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All references

abashusen 1987Abas, Husen. 1987. Indonesian, a unifying language of wider communication: A historical and sociolinguistic perspective. Pacific linguistics. Series D. Special publications 73. Canberra: Australian National University, Dept of Linguistics: Research School of Pacific Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Austronesian,

abbottandrew 1999Abbott, Andrew. 1999. Department and discipline. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Research methodology,
Research,
Social sciences - other,

abinalantoine&malzacvictorin 1970Abinal, Antoine, and Victorin Malzac. 1970. Dictionnaire Malgache-Français. Paris: Editions Maritimes et d'Outre-mer.

language(s):
Malagasy, French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

abrahamsrogerd 1989Abrahams, Roger D. 1989. Black talking on the streets. In Explorations in the ethnography of speaking, 240-262, edited by Richard Bauman, and Joel Sherzer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

abramovitchhenry 1974Abramovitch, Henry. 1974. Sainte-Marie. Taloha 6:187-188.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Saint Mariens,
Eastern,
Betsimisaraka,

A very brief account, based on observations during the author's stay at Ile Sainte Marie, July-October 1973, touching on the history of the island, its name, the customs of reburial, circumcision, mitrambo and tromba.

abramsdominic&hoggmichaela 1988Abrams, Dominic, and Michael A. Hogg. 1988. Language attitudes, frames of reference, and social identity: A Scottish dimension. In Language and ethnic identity, 45-57, edited by William B. Gudykunst. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Research methodology,
Research,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

A study using matched guise techniques.

abulughodlila 1986Abu-Lughod, Lila. 1986. Veiled sentiments: Honor and poetry in a Bedouin society. Berkeley: University of California Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

academiemalgache 1977Académie Malgache (ed.) 1977. Colloque international de linguistique malgache. 75eme anniversaire de l'Académie Malgache. Antananarivo, 5-12 septembre 1977. Antananarivo: Académie Malgache.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

achardpierre 1993Achard, Pierre. 1993. La sociologie du langage: Que sais-je? Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

adamskarenl&conklinnancyf 1973Adams, Karen L., and Nancy F. Conklin. 1973. Toward a theory of natural classification. In Papers from the Ninth Regional Meeting Chicago Linguistic Society, April 13-15, 1973, 1-10, edited by Claudia Corum, T. Cedric Smith-Stark, and Ann Weiser. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
History,

adegbijaefurosibina 1994Adegbija, Efurosibina. 1994. Language attitudes in sub-Saharan Africa. Multilingual matters. Clevedon, Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

adelaarkarlalexander 1989aAdelaar, Karl Alexander. 1989a. Les langues austronésiennes et la place du Malagasy dans leur ensemble. Archipel 38:25-52.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Linguistics,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

adelaarkarlalexander 1989bAdelaar, Karl Alexander. 1989b. Malay influence on Malagasy: Linguistic and culture-historical implications. Oceanic Linguistics 28(1):1-45.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Adelaar presents some evidence for lexical borrowing from Malay and Javanese into Malagasy. This, he then discusses in terms of the cultural, historical and linguistic aspects implied and deductible from such borrowing. He reinterprets evidence presented by Dahl and others, whence his conclusion that the migration to Madagascar dates from the seventh century and may have been after they learnt about the existence of Madagascar at Srivijaya, an ancient kingdom (between 7 and 13 AD), situated in South Sumatra. Also, it is a possibility that the Indian influence and authentic Indonesian aspects of Malagasy culture can be understood in terms of a socially stratified group that came to Madagascar, as mentioned by Paul Ottino (1986).

adelaarkarlalexander 1991aAdelaar, Karl Alexander. 1991a. New ideas on the early history of Malagasy. In Papers in Austronesian linguistics no. 1. Pacific linguistics. Series A: Occasional papers 81, 1-22, edited by H. Steinhauer. Canberra: Australian National University, Dept of Linguistics: Research School of Pacific Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Adelaar critically evaluates the work of Pierre Simon and Waruno Mahdi on the linguistic history of Malagasy. Both authors were published in 1988. He then presents a new hypothesis regarding the sociohistorical conditions under which the Malagasy language and people developed. The emphasis is once again on the Malay influence on Malagasy.

adelaarkarlalexander 1991bAdelaar, Karl Alexander. 1991b. Nouvelles découvertes sur les origines malgaches. Notes à propos d'une conférence faite à l'INALCO à l'initiative du CEROI. In Navigations. Etudes Océan Indien 13, 155-160, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
History,

adelaarkarlalexander 1994aAdelaar, Karl Alexander. 1994a. Asian roots of the Malagasy. Bijdragen Tot de Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde 150:325-356.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

adelaarkarlalexander 1994bAdelaar, Karl Alexander. 1994b. Malay and Javanese loanwords in Malagasy, Tagalog and Siraya (formosa). Bijdragen Tot de Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde 150:50-65.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

adelaarkarlalexander 1995aAdelaar, Karl Alexander. 1995a. L'importance du samihim (Bornéo du sud) pour l'étymologie malgache. In L'étranger intime. Mélanges offerts à Paul Ottino, 47-59, edited by Bernard Champion. St. Denis: Université de la Réunion, Océan Éditions.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

adelaarkarlalexander 1995bAdelaar, Karl Alexander. 1995b. Une perspective linguistique sur les origines asiatiques des malgaches. In Cultures of Madagascar: Ebb and flow of influences. Working papers series 2, 39-46, edited by Sandra Evers, and Marc Spindler. Leiden: International Institute for Asian Studies.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,

adelaarkarlalexander 1996Adelaar, Karl Alexander. 1996. Malagasy culture-history: some linguistic evidence. In The proceedings of the conference on The Indian Ocean in Antiquity, 487-500, edited by Julian E. Reade. London: Kegan Paul.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
History,
Austronesian,

adurizjoseantonio&urkiamaria 1997Aduriz, Jose Antonio, and Maria Urkia. 1997. La lexicographie assistée par ordinateur. L'expérience d'Uzei. Meta 42(2):257-263.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,

agarmichaelh&hobbsjerryr 1985Agar, Michael H., and Jerry R. Hobbs. 1985. How to grow schemata out of interviews. In Directions in cognitive anthropology, 413-431, edited by Janet W. D. Dougherty. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Research methodology,

agarmichaelh 1973Agar, Michael H. 1973. Ripping and running: A formal ethnography of urban heroin addicts. New York: Seminar Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

agarmichaelh 1994Agar, Michael H. 1994. Language shock / understanding the culture of conversation. New York: William Morrow and Company.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

agheyisirebecca&fishmanjoshuaa 1970Agheyisi, Rebecca, and Joshua A. Fishman. 1970. Language attitude studies. Anthropological Linguistics 12(5):137-157.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

This article presents an overview of the problem of assessing attitudes and discusses different methodological approaches: questionnaires, case studies, the commitment measure, matched guise technique, mirror image technique, observation, role-playing, and interviewing.

Selected quotes:

  • The observational method by itself may not be the best for collecting data of an essentially introspective nature such as attitudinal data, but when combined with more direct methods, such as interviews and questionnaires, it can be very useful (150).
  • Methodology in attitude studies includes direct and indirect measures of all kinds, but language attitude studies have tended to make more use of questionnaires than of other methods. The matched guise technique has been extensively used for studies relating to the social significance of languages and language varieties. A special adaptation of this technique ('mirror image') proves promising for measuring consensual evaluations of language switching at the situational level. Situationally based self-report instruments, such as those used by Greenfield and Fishman (1968) also promise to be very effective instruments for studies pertaining to normative views concerning the situational use of languages and language varieties. The commitment measure has been found to be particularly suited for collecting data on behavioral tendencies.
    Data obtained through interviewing may be difficult to process and score, but the research interview can be particularly effective for attitude assessment, especially when used to complement the observational method (151).

ahmedchamangamohamed&lafonmichel&sibertinblancjeanluc 1988Ahmed-Chamanga, Mohamed, Michel Lafon, and Jean-Luc Sibertin-Blanc. 1988. Projet d'orthographie pratique du Comorien. In Linguistique de Madagascar et des Comores. Etudes Océan Indien 9, 7-33, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
Austronesian,

ahmedmoussasaid 1992Ahmed, Moussa Said. 1992. Les clans ou hinya fondateurs de cités aux Comores. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:101-114.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
History,

aissatiabderrahmanel 1997Aissati, Abderrahman El. 1997. Language shift and sentence processing in Moroccan Arabic. In Language choices: Conditions, constraints, and consequences. Impact: Studies in language and society 1, 77-90, edited by Martin Pütz. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

alainjeanpaul 1993Alain, Jean-Paul. 1993. La religion des Sakalava, une étude du Pasteur Rajoharivelo, publiée dans la revue Fiainana (1931-1937). In Religions. Etudes Océan Indien 16, 125-143, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

Jean-Paul Alain discusses in this article the contribution to ethnological knowledge made by Rajoharivelo, a Lutheran pastor who worked among the Sakalava around Belo-sur-Tsiribihina towards the end of the twenties. He extensively documented his discoveries concerning Sakalava culture. Apart from direct observation, by attending different religious ceremonies at the 'hazomanga' and the phenomena of the 'tromba' and the 'bilo', Rajoharivelo also questioned particularly the elders concerning the origin and meaning of the different observances. His work was published in the revue Fiainana between 1931 and 1937. His contribution has value for ethnology as well as for historians of religion.
Alain further includes the original Malagasy text of part of Rajoharivelo's work, with a French translation thereof.
The part quoted contains information on particularly the 'hazomanga' (the sacrificial post).

Selected quotes:

  • Rabesihanaka serait le premier évangéliste malgache, élu par ses pairs, à partir annoncer l'évangile hors des frontières de l'Imerina (126).
  • 'Hazomanga' veut dire dans un premier sens l'autel des idoles mais il se traduit par 'bois sacré' ou 'bois sacralisé', ou encore lieu réservé pour apporter les offrandes aux ancêtres et aux idoles et à dieu, faits de bois de 'katrafay' ou d'un (autre) bois dur, le sommet taillé en pointe, ils vont par deux, plantés en ligne dans le sol. Ils mesurent à peu près un mètre ou un mètre et demi de haut; c'est à l'est de la maison du 'mpitana hazomanga' qu'ils sont plantés, et on y suspend la gorge du bouf (sacrifié) et on les enduit de sang (131).
  • Dans un deuxième sens 'hazomanga' signifie : la personne qui fait le service au pied du 'hazomanga', ou la personne consacrée pour faire le sacrifice; (137).

alatisjamese 1990Alatis, James E. (ed.) 1990. Language teaching, testing, and technology: Lessons from the past with a view toward the future. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 1989. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,

albrechtsendorte&faerchclaus&henriksenbirgit 1980Albrechtsen, Dorte, Claus Faerch, and Birgit Henriksen. 1980. Native speaker reactions to learners' spoken interlanguage. Language Learning 30(2):365-396.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

alexandrepierre 1968Alexandre, Pierre. 1968. Some linguistic problems of nation-building in Negro Africa. In Language problems of developing nations, 119-127, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

allardreal&landryrodrigue 1992Allard, Réal, and Rodrigue Landry. 1992. Ethnolinguistic vitality beliefs and language maintenance and loss. In Maintenance and loss of minority languages, 171-195, edited by Willem Fase, Koen Jaspaert, and Sjaak Kroon. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

allibertclaude&verinpierre 1993Allibert, Claude, and Pierre Vérin. 1993. Linguistique, archéologie et l'exploration du passé malgache. In Language. A doorway between human cultures, 29-38, edited by Øyvind Dahl. Oslo: Novus Forlag.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

allibertclaude 1984Allibert, Claude. 1984. Mayotte. Plaque tournante et microcosme de l'océan Indien occidental. Son histoire avant 1841. Paris: Editions Anthropos.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Kibushi (Shibushi),
Other,
Antalaotra,
North-western,

allibertclaude 1992aAllibert, Claude. 1992a. Cités-etats et têtes de pont dans l'archipel des Comores. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:115-131.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
History,

allibertclaude 1992bAllibert, Claude. 1992b. L'île des femmes dans les récits Arabes. In Le scribe et la grande maison. Etudes Océan Indien 15, 261-267, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

allibertclaude 1993Allibert, Claude. 1993. Accouplements rituels ou fantasmes zoophiles? In Religions. Etudes Océan Indien 16, 171-179, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Wakwak,
Other,
Malagasy,

allibertclaude 1995Allibert, Claude. 1995. Les Hollandais et Madagascar. In Cultures of Madagascar: Ebb and flow of influences. Working papers series 2, 87-100, edited by Sandra Evers, and Marc Spindler. Leiden: International Institute for Asian Studies.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

alvarezalbertroca 1995Alvarez, Albert Roca. 1995. Ethnicity and nation in Madagascar. In Cultures of Madagascar: Ebb and flow of influences. Working papers series 2, 67-83, edited by Sandra Evers, and Marc Spindler. Leiden: International Institute for Asian Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

This paper confirms what has been our experience with Malagasy ethnic identities, that while vague and difficult to define in some ways, they do exist and contradict the political ideology which holds that the Malagasy people all subscribe to a united national identity. While Malagasy group identities are not as clearly "developed" or as nicely (contrivedly) forced into moulds by outsiders as tribal-ethnic characteristics in Africa have been, Malagasy ethnic identities may have, as Alvarez suggests, remained vague because of the historical interference of colonialism at a time when Merina nationalism had just reached a peak, interrupting and confounding the natural development of different Malagasy identities in the context of a new threat from outside.
Alvarez discusses the differences between political choices and true group identity, which manifests itself in the "solidarity networks used by the population" (77).

Selected quotes:

  • Madagascar has often been seen as one of the few African countries without the ethnic problems that are now so much in evidence. It has one language, even if there is a wide variety of dialects; one culture, even if Malagasy societies have developed distinct ways of life; one people, even if the physical appearance and the origin of the populations are extremely diverse. All these factors, contained within the natural frontiers provided by an island, constitute the arguments for Madagascar's exceptional status (67).
  • (.)the unification and expansion of the Merina are inter-related processes. They are not, however, one and the same thing (72).
  • The fiercest opposition to the colonial conquest was located precisely in those regions which were out of Merina control, the west and south, that defended their own interests, not those of the Merina state or of a non-existent Malagasy nation (73).
  • The references for collective identities are multiple, heterogeneous and non-exclusive. Madagascar offers a number of examples of this pluri-identity and of the strategically different use that persons and groups can make of it. The different identities are inter-related and inserted in human relations. Hence, any survey of the current problems of Madagascar has to number ethnicity and/or nationality among them (82).

alversonhoyt 1991Alverson, Hoyt. 1991. Metaphor and experience: Looking over the notion of image schema. In Beyond metaphor: The theory of tropes in anthropology, 94-117, edited by James W. Fernandez. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,

ammonulrich&dittmarnorbert&mattheierklausj 1988aAmmon, Ulrich, Norbert Dittmar, and Klaus J. Mattheier (eds.) 1988a. An international handbook of the Science of language and society. Ein internationales handbuch zur wissenschaft von sprache und gesellschaft 1-2. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

ammonulrich&dittmarnorbert&mattheierklausj 1988bAmmon, Ulrich, Norbert Dittmar, and Klaus J. Mattheier. 1988b. History of sociolinguistics as a discipline. In An international handbook of the science of language and society 1-2, 379-469, edited by Ulrich Ammon, Norbert Dittmar, and Klaus J. Mattheier. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
History,

andersonbenedict 1991Anderson, Benedict. 1991. Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. London: Verso.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

andriamanantenageorgesrado 1994Andriamanantena, Georges (Rado). 1994. Ny teny Malagasy: Fanentanana ny fon'ny vahoaka amin'ny fampandrosoana. Akademia Malagasy: Roa andron'ny teny Malagasy. In Roa andron'ny teny Malagasy. Antananarivo.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

andriamanjatorichard 1957Andriamanjato, Richard. 1957. Le tsiny et le tody dans la pensée malgache. Paris: Présence Africaine.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

andriambohitra 1994Andriambohitra. 1994. Enseigner en français ou en malgache? Recherches et Documents 17:6-20.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

andriamiradosennan 1978Andriamirado, Sennan. 1978. Madagascar today. Spain: Grijelmo.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

andrianaivoarivonyrafolo 1985Andrianaivoarivony, Rafolo. 1985. Reflections sur la présence Tsimihety dans la région de Mananara Avaratra et de Maroantsetra. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 21-22:61-78.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tsimihety,
Northern,

andrianierenanaclementluc 1987Andrianierenana, Clément-Luc. 1987. Ny fiofohana sy ny fampifandraisan-drafitra. Dinika sy Karoka Haiteny 1.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

andrianierenanaclementluc 1988Andrianierenana, Clément-Luc. 1988. Ny tsikera ara-piofohana. Dinika sy Karoka Haiteny 2.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

andrianirinarivofq&mandihitsycyprien&odona&paesc&paesmc&velonandro 1989Andrianirinarivo, F. Q., Cyprien Mandihitsy, A. Odon, C. Paes, M.-C. Paes, and Velonandro. 1989. Tsimamanga et autres contes malgaches en dialecte Masikoro. Angano Malagasy. Antananarivo: Centre Foi et Justice.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Masikoro,
South-western,

anonymous ndAnonymous. n.d. Des droits coutumiers oraux "Bara". Province et préfecture de Tuléar. Sous-préfecture de Tuléar. Arrondissement administratif de Sakaraha.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

anonymous ndAnonymous. n.d. Histoire de l'action militaire dans le sud de Madagascar (1897-1906).

