI
Mah Meri [mhe] Kruspe, Nicole & John Hajek. 2009. JIPA 39(2). 241–248.
Malay, Cocos [coa] Soderberg, Craig D. 2014. JIPA 44(1). 103–107. DOI
Mambay [mcs] Anonby, Erik John. 2006. JIPA 36(2). 221–233.
Mapudungun [arn] Sadowsky, Scott, Héctor Painequeo, Gastón Salamanca & Heriberto Avelino. JIPA 43(1). 87–96. DOI
Mavea [mkv] Guerin, Valerie & Katsura Aoyama. 2009. JIPA 39(2). 249–262.
Mono [mnh] Olson, Kenneth S. 2004. JIPA 34(2). 233–238.
Nara [nrb] Dawd, Abushush & Richard J. Hayward. 2002. JIPA 32(2). 249–255.
Nepali [nep] Khatiwada, Rajesh. 2009. JIPA 39(3). 373–380.
Northern Paiute, Mono Lake [pao] Babel, Molly, Michael J. Houser & Maziar Toosarvandani. 2012. JIPA 42(2). 233–243.
Nuuchahnulth [noo] Carlson, Barry F., John H. Esling & Katie Fraser. 2001. JIPA 31(2). 275–279.
Palula [phl] Liljegren, Henrick & Naseem Haider. 2009. JIPA 39(3). 381–386.
Pashayi, Southeastern [psi] Lamuwal, Abd-El-Malek & Adam Baker. 2013. JIPA 43(2). 243–246. DOI
Persian (Farsi) [pes] Majidi, Mohammad-Reza & Elmar Ternes. 1991. JIPA 21(2). 96–98. (Handbook, 124–125.)
Plautdietsch, Mennonite (Canadian Old Colony) [pdt] Cox, Christopher, Jacob M. Driedger & Benjamin V. Tucker. 2013. JIPA 43(2). 221–229. DOI
Polish [pol] Jassem, Wiktor. 2003. JIPA 33(1). 103–107.
Portuguese (European) [por] Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena. 1995. JIPA 25(2). 90–94. (Handbook, 126–130.)
Portuguese, Brazilian [por] Barbosa, Plínio A. & Eleonora C. Albano. 2004. JIPA 34(2). 227–232.
Quichua, Salasaca [qxl] Chango Masaquiza, Fanny & Stephen A. Marlett. 2008. JIPA 38(2). 223–227.
Quichua, Tena [quw] O'Rourke, Erin & Tod D. Swanson. 2013. JIPA 43(1). 107–120. DOI
Sama, Central [sml] Pallesen, A. Kemp & Craig Soderberg. 2012. JIPA 42(3). 353–359. DOI
Sandawe [sad] Eaton, Helen. 2006. JIPA 36(2). 235–242.
Saxon, Upper (Chemnitz dialect) [sxu] Khan, Sameer ud Dowla & Constanze Weise. 2013. JIPA 43(2). 231–241. DOI
Seri [sei] Marlett, Stephen A., F. Xavier Moreno Herrera & Genaro G. Herrera Astorga. 2005. JIPA 35(1). 117–121.
Shilluk [shk] Remijsen, Bert, Otto G. Ayoker & Timothy Mills. 2011. JIPA 41(1). 111–125.
Shipibo [shp] Valenzuela, Pilar M., Luis Márquez Pinedo (Yoi Sani) & Ian Maddieson. 2001. JIPA 31(2). 281–285.
Shiwilu (Jebero) [jeb] Valenzuela, Pilar M. & Carlos Gussenhoven. 2013. JIPA 43(1). 97–106. DOI
Sindhi [snd] Nihalani, Paroo. 1995. JIPA 25(2). 95–98. (Handbook, 131–134.)
Slovak [slk] Hanulíková, Adriana & Silke Hamann. 2010. JIPA 40(3). 373–378.
Slovene [slv] Šuštaršič, Rastislav & Smiljana Komar. 1995. JIPA 25(2). 86–90. (Handbook, 135–139.)
Spanish, Castilian [spa] Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio, Ana Ma. Fernández-Planas & Josefina Carrera-Sabaté. 2003. JIPA 33(2). 255–260.
Spokane [spo] Carlson, Barry F. & John H. Esling. 2000. JIPA 30(1/2). 97–102.
Sumi (Sema) [nsm] Teo, Amos. 2012. JIPA 42(3). 365–373. DOI
Swedish [swe] Engstrand, Olle. 1990. JIPA 20(1). 42–44. (Handbook, 140–142.)
Taba [mky] (East Makian) Bowden, John & John Hajek. 1996. JIPA 26(1). 55–57. (Handbook, 143–146.)
Tajik, Bukharan [bhh] Ido, Shinji. 2014. JIPA 44(1). 87–102. DOI
Tamambo [mla]? Riehl, Anastasia K. & Dorothy Jauncey. 2005. JIPA 35(2). 255–259.
Tamil [tam] Keane, Elinor. 2004. JIPA 34(1). 111–116.
Tausug (Suluk) [tsg] Soderberg, Craig, Seymour A. Ashley & Kenneth S. Olson. 2012. JIPA 42(3). 361–364. DOI
Temne [tem] Kanu, Sullay M. & Benjamin V. Tucker. 2010. JIPA 40(2). 247–253.
Tera [ttr] Tench, Paul. 2007. JIPA 37(2). 227–234.
Thai [tha] Tingsabadh, M. R. Kalaya & Arthur S. Abramson. 1993. JIPA 23(1). 24–28. (Handbook, 147–150.)
Trique, Itunyoso [trq] DiCanio, Christian T. 2010. JIPA 40(2). 227–238.
Tukang Besi [khc] (Tukang Besi North) Donohue, Mark. 1994. JIPA 24(1). 39–41. (Handbook, 151–153.)
Turkish [tur] Zimmer, Karl & Orhan Orgun. 1992. JIPA 22(1–2). 43–45. (Handbook, 154–156.)
Xumi, Lower [sxg] Chirkova, Katia & Yiya Chen. 2013. JIPA 43(3). 363–379. DOI
Xumi, Upper [sxg] Chirkova, Katia, Yiya Chen & Tanja Kocjančič Antolík. 2013. JIPA 43(3). 381–396. DOI
Yiddish, Standard [ydd] (Eastern Yiddish) Kleine, Ane. 2003. JIPA 33(2). 261–265.
Yine [pib] Urquía Sebastián, Rittma & Stephen A. Marlett. 2008. JIPA 38(3). 365–369.
Zapotec, Isthmus (Juchitán) [zai] Pickett†, Velma B., María Villalobos Villalobos & Stephen A. Marlett. 2010. JIPA 40(3). 365–372.
Zapotec, Isthmus (Juchitán) – CORRIGENDUM [zai] Pickett†, Velma B., María Villalobos Villalobos & Stephen A. Marlett. 2011. JIPA 41(1). 135.
Zapotec, Tilquiapan [zts] Merrill, Elizabeth D. 2008. JIPA 38(1). 107–114.

The largest languages that at present do not have an Illustration of the IPA are:

Language Name Language Code Countries
Bihari [bho] (Bhojpuri), [mag] (Magahi), [mai] (Maithili) India
Javanese [jav] Indonesia
Punjabi [pnb] (Western Panjabi), [pan] (Eastern Panjabi) Pakistan, India
Russian [rus] Russia
Telugu [tel] India
Ukrainian [ukr] Ukraine


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Last modified: 18-Sep-2015