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
South-western,
Southern,

anonymous 1898aAnonymous. 1898a. Cercle des Baras. Journal officiel de Madagascar et dépendances 15(284):2252-2254.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

anonymous 1898bAnonymous. 1898b. Renseignements économiques et commerciaux. Journal officiel de Madagascar et dépendances 15(306):2471-2472.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

anonymous 1898cAnonymous. 1898c. Variétés. Mours et coutumes des Baras-Bé. Journal officiel de Madagascar et dépendances 15(286):2269-2270.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

anonymous 1901aAnonymous. 1901a. Ny dian'ny gouverneur général. Vaovao frantsay-malagasy 5(248):994.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

anonymous 1901bAnonymous. 1901b. Ranavalona I (1828-1861). L'Iraka 89:718-720.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

anonymous 1901cAnonymous. 1901c. Tantara nampitondrain'olona avy any amin'ny Bara. Vaovao frantsay-malagasy 5(237):950.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

anonymous 1934Anonymous. 1934. Soavololonapanga (conte Bara recueilli par l'instituteur de Ranohira). La Revue de Madagascar 7:61-64.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

anonymous 1956Anonymous. 1956. Contribution à l'histoire. La grotte des Portugais. District d'lhosy. Bulletin de Madagascar 122:634-635.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

anonymous 1984Anonymous. 1984. Tongotra aman-tanana. Lakroan'i Madagasikara 57:2371-2372.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

anonymous 1988Anonymous. 1988. Pastorale et religion traditionnelle africaine. La Documentation catholique 5 June:566-567.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
History,

anonymous 1989Anonymous. 1989. La foi et l'inculturation. La Documentation catholique 19 March:281-289.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

anonymous 1991Anonymous. 1991. Language assessment criteria. Notes on Literature in Use and Language Programs 28.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Research methodology,
Research,
Linguistics,

anonymous 1992Anonymous. 1992. Book review: Les Swahili entre Afrique et Arabie, eds Françoise le Guennec-Coppens et Pat Caplan, Karthala, Paris and CREDU, Nairobi, 1991, 214pp. Azania 27:137-138.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Swahili,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
History,

anonymous 1993aAnonymous. 1993a. Blissymbolics. Journal for technical and vocational education/ Tydskrif vir tegniese en beroepsonderwys December:16-17.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

anonymous 1993bAnonymous. 1993b. Teaching and using Bliss symbolics. Journal for technical and vocational education/ Tydskrif vir tegniese en beroepsonderwys December:14-16.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

anonymous 1994 2005Anonymous. 1994 [2005]. Handlist to the London Missionary Society. Council for World Mission archive collection 1764-1940. London: CWM/LMS.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,

antaldavid 1998Antal, David. 1998. A linguistic odyssey: One family's experience with language shift and cultural identity in Germany and France. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 133:143-168.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

appelrene&muyskenpieter 1987Appel, René, and Pieter Muysken. 1987. Language contact and bilingualism. London: Edward Arnold.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

archerrobert 1976Archer, Robert. 1976. Madagascar depuis 1972. La marche d'une révolution. Paris: L'Harmattan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

arindorotheaneal ndArin, Dorothea Neal. n.d. Of medicine men, mediums and chiefs: Bantu noun classes.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

armstrongrobertg 1968Armstrong, Robert G. 1968. Language policies and language practices in west Africa. In Language problems of developing nations, 227-236, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

asantem&gudykunstwilliamb 1989Asante, M., and William B. Gudykunst (eds.) 1989. Handbook of international and intercultural communication. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

assefamekonnen 1988Assefa, Mekonnen. 1988. Index des documents microfichés par l'équipe CIPEA/CRDI à Madagascar. Addis-Abeba: Centre International pour l'Elevage en Afrique.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,

astutirita 1995aAstuti, Rita. 1995a. People of the sea. Identity and descent among the Vezo of Madagascar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,

astutirita 1995bAstuti, Rita. 1995b. "The Vezo are not a kind of people": Identity, difference, and "ethnicity" among a fishing people of western Madagascar. American Ethnologist 22(3):464-482.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,

attenboroughdavid 1961Attenborough, David. 1961. Zoo quest to Madagascar. London: Lutterworth Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

aubertjeanmarie 1984Aubert, Jean-Marie. 1984. Inculturation de l'eglise Catholique dans le nord de Madagascar. PhD dissertation. Université de Paris-Sorbonne.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana),
Northern,

aubertjeanmarie 1986Aubert, Jean-Marie. 1986. L'inculturation de l'eglise Catholique dans le nord de Madagascar. Recherches et Documents 1:1-43.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana),
Northern,

audeoud 1902Audeoud. 1902. La pacification de Madagascar. Territoire Sakalava (1901-1902). La Revue de Madagascar 1:481-506.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

augemarc 1982Augé, Marc. 1982. Génie du paganisme. Bibliothèque des sciences humaines. Paris: Gallimard.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Religion,
History,

aungeredmunda 1993Aunger, Edmund A. 1993. The decline of a French-speaking enclave: A case study of social contact and language shift in Alberta. Canadian Ethnic Studies 25(2):65-84.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

austinwc&worchels 1979Austin, W. C., and S. Worchel (eds.) 1979. The social psychology in intergroup relations. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,

autk 1983Au, T. K. 1983. Chinese and English counterfactuals: The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis revisited. Cognition 15:155-187.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
History,

ayachesimon 1976Ayache, Simon. 1976. Raombana l'historien (1809-1855). Introduction à l'édition critique de son ouvre. Collection "Gasikarako". Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

This biography and detailed study of the Malagasy historian, Raombana, contemporary of Ranavalona I, and of his work; reveals some very interesting facts about the first half of the nineteenth century and all the complicated relationships of the time-internationally, nationally, and local-personally.

ayachesimon 1979Ayache, Simon. 1979. Beyond oral tradition and into written history: The work of Raombana (1809-1855). In Madagascar in history. Essays from the 1970's, edited by Raymond Kent. Albany, California: Foundation for Malagasy Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

ayachesimon 1995Ayache, Simon. 1995. Pouvoir central et provinces sous la monarchie au XIXe siècle. Talily 2:41-66.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

This article, which was first published in 1981, is reprinted in Talily because the subject material remains so relevant. The author tries to establish a historical foundation for Malagasy unity by purposing to give an "objective" and "honest" account of the regional conflicts of the past, by describing differences and aspirations among the people as political wars among kingdoms (not tribal wars), and the Merina expansion of the nineteenth century as "political expansion from within," (not as "imperialism" by one "tribe" at the cost of others), seen as the Colonial view of history. While challenging certain prejudices, it seems that the author prefers to uphold his own in defence of the doctrine of or desire for an underlying unity among all Malagasy.

aymard 1907Aymard. 1907. Le pays Sakalava. Bulletin de la Société de Géographie de Toulouse 26:90-125.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

bachmanlylef&palmeradrians 1983Bachman, Lyle F., and Adrian S. Palmer. 1983. The construct validity of the FSI oral interview. In Issues in language testing research, 154-169, edited by John W. Oller Jr. Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House Publishers.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Research methodology,
Research,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

bagemihlbruce 1991Bagemihl, Bruce. 1991. Syllable structure in Bella Coola. Linguistic Inquiry 22:589-646.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

baileycharlesjames 1973Bailey, Charles-James. 1973. Variation and linguistic theory. Arlington, Virginia: Center for Applied Linguistics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

bakercolin 1992Baker, Colin. 1992. Attitudes and language. Multilingual matters 83. Clevedon, Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

bakervictoriaj 1987Baker, Victoria J. 1987. Pitching a tent in the native village: Malinowski and participant observation. Bijdragen Tot de Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde 143:14-24.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Anthropology and ethnology,

bamgboseayo 1991Bamgbose, Ayo. 1991. Language and the nation: The language question in sub-Saharan Africa. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

banksm 1996Banks, M. 1996. Ethnicity:Anthropological constructions. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

banksstephenp 1988Banks, Stephen P. 1988. Achieving 'unmarkedness' in organisational discourse: A praxis perspective on ethnolinguistic identity. In Language and ethnic identity, 15-44, edited by William B. Gudykunst. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

baratzjoanc 1969Baratz, Joan C. 1969. A bi-dialectal task for determining language proficiency in economically disadvantaged Negro children. Child Development 40:889-901.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

barbiercle 1921Barbier, C. le. 1921. Contes et légendes du pays des Bara (sud-ouest de madagascar). Revue d'ethnographie et des traditions populaires 2(6):119-137.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

barbiercle 1922Barbier, C. le. 1922. Notes sur le pays des Bara-Imamono (région d'ankazoabo). Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 3:61-119.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

barejeanfrancois 1971Baré, Jean-François. 1971. Traits des organisations sociales des Sakalava du nord: Les biens et le pouvoir. Taloha 4:184-194.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Northern Sakalava,
Sakalava,
Western,

barejeanfrancois 1973aBaré, Jean-François. 1973a. Conflits et résolutions des conflits dans les monarchies Sakalava du nord actuelles. Publication provisionnelle. Travaux et documents 12. Antananarivo: Musée d'Art et d'Archéologie de l'Université de Madagasar.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Northern Sakalava,
Sakalava,
Western,

barejeanfrancois 1973bBaré, Jean-François. 1973b. Hierarchies politiques et organisation sociale à Madagascar. In Malgache qui es-tu?, 43-67, edited by Musée d'ethnographie de Neuchâtel. Neuchâtel: Musée d'ethnographie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

barejeanfrancois 1973cBaré, Jean-François. 1973c. Successions politiques et légitimité. L'exemple Sakalava du nord (1700-1800). Asie du Sud-Est et Monde Insulindien 4(4):91-114.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Northern Sakalava,
Sakalava,
Western,

barejeanfrancois 1978Baré, Jean-François. 1978. Pouvoirs des vivants et langage des morts. Idéologiques Sakalava. Paris: Maspéro.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

barejeanfrancois 1982Baré, Jean-François. 1982. Histoire et présent dans les monarchies Sakalava du nord actuelles. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 16:173-176.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Northern Sakalava,
Sakalava,
Western,

barejeanfrancois 1986Baré, Jean-François. 1986. L'organisation sociale Sakalava du nord: Une récapitulation. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 353-392, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Northern Sakalava,
Sakalava,
Western,

baron 1896Baron. 1896. The Bara. The Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine 2(5):82-84.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

barraujacques 1972Barrau, Jacques (ed.) 1972. Approche linguistique. Langues et techniques, nature et société 1. Paris: Éditions Klincksieck.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Linguistics,

barreteaudaniel 1978Barreteau, Daniel (ed.) 1978. Inventaire des études linguistiques sur les pays d'Afrique noire d'expression française et sur Madagascar. Paris: CILF.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

barthf 1959Barth, F. 1959. Political leadership among the Swat Pathans. London school of economics monographs on anthropology. London: London School of Economics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

barthf 1969Barth, F. 1969. Ethnic groups and boundaries. London: Allen & Unwin.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

bartlettf 1932Bartlett, F. 1932. Remembering: A study in experimental and social psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,

bassoellenb 1992Basso, Ellen B. 1992. Contextualization in Kalapalo narratives. In Rethinking context: Language as an interactive phenomenon, 253-269, edited by Alessandro Duranti, and Charles Goodwin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

bassokeithh&selbyharrya 1976Basso, Keith H., and Harry A. Selby (eds.) 1976. Meaning in anthropology. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

bassokeithh 1976Basso, Keith H. 1976. "Wise words" of the western Apache: Metaphor and semantic theory. In Meaning in anthropology, 93-121, edited by Keith H. Basso, and Harry A. Selby. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

bassokeithh 1984Basso, Keith H. 1984. "Stalking with stories": Names, places, and moral narratives among the western Apache. In Text, play and story, 19-55, edited by Edward M. Bruner. Washington, DC: AES.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

bassokeithh 1990aBasso, Keith H. 1990a. "To give up on words": Silence in Apache culture. In Cultural communication and intercultural contact, 303-320, edited by Donal Carbaugh. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

bassokeithh 1990bBasso, Keith H. 1990b. Western Apache language and culture: Essays in linguistic anthropology. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

bastardej 1898aBastard, E.-J. 1898a. De la baie de Saint-Augustin à Midongy. Colonie de Madagascar. Notes, Reconnaissances, Explorations 1898:85-91.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

bastardej 1898bBastard, E.-J. 1898b. Voyage chez les Sakalaves du sud-ouest et chez les Bares. In Compte rendu des seances de la Société de Géographie et de la commission centrale, 275-281, edited by Société de géographie et de la commission centrale. Paris.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,
South-western,

bastardej 1899Bastard, E.-J. 1899. Mission chez les Mahafaly. Colonie de Madagascar. Notes, Reconnaissances, Explorations 3(5):480.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

bastardej 19041905Bastard, E.-J. 1904-1905. Les mémoires d'un roi Bara. La Revue de Madagascar 6(11-12),7(3-4).

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

bastardej 1907Bastard, E.-J. 1907. Inapaka. La Revue de Madagascar 9(6-7):269-281, 317-327.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

bastiang 1967Bastian, G. 1967. Madagascar. Etude géographique et économique. Paris: Nathan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

battistinirene 1964aBattistini, René. 1964a. Géographie Humaine de la plaine cotière Mahafaly. Etudes malgaches 12. Toulouse: Éditions Cujas.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

battistinirene 1964bBattistini, René. 1964b. L'extrème-sud de Madagascar: étude géomorphologique. 2 vols. Etude géomorphologique. Études malgaches. Laboratoire de géographie, Université de Madagascar 10-11. Toulouse: Éditions Cujas.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern,

baumannhermann 1975Baumann, Hermann (ed.) 1975. Die Völker Afrikas und ihre traditionellen Kulturen. Allgemeiner Teil und südliches Afrika. Studien Zur Kulturkunde 34. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

baumanrichard&sherzerjoel 1989Bauman, Richard, and Joel Sherzer (eds.) 1989. Explorations in the ethnography of speaking. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

beaugranderobertde&colbybenjaminn 1979Beaugrande, Robert de, and Benjamin N. Colby. 1979. Narrative models of action and interaction. Cognitive Science 3:43-66.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,
Linguistics,

beaugranderobertde&dresslerwolfgang 1981Beaugrande, Robert de, and Wolfgang Dressler. 1981. Introduction to text linguistics. London and New York: Longman.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,

beaujardphilippe 1983Beaujard, Philippe. 1983. Princes et paysans. Les Tanala de l'Ikongo. Un espace social du sud-est de Madagascar. Paris: L'Harmattan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

beaujardphilippe 1988Beaujard, Philippe. 1988. Les manuscrits arabico-malgaches (sorabe) du pays antemoro. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 28:123-150.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,

beaujardphilippe 1991Beaujard, Philippe. 1991. Mythe et société à Madagascar (Tañala de l'Ikongo). Le chasseur d'oiseaux et la princesse du ciel. Paris: L'Harmattan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

beaujardphilippe 1992Beaujard, Philippe. 1992. Le "roi" et le devin. Réflections à partir d'un chef politique Anakara. In Le scribe et la grande maison. Etudes Océan Indien 15, 137-176, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

beaujardphilippe 1992aBeaujard, Philippe. 1992a. Islamisés et systèmes royaux dans le sud-est de Madagascar : les examples antemoro et tañala. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:235-286.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,
Tanala (Antanala),

beaujardphilippe 1995Beaujard, Philippe. 1995. La violence dans les sociétés du sud-est de Madagascar. Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines 35:563-598.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,
South-eastern,

This article addresses certain characteristics of Tanala society, specifically the Tanala d'Ikongo and also touches on the Antemoro. It deals with recent changes in the Tanala society.

bellwoodpeter&foxjamesj&tryondarrell 1995Bellwood, Peter, James J. Fox, and Darrell Tryon. 1995. The Austronesians: Historical and comparative perspectives. Canberra: Australian National University, Dept of Anthropology.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,

This is an excellent source for gaining an overview of Austronesian history, language and culture. The subtitle indicates that it deals with "Historical & Comparative Perspectives." On Madagascar, K.A. Adelaar's contribution deserves mention (77-82). Adelaar discusses Dahl's contribution to the understanding of the origins of the Malagasy language and then continues to mention some of his own findings. Tom Dutton (194-196) gives a good summary of the effects of language contact, in general.

Selected quotes:

  • Dahl (1951, 1977) showed that Malagasy, the Austronesian language spoken as a number of dialects by almost all inhabitants of Madagascar, belongs to the Southeast Barito subgroup, the other members of which (Maanyan, Samihim, Dusun Malang, Dusun Witu, Dusun Deyah and Paku) are spoken in the southeastern part of Borneo. Dahl observed that Malagasy has a relatively small number of Sanskrit loanwords in comparison to the large numbers in some Indonesian languages. According to him, this indicated that the East Barito migrants to Madagascar must have left their homeland only just after Indian influence had begun to affect the Indonesian languages and cultures. Considering the fact that Indian linguistic influence in Indonesia can be traced to a date as far back as the fifth century AD, Dahl concluded that the migration must have taken place at this time or slightly after. He does not explicitly consider the possibility of influence from other Austronesian languages.
    The first extensive studies of such influence (Adelaar 1989, 1991a and in press) show that there are many Malay loanwords in Malagasy, and that there are also a number of loanwords from Javanese. Malay and Javanese were also the vehicular languages for the Sanskrit vocabulary in Malagasy. Thus, none of the Sanskrit loanwords support the assumption of direct Indian influence on the Malagasy language. This has an important consequence for Dahl's date of the migration to Madagascar: as all Sanskrit influence in Malagasy was channelled through Malay and Javanese, we should postdate the migration to the first Malay and Javanese influence on Malagasy, although it is likely that it happened at least two centuries later than the fifth century AD. The borrowed material also gives us information on the nature of the influence of Malays and Javanese on the migrating East Barito speakers, influence that must have begun some time before the migration, and that must have lasted until a considerable time afterwards.
    Generally speaking, the Malay and Javanese loanwords belong to all sorts of semantic domains. But Malay loanwords are particularly well represented in the domain of maritime life and navigation (.). Loanwords are also often found in the domain of plant names and in metallurgic terminology (.).
    Higher numerals and calendrical terms are originally Malay and/or Javanese adaptations of Sanskrit terms. Sanskrit loanwords came into Malagasy via Malay or Javanese, as their shape or meaning often betray (.).
    That these terms were borrowed via Malay and Javanese is supported by the fact that, of all Sanskrit loanwords in Malagasy (at least 35 in total), there is only one word that is not also found in Malay or Javanese.
    A large part of the vocabulary for body-parts in Malagasy was originally Malay or Javanese (.).
    The Malagasy have a pre-colonial writing system, which is an adapted form of the Arabic script. The writing system is called Sorabe, which derives from soratra 'writing' and be 'big'. The name Sorabe and some of the adaptations in its system indicate that the concept of writing, and possibly also the the actual writing system of the Malagasy, were introduced by Southeast Asians, and probably Javanese (.).
    (If the Malagasy did learn the Arabic script from the Javanese) this probably happened during continued contacts after the period of migration. There is some lexical evidence that the Malagasy were still in contact with Malays or Javanese after the latter came under the influence of Islam (.).
    An important question now is how to interpret the linguistic data, and how to integrate them in a theory which also takes into account archeological, historical and anthropological findings. The problem is that the linguistic data do not seem to correlate with data from these other disciplines, and as a consequence some non-linguists are reluctant to accept the linguistic evidence. Quite apart from the fact that there is considerable regional diversity in the cultures of Madagascar themselves, many manifestations of Malagasy spiritual and material culture cannot unequivocally be linked up with the spiritual and material culture of the Dayaks of the Southeast Barito area. Some of the Malagasy are wet rice cultivators, while the Dayaks are as a rule dry rice cultivators. Some Malagasy use outrigger canoes, whereas Southeast Barito Dayaks never do. The Malagasy migration to East Africa presupposes navigational skills which are found with some Indonesian peoples, but which can hardly be attributed to Dayaks, who, as we know them today, are as a rule forest dwellers. Some of the Malagasy musical instruments are allegedly very similar to musical instruments found in Sulawesi, and Malagasy funeral cults are reminiscent of the Toraja funeral cults (.) (77-82).

belrosehuyghuesvincent 1979Belrose-Huyghues, Vincent. 1979. Historique de la pénétration Protestante à Madagascar jusqu'en 1827. Thèse de 3e cycle. PhD dissertation. Université de Paris 1.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

bemananjarazefaniasyrafaralahy 1977Bemananjara, Zefaniasy Rafaralahy. 1977. Tatitra ankapobeny momba ny asam-pikarohana ao amin'ny ILA (Considérations d'ensemble sur les recherches effectuées à l'Institut de Linguistique Appliquée). Report, Institut de Linguistique Appliquée. Antananarivo.

language(s):
Malagasy, French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

bemananjarazefaniasyrafaralahy 1979aBemananjara, Zefaniasy Rafaralahy. 1979a. Contes malgaches. Fleuve et flamme. Paris: Conseil international de la langue francaise.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

bemananjarazefaniasyrafaralahy 1979bBemananjara, Zefaniasy Rafaralahy. 1979b. Situation de l'enseignement du français à Madagascar. In Le français hors de France, 527-542, edited by Albert Valdman. Paris: Champion.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

bendorsamuelmargaret 1987Bendor-Samuel, Margaret. 1987. Local citizen involvement and language programs. Notes on Literature in Use and Language Programs 13:3-10.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

benevent 1897Benevent. 1897. Etude sur le Bouéni, II. Colonie de Madagascar. Notes, Reconnaissances, Explorations 2:49-77.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

benevent 1907Benevent. 1907. Notes sur les Kimosy. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache 4:83-85.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Kimosy,
Southern,

bennettmichaeleric 1988Bennett, Michael Eric. 1988. Alienable and inalienable possession in Malagasy. Word 39(1):109-116.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

benolofrancois 1996Benolo, François. 1996. La foi d'un gentil ou l'inculturation nature. Collection ISTA. Ambatoroka, Antananarivo: Institut Supérieur de Théologie et de Philosophie de Madagascar.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

Père Benolo's personal testimony-autobiographical.

benolofrancois 2001Benolo, François. 2001. Sambatra aho fa Kristianina. Antananarivo: Edisiona Md Paoly.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

bensche 1899Bensch, E. 1899. De Tuléar à Fianarantsoa. Du 1er au 21 decembre 1899. Colonie de Madagascar. Notes, Reconnaissances, Explorations 1899:529-538.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern,

bergerra 1999Berger, R. A. 1999. Identification of dialectal distinctions. Notes on Sociolinguistics 4(3):101-104.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

berggeraldm 1977Berg, Gerald M. 1977. The myth of racial strife and Merina kinglists: The transformation of texts. History in Africa 4:1-29.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

The author warns against the European bias in early written histories of Merina history and points out inconsistencies among documents rendering the oral histories in a Europeanised form, in line with the scientific and missionary models of the time. Others perpetuated these documents by quoting from them.

berggeraldm 1986Berg, Gerald M. 1986. Royal authority and the protector system in nineteenth-century Imerina. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 175-192, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

berghepierrelvanden 1968Berghe, Pierre L. van den. 1968. Language and "nationalism" in south Africa. In Language problems of developing nations, 215-224, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

bergmantedg 1990Bergman, Ted G. 1990. Survey reference manual. Dallas, Texas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

bergmantedg 1991Bergman, Ted G. 1991. Rapid appraisal of languages. Notes on Literature in Use and Language Programs 28:3-11.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Language assessment,
Research,

The ideas set out in this paper have been much developed since 1991, but the principal ideas have remained. The author's practical concern has been to do rapid surveys of language situations in order to obtain an overview of these and to assess the need for any longer-term assessment and other involvement in those language areas.

berlierm 1983Berlier, M. 1983. Polygamie et "mariage chrétien" en Afrique noir. Telema 9(34):47-50.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

berlinbrent&breedlovedennise&ravenpeterh 1966Berlin, Brent, Dennis E. Breedlove, and Peter H. Raven. 1966. Folk taxonomies and biological classification. Science 154:273-275.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

berlinbrent&breedlovedennise&ravenpeterh 1973Berlin, Brent, Dennis E. Breedlove, and Peter H. Raven. 1973. General principles of classification and nomenclature in folk biology. American Anthropologist 75:214-242.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,

berlinbrent&breedlovedennise&ravenpeterh 1974Berlin, Brent, Dennis E. Breedlove, and Peter H. Raven. 1974. Principles of Tzeltal plant classification. New York: Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,

berlinbrent&kaypaul 1969Berlin, Brent, and Paul Kay. 1969. Basic color terms: Their universality and evolution. Berkeley: University of California Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,

berlinbrent 1970Berlin, Brent. 1970. A universalist-evolutionary approach in ethnographic semantics. In Current directions in anthropology, 3-18, edited by Ann Fischer. Washington, DC: American Anthropological Association.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

berlinbrent 1972Berlin, Brent. 1972. Speculations on the growth of ethnobotanical nomenclature. Language in Society 1:51-86.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,

berlinbrent 1992Berlin, Brent. 1992. Ethnobiological classification: Principles of categorization of plants and animals in traditional societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

bernardalain 1978Bernard, Alain. 1978. Essai sur la transition de la société Mahafaly vers les rapports marchands. Travaux et documents de l'Orstom 90. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tañalaña,
South-western,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Karimbola (Karembola),

Selected quotes:

  • (.)'une langue mahafaly qui n'existe pas (.) (360). [Contradicts himself-e.g. p. 8]

berryj 1964Berry, J. 1964. The making of alphabets. In Readings in the sociology of language, 737-753, edited by Joshua A. Fishman. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

berthierh 1906Berthier, H. 1906. Fragments du folklore des Bara. La Revue de Madagascar 8(12):1062-1066.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

besairiehenri 1946Bésairie, Henri. 1946. La géologie de Madagascar. Travaux du Bureau Géologique 54.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

beukesannemarie 1991Beukes, Anne-Marie. 1991. Language teaching and politics of language. Journal for Language Teaching 25(4):89-100.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

In this article the author focuses on the relationship between language policy and language teaching in South Africa. She describes the linguistic situation in S.A. as well as the inequalities. The problem of "linguicism" is defined on p. 93 and is seen as of the same nature as racism, classism, sexism and ageism. Although it was given a fairly general title, the article focuses on Afrikaans and English in S.A.

bianquisjean 1907Bianquis, Jean. 1907. L'ouvre des missions protestantes à Madagascar. Paris: Missions Evangéliques.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

bieselemegan 1986Biesele, Megan. 1986. How hunter-gatheres' stories "make sense": Semantics and adaptation. Cultural Anthropology 1:157-170.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

birkelye 1924Birkely, E. 1924. Folkore Sakalava recueilli dans la région de Morondava. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache 6:185-395.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

birkelye 1936Birkely, E. 1936. Les Vazimba de la côte ouest de Madagascar. Mémoires de l'Académie malgache 22. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vazimba,
Western,
Beosy,
Mikea,
South-western,

Interesting statements regarding the language of Vazimba, Behosy, Mikea.

Selected quotes:

  • je fus frappé du soin que mettaient les malgaches à se rappeler leurs groupes funitiaux et leurs clans. On le remarque surtout dans les taboos concernant les mariages qui tous, ou presque, étaient exogamiques. Mais le phénomène se présente aussi dans la vie courante. Mon attention fut attirée par l'importance de la forme des entailles, faites aux oreilles des boufs, et qui servent à distinguer les clans et les habitations. Cétait là un document de première ordre pour apporter un peu de clarté dans l'ethnologie de la Côte Ouest. On désignait alors tous les habitants sous le nom de "Sakalaves" et on se livrait aux hypothèses les plus fantaisistes sur l'origine de leur nom.
    (.)je tombai, en 1914, sur les Vazimba de la Tsiribihina(.) des mots et des sons complètement nouveaux, une langue tout à fait différente du malgache!
    En tout état de cause, et malgré l'insuffisance des matériaux, il était clair que l'on avait à faire à un groupe bien défini, nettement différent de ceux qui peuplent la côte ouest, tant au point de vue religieux, qu'ethnique et philologique (7).
  • dahalo (homme de forêt) (11).
  • Si l'on se fonde sur les marques faites aux oreilles des boufs, ces populations se répartissent en plusieurs groupes don't chacun a son histoire.
    Il y a eu une forte émigration, allant du nord au sud, et composée de pêcheurs et de marins. Ces nouveaux-venus se sont mélangés avec une autre population plus ancienne: les Mikea, les Antanandro et les Vazimba.
    En deux autres grandes invasions, une race plus puissante venant du Sud et de l'Est, sous la conduite des deux dynasties des Maroserana et des Andrivola, a conquis toute la côte ouest, de Tulear à Majunga. Ces conquérants étaient suivis de beaucoup d'autres tribus qui leur étaient soumises.
    Les Antanandro étaient des gens civilisés venant de l'intérieur. Ils ensevilissaient leurs morts dans des cavernes ou des caveaux de pierres, ils savaient tisser, ornaient leurs maisons, et cultivaient le riz. Ils ont tout à fait disparu, se mélangeant aux autres tribus (12).
  • Ces Mkea étaient stationnaires: il n'y a pas trace de migration de leur part, ni vers le nord, ni vers le sud. Ils sont sauvages, fuient la société, n'ont aucune organisation sociale. Ils étaient chasseurs et peuvent se rattacher au groupe désigné par les anglais comme "foodcollectors" (don't la seule raison de vivre est la recherche de leur nourriture.
    Les Vazimba de la région de lacs de la Tsiribihina, sont un peuple composite. Les uns viennent d'au-delà des mers, les autres de l'intérieur, d'autres sont issus du mélange avec les populations sédentaires, comme les Beosi. L'attention des savants devraient s'attacher, tant aux particularités ethnologiques qu'à la langue de ces populations primitives. Ces trois groupes-le fait est établi-ont parlé, et parlent encore une langue différente du malgache. Tous les Masikoro du sud, par exemple, voisins des Mikea, savent que ces derniers ont eu leur langue propre, qu'ils emploient encore, en partie, dans des circonstances spéciales.
    Drury rapporte lui-même que les Vazimba des bords de la Tsiribihina avaient une langue particulière. Quant aux Beosi, le vocabulaire, donné au chapitre III, fournit la preuve qu'ils ont une langue à eux.
    Ces débris de langues sont d'une importance capitale pour l'ethnologie primitive de Madagascar (13).

birkelyottoemil 1926Birkely, Otto Emil. 1926. Marques de boufs et traditions de race : Document sur l'ethnologie de la côte occidentale de Madagascar. Bulletin: Etnografisk Museum 2.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Western,
South-western,

blackjohnb&wilenskyrobert 1979Black, John B., and Robert Wilensky. 1979. An evaluation of story grammars. Cognitive Science 3:213-230.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,

blackmaryb&metzgerduane 1969Black, Mary B., and Duane Metzger. 1969. Ethnographic description and the study of law. In Cognitive anthroplogy, 137-165, edited by Stephen A. Tyler. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

blairfrank 1990Blair, Frank. 1990. Survey on a shoestring. A Manual for small-scale language survey. Summer institute of linguistics & the university of Texas at Arlington: Publications in linguistics 96. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

blanchaim 1968Blanc, Haim. 1968. The Israeli koine as an emergent national standard. In Language problems of developing nations, 237-251, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

blanchysophie 1992aBlanchy, Sophie. 1992a. Famille et parenté dans l'archipel des Comores. Journal des Africanistes 62(1):7-53.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
Anthropology and ethnology,

blanchysophie 1992bBlanchy, Sophie. 1992b. Les langues de Mayotte. In Mayotte: Actes du Colloque Universitaire tenu à Mamoudzou les 23 et 24 avril 1991, 75-85, edited by Olivier Gohin, and Pierre Maurice. St Denis: Université de la Réunion: Fac de Droit et des Sciences Economiques et Politiques.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,

blanchysophie 1993Blanchy, Sophie. 1993. Philippe Beaujard: Mythe et société à Madagascar (Tañala de l'ikongo). Préface de Georges Condominas. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1991. 606p. In Religions. Etudes Océan Indien 16, 181-185, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

blochmauriceef 1971aBloch, Maurice E. F. 1971a. Placing the dead. Tombs, ancestral villages, and kinship organization in Madagascar. Studies in anthropology. London: Seminar Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

blochmauriceef 1971bBloch, Maurice E. F. 1971b. The implications of marriage rules and descent: Categories for Merina social structures. American Anthropologist 73:164-178.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

blochmauriceef 1975aBloch, Maurice E. F. 1975a. Introduction. In Political language and oratory in traditional society, 1-28, edited by Maurice E. F. Bloch. London: Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

blochmauriceef 1975bBloch, Maurice E. F. (ed.) 1975b. Political language and oratory in traditional society. London: Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

blochmauriceef 1978Bloch, Maurice E. F. 1978. Marriage among equals: An analysis of the marriage ceremony of the Merina of Madagascar. Man n.s. 13(1):21-33.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

blochmauriceef 1985Bloch, Maurice E. F. 1985. Questions historiques concernant la parenté sur la côte est. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 21-22:49-56.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern Betsimisaraka (Antatsimo, Tatsimo),
Betsimisaraka,
Eastern,
Northern Betsimisaraka (Antavaratra, Tavaratra),

Selected quotes:

  • Le peu que nous savons suffit en effet pour montrer clairement que la région dite Betsimisaraka est extrèmement diverse et que certaines populations betsimisaraka sont plus proches des populations non-betsimisaraka que d'autres égalements dénommées Betsimisaraka. Il ne peut en être autrement si nous nous rappelons que le terme Betsimisaraka se réfère non à une unité culturelle mais à une ligue politique temporaire du 18e siècle (50-1).

blochmauriceef 1986aBloch, Maurice E. F. 1986a. From blessing to violence. History and ideology in the circumcision ritual of the Merina of Madagascar. Cambridge studies in social anthropology 61. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

Some very good insights to be had from this work by an author who knows the Merina people well, but particularly concerns the circumcision ritual.

blochmauriceef 1986bBloch, Maurice E. F. 1986b. Hierarchy and equality in Merina kinship. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 217-228, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

blochmauriceef 1989Bloch, Maurice E. F. 1989. Ritual, history and power: Selected papers in anthropology. London school of economics. Monographs on social anthropology 58. London: Athlone Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

blochmauriceef 1998Bloch, Maurice E. F. 1998. How we think they think. Anthropological approaches to cognition, memory and literacy. Oxford: Westview Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Zafimaniry,
Eastern,

bloomalfredh 1981Bloom, Alfred H. 1981. The linguistic shaping of thought: A study in the impact of language on thinking in China and the west. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,

bloomalfredh 1984Bloom, Alfred H. 1984. Caution - the words you use may affect what you say: A response to Au. Cognition 17:275-287.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

bloomfieldleonard 1933Bloomfield, Leonard. 1933. Language. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

blotb 1973Blot, B. 1973. Les coutumes actuelles des Tanala de l'Ikongo à l'occasion des naissances, mariages et enterrements. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 50(1):1-6.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

boasfranz 1939Boas, Franz. 1939. Geographical names of the Kwakiutl Indians. Contributions to anthropology 20. New York: Columbia University.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

boasfranz 1966Boas, Franz. 1966. Introduction to handbook of American Indian languages. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

bobaljikjonathandavid&pensalfinirob&stortoluciana 1996Bobaljik, Jonathan David, Rob Pensalfini, and Luciana Storto (eds.) 1996. Papers on language endangerment and the maintenance of linguistic diversity. The MIT working papers in linguistics 28. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

boin&mouveaux 1897Boin, and Mouveaux. 1897. Les Bara et les Tanalas des districts d'Ivohibe et d'Ihosy. Colonie de Madagascar. Notes, Reconnaissances, Explorations 1897:446-456.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

boisdelavillerabeladu 1899Bois De La Villerabel, A. du. 1899. Etude sur le secteur des Bara Imamono. Colonie de Madagascar. Notes, Reconnaissances, Explorations 1899:523-528.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Imamono,
Bara,
Southern,

boisdelavillerabeladu 1900Bois De La Villerabel, A. du. 1900. La tradition chez les Baras. Colonie de Madagascar. Notes, Reconnaissances, Explorations 6(29):263-273.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

Captain du Bois De La Villerabel transcribes here a history of the Bara, according to Impoinimerina, mpanjaka (king of the) Bara Imamono. Impoinimerina's account explains the settlements of different Bara groups, the wars they were involved in, and culminates in some self-glorification, probably overrating his role, position, and history. De La Villerabel ends his transcription with a significant statement, namely that in spite of it being the account of senseless and endless intestinal fighting among the Bara people, it is worth recording, "if only to better show up the work of civilisation that they (the French) had undertaken."

Selected quotes:

  • Comme on le voit par ce rapide exposé, sa tradition ne nous révèle guère qu'une longue suite de guerres intestines sans but élevé, et dont le butin est toute la gloire; telle qu'elle est, elle mérite toutefois d'être enregistrée, ne serait-ce que pour mieux faire ressortir l'ouvre de civilisation que nous avons entreprise (273).

boiteaup 1958Boiteau, P. 1958. Madagascar, contribution à l'histoire de la nation malgache. Paris: Editions Sociales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

boittinpatrick ndBoittin, Patrick. n.d. Etude monographique de Bezaha.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,
Bara,

boittinpatrick 1993Boittin, Patrick. 1993. Identification Sampona. Report, Action International Contre la Faim.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

bolingerdwight 1992Bolinger, Dwight. 1992. About furniture and birds. Cognitive Linguistics 3:111-117.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,

boothwaynec 1979Booth, Wayne C. 1979. Metaphor as rhetoric: The problem of evaluation. In On metaphor, 47-70, edited by Sheldon Sacks. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,

boschdavidj 1991Bosch, David J. 1991. The vulnerability of mission. Occasional Paper 10. Birmingham: Selly Oak Colleges.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,

boudouadrien 1940Boudou, Adrien. 1940. Les Jésuites à Madagascar au xixe siècle. 2 Vol. Paris: Beauchesne.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

boudryrobert 1933Boudry, Robert. 1933. L'art décoratif malgache. La Revue de Madagascar 2:23-82.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

boulangerjeanclaude 1989Boulanger, Jean-Claude. 1989. Développement, aménagement linguistique et terminologie: Un mythe? L'exemple de la malgachisation. Language Problems and Language Planning 13(3):233-263.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

This article stresses the importance of terminology when language policies are applied and draws a subtle comparison between Québec and Madagascar. In the case of Québec, it was possible to draw on a language that already had the necessary technological terminology in place, whereas in Madagascar, there is still a need to develop such terminology. He refers to malgachophonisation that is a prerequisite for malgachisation. Having waded several times through the sticky, somewhat obscurifying vocabulary of this article, I can't say that I disagree with as much as I've understood.

bouliniergeorges 1985Boulinier, Georges. 1985. L'archipel des Comores. Hérodote 37-38:201-209.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

bourdieupierre&boltanskiluc 1975Bourdieu, Pierre, and Luc Boltanski. 1975. Le fétichisme de la langue. Actes de la Recherche en Sciences Sociales 4:2-32.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

bourdieupierre 1982Bourdieu, Pierre. 1982. Ce que parler veut dire: L'économie des échanges linguistiques. Paris: Fayard.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

bourgeoncommandant 1955Bourgeon, Commandant. 1955. Souvenirs d'un soldat français. Paris: Librairie Française.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

bourhisrichardyvon&gileshoward&rosenthaldoreen 1981Bourhis, Richard Yvon, Howard Giles, and Doreen Rosenthal. 1981. Notes on the construction of a "subjective vitality questionnaire" for ethnolinguistic groups. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 2:145-150.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Research methodology,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

bowersjohn 1968Bowers, John. 1968. Language problems and literacy. In Language problems of developing nations, 381-401, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,

brandstetterrenward 1893Brandstetter, Renward. 1893. Die Beziehungen des Malagasy zum Malaiischen. The Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine 18:155.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

bransonjan&millerdon 1998Branson, Jan, and Don Miller. 1998. Nationalism and the linguistic rights of deaf communities: Linguistic imperialism and the recognition and development of sign languages. Journal of Sociolinguistics 2(1):3-34.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

Selected quotes:

  • The nation is an 'imagined community' to use Anderson's term. It assumes the status of a community, encompassing and transforming traditional communities, claiming the loyalties and orientations that were formerly afforded the village, the lineage, the clan, the tribe, the neighbourhood.The modern concept of the nation is of a world defined by boundaries which contain a tangible and finite population. It is a world of maps and territories, a world of private, and by extension, national real esate. 'In the older imagining, . states were defined by centres, borders were porous and indistinct, and sovereignties faded imperceptibly into one another' (Anderson 1991:19) (6).
  • It is the nation with its tangible bounded territory, a space to be occupied by individuals, that supports the modern capitalist state in which people are of economic necessity, equal and individuated before the law, the community an epiphenomenon, territory a resource to be traded. Identity is likewise individuated, divorced in all public purpose from community, bestowed not through communal membership, but through the driver's licence, the credit card, and the passport(6).
  • In such an environment(.) language no longer part of identity anchoring a person to communal roots. Language is also defined by boundaries, not by its users. The national language is the language of the nation-state, not necessarily of its citizens. It is probably the first language of those who wield power and authority in that public realm-of law, economics, politics and education.
    The orientation towards languages as national and/or official languages also involves the standardisation of language, the development of coified acceptable language-of grammars and dictionaries. The communal and idiosyncratic aspects of language, the development of codified acceptable language use give way to depersonalised, decentered language dominated by the written form.
    The dominance of the national language within the borders of the state as well as beyond, throughout its spheres of influence, creates minority status for other languages within the nation-state. These minority languages are not necessarily used by a statistical minority but are culturally devalued, and frequently operate as community languages. Their use signals community membership, in contrast to the individuated identity created by the national language (6-7).
  • It is only a few hundred of the world's 6-7000 languages that have any kind of official status, and it is only speakers of official languages who enjoy all linguistic human rights (Phillipson, Rannut, and Skutnab-Kangas 1994:2) (7).
  • No country has a dictionary for more than one sign language (7).

bregmanalberts 1990Bregman, Albert S. 1990. Auditory scene analysis: The perceptual organization of sound. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

brewsterethomas&brewsterelizabeths 1993Brewster, E. Thomas, and Elizabeth S. Brewster. 1993. Language acquisition made practical. Pasadena, CA: Lingua House.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

brightjaneo&brightwilliam 1969Bright, Jane O., and William Bright. 1969. Semantic structures in northwestern California and the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. American Anthropologist 67:249-258.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

brightwilliam 1893Bright, William. 1893. Tantaran'ny Eklesia Anglikana fahiny (A. D. 597-709). Nadikany Arnold Melvill Hewlett. Antananarivo: Misiona Anglikana.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,

brightwilliam 1990Bright, William. 1990. "With one lip, with two lips": Parallelism in Nahuatl. Language 66:437-452.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

brittonbrucek&pellegriniad 1990Britton, Bruce K., and A. D. Pellegrini (eds.) 1990. Narrative thought and narrative language. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,
Linguistics,
History,

brodyjill 1991Brody, Jill. 1991. Indirection in the negotiation of self in everyday Tojolabál women's conversation. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 1:78-96.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

brookesheather&heathshirleybrice 1997Brookes, Heather, and Shirley Brice Heath. 1997. Tove Skutnabb-Kangas and Robert Phillipson, editors: Linguistic human rights: Overcoming linguistic discrimination. Berlin and new York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1994. 478pp. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 127:197-216.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

browncecilh&witkowskistanleyr 1981Brown, Cecil H., and Stanley R. Witkowski. 1981. Figurative language in universalist perspective. American Ethnologist 8:596-615.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

browncecilh&witkowskistanleyr 1983Brown, Cecil H., and Stanley R. Witkowski. 1983. Polysemy, lexical change and cultural importance. Man 18:72-89.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

browncecilh 1976Brown, Cecil H. 1976. General principles of human anatomical partonomy and speculations on the growth of partonomic nomenclature. American Ethnologist 3:400-424.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

browncecilh 1977Brown, Cecil H. 1977. Folk botanical life-forms: Their universality and growth. American Anthropologist 79:317-342.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

browncecilh 1979Brown, Cecil H. 1979. Folk zoological life-forms: Their universality and growth. American Anthropologist 81:791-817.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

browncecilh 1984aBrown, Cecil H. 1984a. Language and living things: Uniformities in folk classification and naming. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

browncecilh 1984bBrown, Cecil H. 1984b. The growth of ethnobiological nomenclature. Current Anthropology 27:1-19.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

browncecilh 1996Brown, Cecil H. 1996. Lexical acculturation, areal diffusion, lingua francas, and bilingualism. Language in Society 25(2):261-279.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

brownduncan 1995Brown, Duncan. 1995. The society of the texrt: The oral literature of the /Xam bushmen. Critical Arts 9(2):76-109.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Linguistics,
History,

brownmervyn 1978Brown, Mervyn. 1978. Madagascar rediscovered. A History from early times to independence. London: Damien Tunnacliffe.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

The author succeeds in producing an attractive account of Malagasy history; touching on geography, fauna and flora, describing different theories on the population of Madagascar and then treating the different phases in historical development until independence in 1960.

brownmervyn 1995Brown, Mervyn. 1995. A history of Madagascar. London: Tunnacliffe.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

brownrick 1998Brown, Rick. 1998. Some parameters of language assessment and their possible values. Notes on Sociolinguistics 3(1):43-58.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Language assessment,
Research,

brugmanclaudia 1983Brugman, Claudia. 1983. The use of body-part terms as locatives in Chalcatongo Mixtec. In Studies in mesoamerican linguistics. Reports from the Survey of California and Other Indian Languages 4, 235-290, edited by Alice Schlichter, Wallace L. Chafe, and Leanne Hinton. Berkeley: University of California, Dept. of Linguistics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

brugmanclaudia 1988Brugman, Claudia. 1988. The story of over: Polysemy, semantics, and structure of the lexicon. New York: Garland Publishing.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

bruhntheac 1990Bruhn, Thea C. 1990. 'Passages': Life, the universe, and language proficiency assessment. In Language teaching, testing, and technology: Lessons from the past with a view toward the future. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 1989, 244-254, edited by James E. Alatis. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

bruneredwardm 1984Bruner, Edward M. (ed.) 1984. Text, play and story. Washington, DC: AES.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,

bruneredwardm 1986aBruner, Edward M. 1986a. Ethnography as narrative. In The anthropology of experience, 139-155, edited by Victor W. Turner, and Edward M. Bruner. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

bruneredwardm 1986bBruner, Edward M. 1986b. Experience and its expressions. In The anthropology of experience, 3-30, edited by Victor W. Turner, and Edward M. Bruner. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

brunerjerome 1986Bruner, Jerome. 1986. Actual minds, possible worlds. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

brunerjerome 1990Bruner, Jerome. 1990. Acts of meaning. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

brunotf 1930Brunot, F. 1930. Histoire de langue française des origines à nos jours. Paris: Armand Colin.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
History,

bryeannelizabeth 1992Brye, Ann Elizabeth. 1992. Promoting language standardization on the local level in Cameroon. Notes on Scripture in Use and Language Programs 32:19-41.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

buchheitroberth 1988Buchheit, Robert H. 1988. Language shift in the concentrated Mennonite district of Kansas. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 69:5-18.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

buchsenschutzp 1938Buchsenschutz, P. 1938. La mission Luthérienne à Madagascar. Antananarivo: Imprimerie de la Mission Norvégienne.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Two parts to this well-written history: A: Avant la conquête (before the colonial conquest), 1867-1895 B: Après la conquête (after the colonial conquest), 1895-1937.
It is important to understand the history of the Lutheran mission to Madagascar if one wants to obtain an over-all picture of the history concerning Christianity. The author deals with relations with Government, Catholics, different "kings" and issues of language.

buehlmannw 1983Bühlmann, W. 1983. Questions à propos du mariage et de la famille en Afrique. Familiaris Consortio apporte-t-elle une réponse? Telema 9(34):63-78.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

buillesjeanmichel 1988Builles, Jean-Michel. 1988. La voix agento-stative en malgache. In Linguistique de Madagascar et des Comores. Etudes Océan Indien 9, 185-196, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

bullockcharles 1970Bullock, Charles. 1970. The Mashona. Westport, Conn.: Negro Universities Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

burgessandrew 1932Burgess, Andrew. 1932. Zanahary in south Madagascar. Minneapolis: Board of Foreign Missions.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Bara,

burlingrobbins 1964Burling, Robbins. 1964. Cognition and componential analysis: God's truth or hocus-pocus? American Anthropologist 66:20.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

burlingrobbins 1970Burling, Robbins. 1970. Man's many voices: Language in its cultural context. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

burneydavida&ramilisonina 1999Burney, David A., and Ramilisonina. 1999. The kilopilopitsofy, kidoky and bokyboky: Accounts of strange animals from Belo-sur-mer, Madagascar, and the megafaunal "extinction window". American Anthropologist 100(4):957-966.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Vazimba,
Sakalava,
Masikoro,
South-western,
Betsileo,
Central,

burnsdonaldh 1968Burns, Donald H. 1968. Bilingual education in the Andes of Peru. In Language problems of developing nations, 403-413, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

burtongeorgeeric 1953Burton, George Eric. 1953. The waiting isle. Madagascar and its church. London: The Livingstone Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

bybeejoanl 1985Bybee, Joan L. 1985. Morphology: A study of the relation between meaning and form. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,

cabanesr 1972Cabanes, R. 1972. Cultes de possession dans la plaine de Tananarive. Cahiers du Centre d'Etudes des Coutumes - Université de Madagascar 9:33-66.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

Some interesting etymological arguments.

calamegriaulegenevieve 1977Calame-Griaule, Geneviève. 1977. Langage et cultures Africaines. Essais d'ethnolinguistique. Etudes réunies et présentées par G. Calame-Griaule. Paris: François Maspero.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

This work has interesting sections on oral literature and even though already thirty-odd years old, is very useful for understanding various ethnolinguistic issues.

callawaydonnr 1980Callaway, Donn R. 1980. Accent and the evaluation of ESL oral proficiency. In Research in language testing, 102-115, edited by John W. Oller Jr., and K. Perkins. Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House Publishers.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

calletfrancois 18711883Callet, François. 1871-1883. Tantaran'ny andriana eto Madagascar. 5 vols. Antananarivo: Presy Katolika.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

calletfrancois 19531978Callet, François. 1953-1978. Histoire des rois. 5 vols. Traduction de "Tantaran'ny andriana eto Madagascar" par G.S. Chapus et E. Ratsimba. Antananarivo: Académie Malgache.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

calvetlouisjean 1974Calvet, Louis-Jean. 1974. Linguistique et colonialisme: Petit trait de glottophagie. Paris: Payot.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
History,

calvetlouisjean 1975Calvet, Louis-Jean. 1975. Pour et contre Saussure: Vers une linguistique sociale. Paris: Payot.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

calvetlouisjean 1977Calvet, Louis-Jean. 1977. Marxisme et linguistique. Paris: Payot.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

calvetlouisjean 1987Calvet, Louis-Jean. 1987. La guerre des langues et les politiques linguistiques. Paris: Payot.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

calvetlouisjean 1989Calvet, Louis-Jean. 1989. Etat des lieux, état des langues. Afrique : cohabitations. Le Français dans le monde. Diagonales 10:26-28.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

calvetlouisjean 1993Calvet, Louis-Jean. 1993. La sociolinguistique: Que sais-je? Que sais-je? Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

calvetlouisjean 1994Calvet, Louis-Jean. 1994. Les politiques de diffusion des langues en Afrique francophone. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 107:67-76.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

Gives the history of "francophonie" as a concept and describes the "Plan d'aménagement linguistique de la Francophonie." Madagascar was absent from the 1989 meeting in Dakar, where leaders of francophone states met. The FIDELCA was given a budget of 3,000,000 FF in 1990 to develop African Language Studies, help research and work towards a dialogue of cultures.

camerondeborah&frazerelizabeth&harveypenelope&ramptonmbh 1992Cameron, Deborah, Elizabeth Frazer, Penelope Harvey, and M. B. H. Rampton. 1992. Researching language: Issues of power and method. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

camerondeborah 1998Cameron, Deborah. 1998. Representing sociolinguistics? Journal of Sociolinguistics 2(3):421-431.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

campbellgwyn 1992Campbell, Gwyn. 1992. The history of nineteenth century Madagascar: 'Le royaume' or 'l'empire'. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:331-379.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

In this paper, the revisionist tendency in recording Malagasy history is set aside while the author looks at the evidence of history and concludes that in order to comprehend pre-colonial times in Madagascar, researchers should reject the concept of 'royaume' and replace it with the concept of 'empire'. The arguments raised are plausible if one is able to leave behind the post-colonial reactionary mindset and look at history for itself, with no other agenda but researching what can be known.

cannellcharlesf&kahnrobertl 1968Cannell, Charles F., and Robert L. Kahn. 1968. Interviewing. In The handbook of social psychology 2, 526-595, edited by Gardner Lindzey, and Elliot Aronson. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,

carbaughdonal 1990aCarbaugh, Donal (ed.) 1990a. Cultural communication and intercultural contact. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

carbaughdonal 1990bCarbaugh, Donal. 1990b. Culture talking about itself. In Cultural communication and intercultural contact, 1-9, edited by Donal Carbaugh. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

carrollbrendanj&hallpatrickj 1985Carroll, Brendan J., and Patrick J. Hall. 1985. Make your own language tests. Oxford: Pergamom Institute of English.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

carrowe 1974Carrow, E. 1974. A test using elicited imitations in assessing grammatical structure in children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders 39:437-444.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

cartierfrancisa 1980Cartier, Francis A. 1980. Alternative methods of oral proficiency assessment. In Measuring spoken language proficiency, 7-14, edited by James R. Frith. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

cartwrightdon 1987Cartwright, Don. 1987. Accommodation among the anglophone minority in Quebec to official language policy: A shift in traditional patterns of language contact. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 8(1-2):187-212.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

carusov 1971Caruso, V. 1971. Brève esquisse d'analyse du 'hazomanga' dans la société bara. Bulletin de Madagascar 298:264.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

casadeugeneh&langackerronald 1985Casad, Eugene H., and Ronald Langacker. 1985. "Inside" and "outside" in Cora grammar. International Journal of American Linguistics 51:247-281.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

casadeugeneh 1974Casad, Eugene H. 1974. Dialect intelligibility testing. Publications in linguistics and related fields 38. Norman: Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Oklahoma.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Quantitative research,
Research,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

casadeugeneh 1992Casad, Eugene H. (ed.) 1992. Windows on bilingualism. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

casadeugeneh 1993Casad, Eugene H. 1993. "Locations", "paths" and the Cora verb. In Conceptualizations and mental processing in language, 593-645, edited by Richard A. Geiger, and Brygida Rudzka-Ostyn. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

casadeugeneh 1997Casad, Eugene H. 1997. Language assessment tools: Uses and limitations. In Language choices: Conditions, constraints, and consequences. Impact: Studies in language and society 1, 253-273, edited by Martin Pütz. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

casagrandejb&halekennethl 1967Casagrande, J. B., and Kenneth L. Hale. 1967. Semantic relations in Papago folk definitions. In Studies in southwestern ethnolinguistics, 165-196, edited by Dell H. Hymes, and W. E. Bittle. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

cassonronaldw 1981Casson, Ronald W. 1981. Language, culture, and cognition: Anthropological perspectives. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

cassonronaldw 1983Casson, Ronald W. 1983. Schemata in cognitive anthropology. In Annual review of anthropology, 429-462, edited by Bernard J. Siegel, Alan R. Beals, and Stephen A. Tyler. Pala Alto: Annual Reviews.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

catatl 1895Catat, L. 1895. Voyage à Madagascar (1889-1890). Paris: Lib. Hachette et Cie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

celliera 1971Cellier, A. 1971. Notes sur les populations de la rive droite du bas-Mangoky en 1906. Taloha 4:99-109.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Sakalava,
Makoa,
Bara,
Southern,
Betsileo,
Central,
Tesaka (Antesaka, Antaisaka),
Eastern,
Tanala (Antanala),

Captain Cellier gives in this article a summary of his reports to the authorities during the years 1904-1906. He gives a detailed description of the geographic area he deals with, as well as some interesting information on the origins of the people living to the right of the Bas-Mangoky, how they came to be there, according to oral history, and an analysis of why they stayed.

centredeslanguesdelacademiemalgache 2000Centre des Langues de l'Académie Malgache. 2000. Voambolana, ny riaka sy ny morony/ vocabulaire mer et littoral. Antananarivo: Tsipika.

language(s):
Malagasy, French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

centrefoietjustice 1989Centre Foi et Justice (ed.) 1989. Jean-Paul II à Madagascar. Joany Paoly II teto Madagasikara (28 Avril-1er Mai 1989). Edition complète des discours et documents bilingues. Enseignement social de l'eglise. Antananarivo: Centre Foi et Justice.

language(s):
French, Malagasy
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

centrefoietjustice 1995Centre Foi et Justice (ed.) 1995. Ny fiangonana eo amin'ny fiaraha-monina eto Madagasikara. Eglise et société à Madagascar. Textes bilingues des évêques de Madagascar. 4 Vol. Enseignement social de l'eglise. Antananarivo: Centre Foi et Justice.

language(s):
French, Malagasy
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

certeaumde 1970Certeau, M. de. 1970. La possession de Loudun. Archives. Paris: Julliard.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

chafewallace 1990Chafe, Wallace. 1990. Some things that narratives tell us about the mind. In Narrative thought and narrative language, 79-98, edited by Bruce K. Britton, and A. D. Pellegrini. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,

chafewallace 1991Chafe, Wallace. 1991. Grammatical subjects in speaking and writing. Text 11:45-72.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,

chaigneaupascal 1986Chaigneau, Pascal. 1986. Rivalités politiques et socialisme à Madagascar. La documentation française. Paris: CHEAM.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

chambersjackk&trudgillpeter 1998Chambers, Jack K., and Peter Trudgill. 1998. Dialectology. Cambridge textbooks in linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

chamlamarieclaude 1958Chamla, Marie-Claude. 1958. Recherches anthropologiques sur l'origine des malgaches. Mémoires du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle. Paris: Editions du Muséum.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

championbernard 1995Champion, Bernard (ed.) 1995. L'étranger intime. Mélanges offerts à Paul Ottino. Madagascar - Tahiti - Insulinde - Monde swahili - Comores - Réunion. Saint-André, La Réunion: Université de la Réunion, Océan Éditions.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,

chanudetclaude 1986Chanudet, Claude. 1986. Les styles de céramiques locales de la période classique de Mohéli (xive-xixe siècle). Taloha 10:183-191.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
History,

chapusgeorgessully&dandouauandre 1961Chapus, Georges-Sully, and André Dandouau. 1961. Manuel d'histoire de Madagascar à l'usage des écoles de la république. Paris: Ed. Larose.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

chapusgeorgessully 1925Chapus, Georges-Sully. 1925. Quatre-vingts années d'influences Européennes en Imerina. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 8.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

charlesclementseverin 1985Charles, Clément Séverin. 1985. Les Mahafale de l'Onilahy: Des clans au royaume, du xvie siècle à la conquête coloniale. Thèse. Paris: Université de Paris 1.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

charlesclementseverin 1995Charles, Clément Séverin. 1995. Les Tanala de la rive droite de l'Onilahy et du bas-Mangoky. Talily 1:108-109.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tañalaña,
South-western,

chazangilligsuzanne 1983Chazan-Gillig, Suzanne. 1983. Le fitampoha de 1968 ou l'efficacité du mythe de la royauté Sakalava dans l'actualité politique et économique malgache. In Les souverains de Madagascar. Collection "hommes et sociétés", 451-476, edited by Françoise Raison-Jourde. Paris: Editions Karthala.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Menabe,

chazangilligsuzanne 1991Chazan-Gillig, Suzanne. 1991. La société sakalave. Le Menabe dans la construction nationale malgache. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Menabe,

chengpw 1985Cheng, P. W. 1985. Pictures of ghosts: A critique of Aflred Bloom's 'the linguistic shaping of thought'. American Anthropologist 87:917-922.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

chenub 1987Chenu, B. 1987. Théologies chrétiennes des tiers mondes. Latino-américaine, noire américaine, noire sud-africaine, africaine, asiatique. Paris: Le Centurion.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
History,

chevalierl 1952Chevalier, L. 1952. Madagascar, populations et ressources. Travaux et documents 51. Paris: INED-PUF.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

chittickhneville 1966Chittick, H. Neville. 1966. Taloha I. Publication hors série consacrée à l'archéologie des annales de l'université de Madagascar. 1965. Azania 1:174-175.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

chungsandra 1990Chung, Sandra. 1990. VP'S and verb movement in Chamorro. Natural Language and LinguisticTheory 8:559-619.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Austronesian linguistics,
Linguistics,
Austronesian,

A discussion of VP's and verb movement in Chamorro, a Western Austronesian Language, spoken in the Mariana Islands.

clarkhe 1887Clark, H. E. 1887. Tantaran'ny Fiangonana eto Madagasikara hatrany ny niandohany ka hatrany ny taona 1887. Antananarivo: FFMA.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

clarkherberth&havilandsusane 1977Clark, Herbert H., and Susan E. Haviland. 1977. Comprehension and the given-new contract. In Discourse production and comprehension, 1-40, edited by Roy O. Freedle. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Research,
Anthropology and ethnology,

clarkjohnld&yallopcolin 1990Clark, John L. D., and Colin Yallop. 1990. An introduction to phonetics and phonology. Oxford: Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

clarkjohnld 1980Clark, John L. D. 1980. Toward a common measure of speaking proficiency. In Measuring spoken language proficiency, 15-25, edited by James R. Frith. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

clastrespierre 1974Clastres, Pierre. 1974. De l'ethnocide. L'homme 14(3-4):101-110.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

cliffordjames 1986aClifford, James. 1986a. Introduction: Partial truths. In Writing culture: The poetics and politics of ethnography, 1-26, edited by James Clifford. Berkeley: University of California Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

cliffordjames 1986bClifford, James (ed.) 1986b. Writing culture: The poetics and politics of ethnography. Berkeley: University of California Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

clignetremi&ernstbernard 1995Clignet, Rémi, and Bernard Ernst. 1995. L'école à Madagascar: Evaluation de la qualité de l'enseignement primaire public. Paris: Editions Karthala.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Dialectology,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Excellent study which contains a discussion of language in Malagasy education that is very relevant to our study.

cloonanjeannedenise&strinejamesmichael 1991Cloonan, Jeanne Denise, and James Michael Strine. 1991. Federalism and the development of language policy: Preliminary investigations. Language Problems and Language Planning 15(3):268-281.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

cluveraugustddev 1991Cluver, August D. de V. 1991. A systems approach to language planning: The case of Namibia. Language Problems and Language Planning 15(1):43-64.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

This article examines the Namibian experience of language planning: after independence, English was to become the new national language, while spoken by only 5% of the population, with Afrikaans being the main lingua franca and German, plus 18 indigenous languages being used. Professor Cluver sets some guidelines for the language plan of the new government, so that previous mistakes would not be repeated.

clynemichael 1988Clyne, Michael. 1988. The German-Australian speech community: Ethnic core values and language maintenance. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 72:67-83.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

This article is a study of the status of the German-Australian speech community in terms of their ethnic identity and the importance of their language.

colbybenjaminn 1973Colby, Benjamin N. 1973. A partial grammar of Eskimo folktales. American Anthropologist 75:645-662.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

colejennifer 1997Cole, Jennifer. 1997. Sacrifice, narratives and experience in east Madagascar. Journal of Religion in Africa 27(4):401-425.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Eastern,

colemanlinda&kaypaul 1981Coleman, Linda, and Paul Kay. 1981. Prototype semantics. Language 57:26-44.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,

colesfeliceann 1996Coles, Felice Ann. 1996. Suzanne Romaine, language in society: An introduction to sociolinguistics. Oxford & new York: Oxford university press, 1994. Language in Society 25(2):283.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

collinsjamest 1989Collins, James T. 1989. Malay dialect research in Malaysia: The issue of perspective. Bijdragen Tot de Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde 145:235-264.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,

The situation described here reveals striking similarities with the dialectal situation and policies in Madagascar. On most points a fruitful comparison could be drawn.

colombigiovanniluigi 1994Colombi, Giovanni Luigi. 1994. Une evangélisation dans le diocèse d'ihosy à Madagascar (1971-1992). itinéraires Théologico-pastoraux. Thèse de licence en missiologie. PhD dissertation. Université Pontificale Urbanienne.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

A study of the socio-cultural world of the Bara, explaining the particular challenge they present, due to their profound religiosity, in the sense that Christianity could be perceived as nothing more than a foreign religion, threatening their existence, instead of as bearer of the very truth they need. Père Colombi shows that the Bara sacrificial rites constitute a natural contact point.

comriebernard 1989Comrie, Bernard. 1989. Language universals and linguistic typology: Syntax and morphology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

condominasgeorges 1960Condominas, Georges. 1960. Fokon'olona et collectivités rurales en Imerina. Paris: Berger-Levrault.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

condominasgeorges 1992Condominas, Georges (ed.) 1992. Disciplines croisées. Paris: Editions de l'Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

congregationdelamissionlazaristes 1996Congrégation de la mission (Lazaristes) (ed.) 1996. Le Christianisme dans le sud de Madagascar. Mélanges à l'occassion du centenaire de la reprise de l'évangélisation du sud de Madagascar par la congrégation de la mission (lazaristes) 1896-1996. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French, Malagasy
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Karimbola (Karembola),
Bara,
Tesaka (Antesaka, Antaisaka),
Eastern,
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),

This work gives an up-to-date review of the history of Christianity in the South of Madagascar. One chapter that is particularly relevant to a study of the Tandroy was written by P. Benolo François, entitled: La religion traditionnelle chez les Ntandroy. He describes in detail the content and meaning of Tandroy traditional religion.
There is also a chapter on the history of the Lutheran missions in the South, from 1887 till 1950, written by Rev. James B. Vigen., and many other chapters relating to the history of the different Catholic congregations working in Madagascar.
In the chapter entitled Le Diocèse d'Ihosy, P. Colombi Giovanni Luigi, and P. Razafimamonjy Etienne Emmanuel briefly discuss the evangelisation of the Bara. Areas of Ibara are included in the diocese of Morombe on which P. Rabemanantsoa Benjamin wrote the chapter Le Diocèse de Morombe: les Lazaristes et la première évangélisation d'Ankazoabo-Sud.
The last chapter, entitled Bilan du Christianisme dans le Sud de Madagascar, by Mgr Rakotondravahatra, Jean-Guy, places the current state of Christianity in the South of Madagascar in a challenging context.

conklinharoldc 1964Conklin, Harold C. 1964. Hanunóo color categories. In Language in culture and society: A reader in linguistics and anthropology, 189-192, edited by Dell H. Hymes. New York: Harper and Row.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

connellpj&myleszitzerc 1982Connell, P. J., and C. Myles-Zitzer. 1982. An analysis of elicited imitation as a language evaluation procedure. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders 47:390-396.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

cookharukominegishi 1991Cook, Haruko Minegishi. 1991. The Japanese sentence-final particle 'yo' as a non-referential indexical. Paper presented at the 2nd international cognitive linguistics conference, university of California at Santa Cruz, July 29-August 2, 1991. In Second International Cognitive Linguistics Conference. Santa Cruz.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

copansjean 1996Copans, Jean. 1996. Introduction à l'ethnologie et à l'anthropologie. Paris: Nathan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

coppallea 1911Coppalle, A. 1911. Les Kimos de Madagascar. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache 8:65-67.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Kimosy,
Southern,

coulauddaniel 1973Coulaud, Daniel. 1973. Les Zafimaniry. Un groupe ethnique de Madagascar à la poursuite de la forêt. Antananarivo: Fanotamboky Malagasy.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Zafimaniry,
Eastern,

coulauddaniel 1974Coulaud, Daniel. 1974. Reflexion sur la notion d'ethnie à Madagascar: L'exemple du nord des pays Tanala et Betsileo. Taloha 6:89-116.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,
Zafimaniry,
Eastern,
Tanala (Antanala),

This excellent article on the problem of ethnicity in Madagascar is done in three parts. Coulaud first describes the identities of the following groups, (often misunderstood by the colonial mindset and by a too facile application of the "19 peoples" of Madagascar), namely the groups of Northern Betsileo (Fandriana, Mahazoarivo, Imady); the groups of the forest escarpment (Arivoanala, Zafimaniry); and the groups below the eastern escarpment (Zafindiamanana, Mahasila, Manandriana, Antaiva).
Having briefly differentiated among these different groups, he discusses in part two different aspects concerning the formation of the ethnic group, the life of the ethnic group, and the idea of an ethnic identity. He ends his conclusion with a quotation of the oath of the VVS (= Vy, Vato, Sakélika-Nationalist movement) in 1913, which goals would be achieved for the benefit of Madagascar, "Je jure d'aimer tous les malgaches.Je ne tiendrai compte ni des diverses races ni des tribus: les Malgaches sont un indivisible et inséparable. Un Malgache, c'est un Malgache et c'est tout ce qui compte."

coulmasflorian 1998aCoulmas, Florian. 1998a. Introduction. In The handbook of sociolinguistics. Blackwell handbooks in linguistics 4, 1-11, edited by Florian Coulmas. Oxford: Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

Selected quotes:

  • In 1952, the late Haver C. Currie published a paper, first drafted in 1949, entitled 'Projection of sociolinguistics: the relationship of speech to social status' (reprinted in 1971). It took some time for the term 'sociolinguistics', for which Currie claims priority, to take root, but by the early 1960's the first sociolinguistic conferences were being held and anthologies of articles dealing with properties of language calling for the inclusion of social factors in their analysis had started to appear (1).
  • Stated in very general terms, micro-linguistics investigates how social structure influences the way people talk and how language varieties and patterns of use correlate with social attributes such as class, sex, and age. Macro-sociolinguistics, on the other hand, studies what societies do with their languages, that is, attitudes and attachments that account for the functional distribution of speech forms in society, language shift, maintenance, and replacement, the delimitation and interaction of speech communities (2).

coulmasflorian 1998bCoulmas, Florian (ed.) 1998b. The handbook of sociolinguistics. Blackwell handbooks in linguistics 4. Oxford: Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

In four parts, namely "Foundations, Social Dimensions of Language, Linguistic Dimension of Society, and Applied Issues," the authors deal with the theme of Sociolinguistics in twenty-seven different chapters. In Part II, micro-issues are dealt with and in Part III, macro-issues. See individual papers for annotations. The volume, as a whole, gives a fresh overview of sociolinguistics.

coulonalain 1995Coulon, Alain. 1995. Ethnomethodology. Qualitative research methods series 36. London: Sage Publications.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

couplandnikolas&jaworskiadam 1997Coupland, Nikolas, and Adam Jaworski. 1997. Sociolinguistics: A reader and coursebook. Modern linguistics series. London: Macmillan Press Ltd.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

cousinswe&parrettj 1871Cousins, W. E., and J. Parrett. 1871. Ny ohabolan'ny Ntaolo. Antananarivo: London Missionary Society Press.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

cousinswe 1963 1931Cousins, W. E. 1963 (1931). Fomba Malagasy. Antananarivo: Trano Printy Imarivolanitra.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Originally written to teach foreigners about Malagasy customs.

cowanwdeans 1881Cowan, W. Deans. 1881. The Bara land: A description of the country and people. Antananarivo: London Missionary Society Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

cowanwdeans 1884Cowan, W. Deans. 1884. The Tanala, country and people. Antananarivo: The Friend's Foreign Mission Association.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

craigcolettegrinevald 1986aCraig, Colette Grinevald. 1986a. Introduction. In Noun classes and categorization, 1-10, edited by Colette Grinevald Craig. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

craigcolettegrinevald 1986bCraig, Colette Grinevald (ed.) 1986b. Noun classes and categorization. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

craigcolettegrinevald 1998Craig, Colette Grinevald. 1998. Language contact and language degeneration. In The handbook of sociolinguistics. Blackwell handbooks in linguistics 4, 257-270, edited by Florian Coulmas. Oxford: Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

creidercheta 1975Creider, Chet A. 1975. The semantic system of noun classes in proto-Bantu. Anthropological Linguistics 17:127-138.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
History,

croninaj 1941Cronin, A. J. 1941. The keys of the kingdom. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Religion,
History,

crossephraim 1962Cross, Ephraim. 1962. Lexicostatistics has not yet attained the status of a science. In Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Linguistics, 480-489, edited by Horace G. Lunt. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,
History,

crystaldavid 1985Crystal, David. 1985. A dictionary of linguistics and phonetics. Cambridge, Mass.: Basil Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

crystaldavid 1987Crystal, David. 1987. The Cambridge encyclopedia of language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

dahlelars 1877Dahle, Lars. 1877. Specimens of Malagasy folklore. Antananarivo: A. Kingdom.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlelars 1984 1877Dahle, Lars. 1984 (1877). Anganon'ny Ntaolo. Antananarivo: Trano Printy Loterana.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlottochr 1951Dahl, Otto Chr. 1951. Malgache et Maanjan. Une comparaison linguistique. Oslo: Egede Instituttet.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlottochr 1954Dahl, Otto Chr. 1954. Le substrat bantou en malgache. Norsk tidsskrift for sprogvidenskap 17:325-362.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlottochr 1966Dahl, Otto Chr. 1966. Les débuts de l'orthographe malgache. Oslo-Bergen-Tromsö: Universitetsforlaget.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Merina,
Central,

Excellent paper for understanding the development of Malagasy orthography and related matters.
In this paper, Professor Dahl touches on issues like "one language is spoken all over Madagascar," saying that "les autochtones de Madagascar parlent tous la même langue, bien que divisée en un grand nombre de dialectes. C'est le parler de Tananarive, depuis un siècle et demi la capitale de l'Ile, qui est le malgache littéraire et, grâce à la littérature et à la circulation, on arrive partout à se faire comprendre en employant ce parler (le Merina)." It would be interesting to know how that conclusion was arrived at and how much weight Professor Dahl would himself assign to it now, forty years later. At the time of publication, in 1966, the Malagasy population counted just over 5 million people. In 2002, that number had more than tripled and infrastructures and education had deteriorated in most parts of the island over the almost four decades, perhaps felt least in the capital. Successive language policies and other government intervention, as well as misadministration over the last decades have further increased the deprivation of the Malagasy people, in terms of accessibility to education and general development.

Selected quotes:

  • Les autochtones de Madagascar parlent tous la même langue, bien que divisée en un grand nombre de dialectes. C'est le parler de Tananarive, depuis un siècle et demi la capitale de l'Ile, qui est le malgache littéraire et, grâce à la littérature et à la circulation, on arrive partout à se faire comprendre en employant ce parler (le Merina) (5).

dahlottochr 1968Dahl, Otto Chr. 1968. Contes malgaches en dialecte Sakalava. Texte, traduction, grammaire et lexique. Oslo-Bergen-Tromsö: Universitetsforlaget.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

dahlottochr 1971Dahl, Otto Chr. 1971. Un cockney parlant malgache vers 1710. Norsk tidsskrift for sprogvidenskap 24:83-153.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),

dahlottochr 1972Dahl, Otto Chr. 1972. Les noms de parenté en malgache. In Approche linguistique. Langues et techniques, nature et société 1, 353-358, edited by Jacques Barrau. Paris: Éditions Klincksieck.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlottochr 1977Dahl, Otto Chr. 1977. La subdivision de la famille Barito et la place du malgache. Acta Orientalia 38:77-134.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlottochr 1981Dahl, Otto Chr. 1981. Early phonetic and phonemic changes in Austronesian. Instituttet For sammenlignende kulturforskning. Serie B: Skrifter. Oslo: Norwegian University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
History,
Austronesian,

dahlottochr 1983Dahl, Otto Chr. 1983. Sorabe révélant l'évolution du dialecte Antemoro. Antananarivo: Trano Printy Loterana.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,

dahlottochr 1984Dahl, Otto Chr. 1984. Mahomet dans le panthéon malgache. Bulletin des études africaines 4(7):21-30.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlottochr 1988Dahl, Otto Chr. 1988. Bantu substratum in Malagasy. In Linguistique de Madagascar et des Comores. Etudes Océan Indien 9, 91-132, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Selected quotes:

  • Although Madagascar is situated only 400 kilometres from the East African coast, Malagasy, the language of the island, is not an African language (91).
  • It has now been established that Malagasy is a member of the South East Barito subgroup of Austronesian in Kalimantan (Borneo), (Dahl 1951 and 1977) and a hypothesis of migration from Kalimantan to Madagascar about AD 400 (Dahl 1951: 366-369) has received general acceptance among Austronesianists. Besides Malagasy, the best known language of this subgroup is Ma'anyan (91).
  • However, although the bulk of the Malagasy language is Austronesian, there are also Bantu elements in it. Local tradition has it that non-Malagasy (sic) peoples lived in certain parts of Madagascar before the latter (Malagasy) arrived there. They are called Vazimba, which sounds like a Bantu tribes-name. An English witness from the beginning of the 1_th century testifies that they spoke among themselves a language that was not understood by their neighbours (Drury, 1729:279). There are still some clans called Vazimba in Western Madagascar, but now they speak the Malagasy dialect of their neighbours (91).
  • Dahle's hypothesis: wherever a Malagasy word of common occurrence and referring to objects of common life is found, not in Swahili, but also in other African languages, it is almost certain that it has not been introduced into Malagasy through Swahili, but belongs to the original African element in Malagasy (92).
  • Is it possible to determine the phonetic structure of the two languages which met in Madagascar about AD 400? If so it will also be possible to follow the phonetic development which has taken place after that time (109).
  • Malagasy is undoubtedly a member of the south-east Barito subgroup of Austronesian in Kalimantan, and it has been compared with the best known of the other members of that subgroup, Ma'anyan, with great precision (Dahl 1951 & 1977). We therefore know that the immigrants spoke a language with a structure rather similar to that of Ma'anyan (Dahl, 1938) (109).
  • The language of the substratum seems so similar to Comorian forms of Bantu "that we may consider it as a Comorian dialect." This is not difficult to understand as the easiest way from the African continent to Madagascar is to pass through the Comoro islands, especially in the small crafts of those olden times (110).
  • There is thus a great parallelism in the development of voiceless stops in Comorian and Malagasy, and in Malagasy this is the case not only in Bantu words, but also in the words inherited from Austronesian. A substratum nearly related to Comoro, or even being a Comoro dialect, seems to be the only possible explanation (113).
  • (.) Malagasy has eliminated consonantic finals, and this has taken place after the immigration into Madagascar. However, all the final consonants were not eliminated or changed into intervocalic position at the same time. Final nasals reamained in this position longer than other consonants. Still the influence from the substratum is evident. Anyone who has taught French to Malagasy children will have observed how difficult the pronunciation of final consonants is to speakers of a language with only vocalic finals (119).
  • All these changes after the immigration into Madagascar find their simplest explanation in the influence of a Bantu substratum. And both the phonetic development of the Bantu vocabulary in general and the special development of the voiceless stops in AN words show the near affinity of the substratum to the Comoro isolects. Most of the Bantu words in Malagasy have also cognates in Comoro and Swahili. If Comoro had been better known, we should probably have found more of them there (120).

dahlottochr 1991Dahl, Otto Chr. 1991. Migration from Kalimantan to Madagascar. Instituttet For sammenlignende kulturforskning. Serie B: Skrifter 82. Oslo: Norwegian University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlottochr 1992Dahl, Otto Chr. 1992. Zanahary, Andrianahary, Andriamanitra. Désignation des êtres divins en malgache. In Disciplines croisées, edited by G. Condominas. Paris: Editions de l'Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlottochr 1993Dahl, Otto Chr. 1993. Language conflict in Madagascar around AD 700. In Language conflict and language planning, 59-68, edited by Ernst Håkon Jahr. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlottochr 1995Dahl, Otto Chr. 1995. L'importance de la langue malgache dans la linguistique austronésienne et dans la linguistique gnérale. In Cultures of Madagascar: Ebb and flow of influences. Working papers series 2, 39-46, edited by Sandra Evers, and Marc Spindler. Leiden: International Institute for Asian Studies.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahloeyvind&nilsonbente&waldermogunnar 1996Dahl, Øyvind, Bente. Nilson, and Gunnar Waldermo. 1996. Teachers' Training College in Madagascar. An appraisal report. Report, Senter for Interkulturell Kommunikasjon. Stavanger.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahloeyvind 1990Dahl, Øyvind. 1990. The general education program of the Malagasy Lutheran church. Report from task force visiting the Malagasy Lutheran church. 24 October-14 November 1990. Antananarivo.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahloeyvind 1992Dahl, Øyvind. 1992. Quand le futur vient de derrière: Le concept malgache de temps et d'ordre du monde et conséquences pour le transfert de technologie. In Colloque pour chercheurs en sciences sociales et opérateurs économiques sur "Les changements sociaux dans la région du Vakinankaratra." Antsirabe 6-9 avril 1992. Antananarivo: Trano Printy Loterana.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahloeyvind 1993aDahl, Øyvind (ed.) 1993a. Language. A doorway between human cultures. Tributes to Dr. Otto Chr. Dahl on his ninetieth birthday. Oslo: Novus Forlag.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

This collection of papers contains some pertinent information on the work of Otto Chr Dahl, as well as on aspects of Malagasy archaeology, history and linguistics (nine out of the total of sixteen). Particularly of interest to us in the context of this survey are the articles by Claude Allibert, and Pierre Vérin (Linguistique, archéologie et l'exploration du passé malgache), by Dina Jeanne (Les débuts de l'évangélisation du Fihereña par les Luthériens Norvégiens 1874-1897), as well the paper by Roger-Bruno Rabenilaina (L'Intégration des différents parlers, signes manifestes de l'unicité de la langue malgache).

dahloeyvind 1993bDahl, Øyvind. 1993b. Malagasy meanings. PhD dissertation. Center for Intercultural Communication, School of Mission and Theology, Misjonshogskolens forlag.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vakinankaratra,
Central,
Merina,

This study has been the one of the greatest treasures found since we started learning about Malagasy history, culture, and language and should be read by everyone involved in cross-cultural work and particularly by those who endeavour to communicate with the Malagasy people. Working through this practical handbook took us on a journey of discovering ourselves and our own worldviews in relation to that of the Malagasy people; and in identifying with the many practical situations described, we could relate and learn to empathise and were alerted to the fact that we need to let go of our own cultural assumptions, if we wish to truly relate to our friends in Madagascar and not be yet another costly, but passing, irrelevance in the long history of cross-cultural interaction.

dahloeyvind 1997Dahl, Øyvind. 1997. Consolidation de la post-alphabétisation à Madagascar. Evaluation finale du projet (504/MAG/10) UNESCO. SIK-rapport 1997:4. Report, Misjonshøgskolens forlag. Stavanger.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahloeyvind 1999Dahl, Øyvind. 1999. Meanings in Madagascar. Cases of intercultural communication. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vakinankaratra,
Central,
Merina,

daileyk&boxxjr 1979Dailey, K., and J. R. Boxx. 1979. A comparison of three imitative tests of expressive language and a spontaneous language sample. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools 10:6-13.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

dalmondpierre 1987Dalmond, Pierre. 1987. Exercices en langue Sakalava et Betsimisaraka (1841-1844). Recherches et Documents 3.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Betsimisaraka,
Eastern,

dandouauandre 1960Dandouau, André. 1960. Manuel de géographie de Madagascar à l' usage des écoles de la république (avec la nouvelle organisation administrative). Paris: Ed. Larose.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dandouauandrejean 1911Dandouau, André-Jean. 1911. Catalogue alphabétique des noms malgaches de végetaux. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dandouauandrejean 1924Dandouau, André-Jean. 1924. Dialogues français-Sakalava (dialecte de Nossi-Be et du sambirano). Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache 6:91-157.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Northern Sakalava,
Sakalava,
Western,

dandraderoygoodwin 1981D'Andrade, Roy Goodwin. 1981. The cultural part of cognition. Cognitive Science 5:179-195.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

dandraderoygoodwin 1984D'Andrade, Roy Goodwin. 1984. Cultural meaning systems. In Culture theory: Essays on mind, self, and emotion, 88-119, edited by Richard A. Shweder, and Robert A. LeVine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

dandraderoygoodwin 1995D'Andrade, Roy Goodwin. 1995. The development of cognitive anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

dasguptajyotirindra&gumperzjohnj 1968Das Gupta, Jyotirindra, and John J. Gumperz. 1968. Language, communication and control in north India. In Language problems of developing nations, 151-166, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

dasguptajyotirindra 1968Das Gupta, Jyotirindra. 1968. Language diversity and national development. In Language problems of developing nations, 17-26, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

dasguptajyotirindra 1971Das Gupta, Jyotirindra. 1971. Religion, language, and political mobilization. In Can language be planned?, 53-61, edited by Joan Rubin, and Bjørn H. Jernudd. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

dasylvagermain&ranarivelovalencia&razanoelisoajacqueline 1994Dasylva, Germain, Valencia Ranarivelo, and Jacqueline Razanoelisoa. 1994. Enquête socio-économique sur les communautés de pêcheurs traditionnels dans la région de Toliara. Programme sectorielle pêche. Report, Organisation des Nations Unies pour l'Alimentation et l'Agriculture.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,

davidrobert 1940David, Robert. 1940. Le problème anthropobiologique malgache. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 23:1-29.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

ddssinstat 1996DDSS-INSTAT. 1996. Le recencement général de la population et de l'habitat. Report, Direction de la Démographie et des Statistiques Sociales de l'INSTAT (Madagascar). Antananarivo.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Quantitative research,
Research,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

deanepaul 1992Deane, Paul. 1992. Grammar in mind and brain: Explorations in cognitive syntax. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,

decaryraymond&castelremy 1941Decary, Raymond, and Rémy Castel. 1941. Modalités et conséquences des migrations intérieures récentes des populations malgaches. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond&faubleejacques 1960Decary, Raymond, and Jacques Faublée. 1960. Contribution au folklore des populations côtières. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 36:273-300.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1926Decary, Raymond. 1926. Le sud-est de Madagascar : Fort-Dauphin - Ifanadiana. Bulletin Economique de Madagascar et Dépendances 54-58:5-27.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,
South-eastern,

decaryraymond 1928Decary, Raymond. 1928. Lexique français-antandroy. Mémoires de l'Académie malgache 8. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French, Tandroy Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

decaryraymond 1933Decary, Raymond. 1933. L'Androy. Essai de monographie régionale (2 vol). Paris: Societé d'Editions géographiques, maritimes et coloniales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

decaryraymond 1934aDecary, Raymond. 1934a. Les grottes d'Anjohibé. La Revue de Madagascar 8:81-85.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern,

decaryraymond 1934bDecary, Raymond. 1934b. Un voyage à l'île Sainte-Marie en 1824. La Revue de Madagascar 7:65-86.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Saint Mariens,
Eastern,

decaryraymond 1935Decary, Raymond. 1935. Les tatouages chez les indigènes de Madagascar. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 5:1-39.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1939Decary, Raymond. 1939. La chasse et le piégage chez les indigènes de Madagascar. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 9:3-41.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1940Decary, Raymond. 1940. Carte ethnographique et démographique de Madagascar à l'échelle du 1000000. Note explicative. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1943Decary, Raymond. 1943. Le lac Ihotry. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 25:71-74.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mikea,
South-western,

Concise survey of the lake Ihotry, with much detail about its environment, cycles, salt-content, some history, with an interesting mention made of the "Mikeha," an essentially "ichtyophage" people.

Selected quotes:

  • Les Mikeha, peuplade essentiellement ichtyophage, avaient totalement cessé la pêche et en étaient réduit à se nourrir du produit de pauvres cultures et surtout des tubercules et fruits de la forêt, d'ovy, de fruits de baobab, de sakoa, etc.
    A l'heure actuelle (février 1943) le lac s'est repeuplé, les quelques poissons qui ont résisté à la sursaturation antérieure à 1940 se sont réproduits et les Mikeha s'adonnent de nouveau à la pêche-jusqu'au jour où une nouvelle période de sêcheresse contractera encore le lac en augmentant le taux de salure (73).

decaryraymond 1946Decary, Raymond. 1946. Plantes et animaux utiles de Madagascar. Marseille: Annales du Musée Colonial.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1949Decary, Raymond. 1949. Le crocodile malgache. Ses mours, son rôle dans la vie indigène. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 19(1):195-207.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1950aDecary, Raymond. 1950a. La faune malgache. Paris: Editions Payot.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1950bDecary, Raymond. 1950b. La population de Madagascar. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 28:1-19.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1951Decary, Raymond. 1951. Mours et coutumes des malgaches. Collection de documents et de témoignages pour servir à l'histoire de notre temps. Paris: Payot.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1953Decary, Raymond. 1953. La bouche et les dents dans les coutumes malgaches. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 23(1-2):35-42.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1959Decary, Raymond. 1959. Les ordalies et sacrifices rituels chez les anciens malgaches. Paris: Larose.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1962Decary, Raymond. 1962. La mort et les coutumes funéraires à Madagascar. Paris: Maisonneuve et LaRose.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Much information, arranged according to what Decary calls "tribu." Dense with information, but also full of the unresearched assumptions of his time, e.g. re the Sakalava, or the Betsimisaraka as a unit. One shouldn't be surprised, to the author's amazement, to find such great variety and variation over so large an area. But he doesn't think to question his categories in the light of the same.

decaryraymond 1964Decary, Raymond. 1964. Contes et légendes du sud-ouest de Madagascar. Les littératures populaires de toutes les nations n.s. 11. Paris: G.-P. Maisonneuve et Larose.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
South-western,

decaryraymond 1965Decary, Raymond. 1965. Les anciennes coiffures masculines à Madagascar. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 35:283-316.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1970Decary, Raymond. 1970. La divination malgache par le sikidy. Publications du centre universitaire des langues orientales vivantes 6(9). Paris: Librairie orientaliste Paul Geuthner.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

defoortemile 1913Defoort, Emile. 1913. L'Androy: essai de monographie. Antananarivo: Bulletin Economique de Madagascar.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

deganaysolange&lebeufannie&lebeufjeanpaul&zahandominique 1987de Ganay, Solange, Annie Lebeuf, Jean-Paul Lebeuf, and Dominique Zahan (eds.) 1987. Ethnologiques. Hommages à Marcel Griaule. Paris: Hermann.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

delcroixfrancoise&faurouxemmanuel 1992Delcroix, Françoise, and Emmanuel Fauroux. 1992. Les racines cérémonielles du clientélisme et du pouvoir local dans les villages Sakalava du Menabe. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:213-222.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Menabe,

delerisf 1986Deleris, F. 1986. Ratsiraka: Socialisme et misère à Madagascar. Paris: L'Harmattan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

delivrealain 1974Delivre, Alain. 1974. Interprétation d'une tradition orale. L'Histoire des rois d'Imerina. Paris: Klincksieck.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

delordr 1960Delord, R. 1960. Un document inestimable sur la dynastie royale d'Ambositra. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 38:67-77.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,

delormeandree 1936Delorme, Andrée. 1936. L'hazomanga-lava: Une grande fête chez les Mahafales. La Revue de Madagascar 16:79-96.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

Simple, but sensitively-written account of the institution ceremony of a new hazomanga (sacrificial post), symbol of the power of the new king.

delvalraymond 1967Delval, Raymond. 1967. Les Musulmans à Madagascar. La Revue de Madagascar 37:5-32.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Religion,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

delvalraymond 1972Delval, Raymond. 1972. Radama II, prince de la renaissance malgache, 1861-1863. Paris: Editions de l'Ecole.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

delvalraymond 1977aDelval, Raymond. 1977a. Les Musulmans à Madagascar en 1977. L'Afrique et l'Asie Modernes 115:28-46.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
Religion,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

delvalraymond 1977bDelval, Raymond. 1977b. Les Musulmans à Madagascar en 1977 (II). L'Afrique et l'Asie Modernes 116:5-19.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
Religion,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

delvalraymond 1986Delval, Raymond. 1986. Le résident Besson, médecin, administrateur et humaniste. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 23-24:265-282.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,
Merina,
Central,
Betsileo,
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

delvalraymond 1992Delval, Raymond. 1992. Le pouvoir et les atteintes au pouvoir dans l'ancien droit. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:299-307.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

demosvasilikie 1988Demos, Vasilikie. 1988. Ethnic mother-tongue maintenance among Greek-orthodox Americans. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 69:59-71.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

dempwolffo 1938Dempwolff, O. 1938. Verleichende Lautlehre des austronesischen Wortschatzes. 3 Vols. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Austronesian linguistics,
Linguistics,
Austronesian,

dennyjpeter&creidercheta 1986Denny, J. Peter, and Chet A. Creider. 1986. The semantics of noun classes in proto-Bantu. In Noun classes and categorization, 217-239, edited by Colette Grinevald Craig. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

dennyjpeter 1979Denny, J. Peter. 1979. The 'extendedness' variable in classifier semantics: Universal features and cultural variation. In Ethnolinguistics: Boas, Sapir, and Whorf revisited, 97-119, edited by Madeleine Mathiot. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

dennyjpeter 1986Denny, J. Peter. 1986. The semantic role of noun classifiers. In Noun classes and categorization, 297-308, edited by Colette Grinevald Craig. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

deschampshubert&vianess 1959Deschamps, Hubert, and S. Vianes. 1959. Les malgaches du sud-est. Monographies ethnologiques. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Zafisoro,
Tefasy (Antefasy, Antaifasy),
Eastern,
Tesaka (Antesaka, Antaisaka),
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Antambahoaka (Tambahoaka),
Sahavoay,
Sahafatra,
South-eastern,

Very pertinent and detailed information concerning people groups of the South East of Madagascar, not indifferent to the struggles of missionaries in the area.

deschampshubert 1934Deschamps, Hubert. 1934. Les Antaisaka. La Revue de Madagascar 8:25-39.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tesaka (Antesaka, Antaisaka),
Eastern,

Undemanding description of the Tesaka people, not very detailed, but with some important information on the social unit which is the clan, as well as on traditional dancing, the "national art form" of the Tesaka.

deschampshubert 1935Deschamps, Hubert. 1935. Pamosavi Antaisaka. La Revue de Madagascar 11:81-89.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tesaka (Antesaka, Antaisaka),
Eastern,

Deschamps describes lightly, with occasional comparisons drawn with Western culture, the phenomenon of the sorcerer. He sounds much less patronizing and more objective than many of his peers.

Selected quotes:

  • Nous rappelons que les Antaisaka habitent la Côte Sud-Est, que leur capitale est Vangaindrano et qu'ils forment le centre d'émigration le plus important de l'île. Voir la Revue de Madagascar, no 8, octobre 1934, p. 25.

deschampshubert 1936Deschamps, Hubert. 1936. Les Antaisaka. Géographie Humaine, coutumes et histoire d'une population malgache. Antananarivo: Pitot de la Beaujardière.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tesaka (Antesaka, Antaisaka),
Eastern,

deschampshubert 1959Deschamps, Hubert. 1959. Les migrations intérieures passées et présentes à Madagascar. L'homme d'outre-mer 1. Paris: Editions Berger-Levrault.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

deschampshubert 1960Deschamps, Hubert. 1960. Conceptions, problèmes et sources de l'histoire de Madagascar. Journal of African History 1(2):249-256.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

A bit dated, but gives an inventory of documents, originals, archives for research of the history of Madagascar.

deschampshubert 1972aDeschamps, Hubert. 1972a. Histoire de Madagascar. Collection mondes d'outre-mer. Paris: Editions Berger-Levrault.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

deschampshubert 1972bDeschamps, Hubert. 1972b. Les pirates à Madagascar. Paris: Editions Berger-Levrault.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsimisaraka,
Eastern,

A bit dated, but gives an inventory of documents, originals, and archives for research of the history of Madagascar.

devalierefrancois 1984Devalière, François. 1984. Madagascar : l'histoire nouvelle explore ses royaumes. Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines 24:505-509.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dewarroberte&wrighthenryt 1993Dewar, Robert E., and Henry T. Wright. 1993. The culture history of Madagascar. Journal of World Prehistory 7(4):417-466.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dezjacques 1956Dez, Jacques. 1956. Quelques réflexions sur les problèmes actuels de la linguistique malgache. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 34:81-103.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dezjacques 1961Dez, Jacques. 1961. Le dialecte Betsimisaraka du sud. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 38:102-103.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern Betsimisaraka (Antatsimo, Tatsimo),
Betsimisaraka,
Eastern,

dezjacques 1963aDez, Jacques. 1963a. Aperçus pour une dialectologie de la langue malgache. Bulletin de Madagascar 204:441-451.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Professor Dez was aiming to give an overview of the Malagasy dialects and this was published over three articles in the Bulletin de Madagascar.

Selected quotes:

  • Certains se demanderont peut-être si cette vue d'ensemble était bien nécessaire. Parmi eux, il y a ceux qui croient qu'il n'y a pas de langue malgache, mais que les diverses populations de l'Ile usent de langages qui leur sont propres et incompréhensibles pour les autres. Parmi eux, il y a également ceux qui estiment que, parce qu'il a une langue malgache officielle, tout ce qui n'est pas elle, n'est que jargon sans intérêt et condamné par son inutilité à disparaître tôt ou tard (441).

dezjacques 1963bDez, Jacques. 1963b. Aperçus pour une dialectologie de la langue malgache II. Bulletin de Madagascar 205:507-520.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dezjacques 1963cDez, Jacques. 1963c. Aperçus pour une dialectologie de la langue malgache III. Bulletin de Madagascar 206:581-607.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dezjacques 1971Dez, Jacques. 1971. Au pays Betsimisaraka: Habitat et communications. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 47(1-2):115-145.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsimisaraka,
Eastern,

Selected quotes:

  • Les populations betsimisaraka vivent dans la forêt et de la forêt. (115)

dezjacques 1972Dez, Jacques. 1972. Essai sur le concept de Vazimba. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 49(2):11-20.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vazimba,
Western,

Dez deals with the Vazimba in Imerina. He does not make any mention of Vazimba elsewhere.

dezjacques 1978aDez, Jacques. 1978a. Le malgache. In Inventaire des études linguistiques sur les pays d'Afrique noire d'expression française et sur Madagascar, 331-349, edited by Daniel Barreteau. Paris: CILF.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

In this article Jacques Dez gives an overview of the history of Malagasy linguistics, dividing it into four periods, namely 16th-18th century; the 19th century; the colonial period; since 1960. He then gives a bibliographic complement, as of 1970. In a later article (1991), Dez takes up the same issues, updating them and adding some new insights.

Selected quotes:

  • Les parlers en usage à Madagascar (exception faite, évidemment, de ceux des groupes reconnus commes allogènes) ne constitue pas un groupe de langues, mais sont des modalités de manifestation d'une langue unique (131).
  • Tous ces parlers présentent donc les mêmes caractéristiques fondamentale de structure grammaticale et lexicale et ne diffèrent guère entre eux que par des varientes localisées de vocabulaire et par 'l'accent', comme l'écrivait déjà E. de Flacourt en introduction à son "Dictionnaire de la langue de Madagascar" (1658) (132).
  • (.) à la fin du 19ème siècle, il y avait un malgache protestant et un malgache catholique, nettement distinguables, le premier meilleur connaisseur des usages traditionnels, le second, plus influencé par celui du français de Madagascar. Depuis,l'évolution s'est faite dans un rapprochement des deux vers une sorte de malgache-standard (137).

dezjacques 1978bDez, Jacques. 1978b. Les sources Européennes anciennes de la linguistique malgache. Paris: Université de Paris 7.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Merina,
Central,
Saint Mariens,
Eastern,
Betsimisaraka,

Dez gives an insightful overview and appreciation of older European sources on the Malagasy language, sorted under nationality of author; He situates each author in historical context.

Selected quotes:

  • A ce jour, l'intérêt offert par l'étude des sources anciennes n'est nullement épuis. Il demeure, au contraire, d'une extrême actualité. (27)

dezjacques 1981Dez, Jacques. 1981. Vocabulaire pour servir au déchiffrement des documents Arabico-malgaches. Paris: Département de Recherches Linguistiques, Université de Paris VII.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,

dezjacques 1983aDez, Jacques. 1983a. Essai sur le calendrier Arabico-malgache. Paris: Département de Recherches Linguistiques, Université de Paris VII.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dezjacques 1983bDez, Jacques. 1983b. Les sora-Be. Sources documentaires. Paris: Département de Recherches Linguistiques, Université de Paris VII.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,

dezjacques 1988Dez, Jacques. 1988. La linguistique malgache: Situation actuelle. In Linguistique de Madagascar et des Comores. Etudes Océan Indien 9, 81-90, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dezjacques 1989Dez, Jacques. 1989. La langue malgache: Approche d'une bibliographie linguistique.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Professor Jacques Dez offers here a bibliography of Malagasy linguistics, which could go a long way to guide researchers in their need of references. His inventory mentions 1700 works, representing 700 different authors, over the different time periods of interest, starting with the seventeenth century until the time of publication in 1989. The bibliography contains three bibliographies: namely a bibliography of linguistics relating to the official language, a bibliography of Malagasy dialectology, and a bibliography of arabico-malagasy. The difference between the first two bibliographies lies in the imbalance in information between the official language and the dialects, the former having received much more attention from researchers, the latter consisting of rare and scattered bits, difficult to access, and generally few in number.
Professor Dez has organised the information according to themes so as to facilitate the search and accompanies a few of the more complicated entries with short notes of explanation.

dezjacques 1991Dez, Jacques. 1991. La linguistique malgache. Bref aperçu historique. Archives et documents: Société d'histoire et d'épistémologie des sciences du langage (SHESL) 2(5). Paris: Université de Paris 7.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Professor Dez introduces his historical overview with a short but excellent description of the Malagasy language. He then traces the development of Malagasy linguistics from the beginning of European contact with Madagascar in the 1600's until today, distinguishing in its development four different periods, namely:
First: from 1500's till 1820: the discovery;
Second: 1820-1900: forming years of traditional grammar; beginning of the first Malagasy linguistics;
Third: 1900-1970: traditional grammar rules;
Fourth: since 1970, the period of the second Malagasy linguistics; traditional grammar rejected.
Dez describes each of these four periods, supported with a brief mention of authors and their contributions during each. This brief analysis of the state of Malagasy linguistics until 1991 provides the reader with clear insights and a good overview of the situation.

dezjacques 1993Dez, Jacques. 1993. Une contribution anglaise à la connaissance de la langue malgache: L'enquête dialectale du révérend J. Richardson (1893). Atlas linguistique et ethnographique de Madagascar. Travaux préliminaires 2. Strasbourg: Université des Sciences Humaines.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sambirano,
Sakalava,
Western,
Zafisoro,
Tefasy (Antefasy, Antaifasy),
Eastern,
Hova,
Merina,
Central,
Tanala (Antanala),
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana),
Northern,
Betsileo,
Bezanozano,
Sihanaka,
Vakinankaratra,
Betsimisaraka,
Masikoro,
South-western,
Vezo,
Bara,
Southern,

dilanwars 1972Dil, Anwar S. (ed.) 1972. The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Language ecology,
Sociolinguistics,

dinajeanne&hoernerjeanmichel 1976Dina, Jeanne, and Jean-Michel Hoerner. 1976. Etude sur les populations Mikea du sud-ouest de Madagascar. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 3-4.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mikea,
South-western,
Masikoro,

Very concise article explaining the problem of the Mikea. No bibliography attached to this copy.

dinajeanne 1993Dina, Jeanne. 1993. Les débuts de l'évangélisation du fiherena par les luthériens norvégiens 1874-1897. In Language. A doorway between human cultures, 60-73, edited by Øyvind Dahl. Oslo: Novus Forlag.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Masikoro,
South-western,

dinneenfrancisp 1967Dinneen, Francis P. 1967. An introduction to general linguistics. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

dirvenrene 1993Dirven, René. 1993. Metonymy and metaphor: Different mental strategies of conceptualization. Leuvense Bijdragen 82:1-28.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,

dixonrmw 1982Dixon, R. M. W. 1982. Where have all the adjectives gone? Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

dixonrmw 1986Dixon, R. M. W. 1986. Noun classes and noun classification in typological perspective. In Noun classes and categorization, 105-112, edited by Colette Grinevald Craig. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,

djitepauling 1990aDjité, Paulin G. 1990a. Les langues Africaines dans la nouvelle francophonie. Language Problems and Language Planning 14(1):20-32.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

Discusses the problems of the idea of "francophonie" in the context of multilingual developing countries in Africa. French seems to be in regression everywhere and the way to address this problem would be according to Djité, by addressing the problem of the prestige of French and the credibility of the "francophonie" movement.

Selected quotes:

  • Il n'est pas absolument requis pour les besoins de l'unité et de la démocratie que les citoyens d'un pays parlent tous une seule et même langue, et qu'en plus, cette langue leur soit étrangère.

djitepauling 1990bDjité, Paulin G. 1990b. The place of African languages in the revival of the francophonie movement. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 86:87-102.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

In this article, the author looks at the conflicting issues of the revival of Francophonie and the development of indigenous languages in Africa. He quotes many examples of the opposing interests of political elites and the ordinary people of a country. Full of irony, his article draws a realistic picture, with the benefit of hind-sight and of having escaped birth in the previous century.

djitepauling 1993Djité, Paulin G. 1993. Francophonie: Gain d'humanité ou perte d'identité? Language problems and language planning 17(3):254-264.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

While the habit to talk of Francophonie in terms of "gain d'humanité" or "perte d'identité" exists, Djité rejects this dichotomy and discusses four different definitions of Francophonie, namely:
1) la francophonie en tant qu'un rassemblement de pays unis par un héritage linguistique commun;
2) la francophonie en tant qu'une entreprise de coopération et de solidarité;
3) la francophonie en tant que mouvement linguistique ou culturel et,
4) la francophonie en tant que mouvement en défense des valeurs humanistes.
A remark that is worth noting here is that languages are not like religions of a mutually-exclusive nature. They can co-exist without threatening someone's mother tongue.

doejohn 1988Doe, John. 1988. Speak into the mirror: A story of linguistic anthropology. Landham, Md.: University Press of America.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

domenichinijeanpierre&poirierjean&raherisoanjatodaniel 1984Domenichini, Jean-Pierre, Jean Poirier, and Daniel Raherisoanjato. 1984. Ny razana tsy mba maty. Cultures traditionnelles malgaches. Antananarivo: Librairie de Madagascar.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

domenichinijeanpierre 1971Domenichini, Jean-Pierre. 1971. Histoire des Palladium d'Imerina d'après des manuscrits anciens. Texte bilingue. Antananarivo: Musée d'Art et d'Archéologie de l'Université de Madagasar.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

domenichinijeanpierre 1974Domenichini, Jean-Pierre. 1974. Une contribution nouvelle à l'histoire du Menabe. Jacques Lombard. Taloha 6:177-182.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Menabe,

domenichinijeanpierre 1981Domenichini, Jean-Pierre. 1981. "La plus belle enigme du monde" ou L'historiographie coloniale en question. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 13-14:57-76.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Jean-Pierre Domenichini refutes some of the assumptions and theories of colonial historians and anthropologists concerning Madagascar. He situates colonialism in the subjective frame it belongs to, in the face of the opposing nationalism, but of which both currents proclaim the profound unity of the Malagasy people. He says that "la colonisation, qui s'attribue le mérite d'avoir mis fin aux guerres tribales et d'unifier politiquement - avec la conquête et la pacification de l'époque de Gallieni - et socialement les populations de la Grande Ile, s'oppose au nationalisme et tout à la fois le rejoint, lorsque celui-ci insiste sur l'unité profonde et ancienne de Madagascar et construit l'unité de l'avenir sur celle du passé." (61). According to Domenichini there has been a Malagasy culture on the great island since at the latest 5AD, when according to a glotttochronological study by Vérin et al the divergence commenced.

Selected quotes:

  • "Pour coloniser, il faut connaître les peuples, leur langue, leurs coutumes, leurs mours, savoir quelles sont leurs origines dans le passé, les affinités qu'ils présentent avec d'autres groupes humains" Gallieni in 1902, cité par Henri Poisson (57).

domenichinijeanpierre 1986Domenichini, Jean-Pierre. 1986. Les dieux au service des rois. Histoire orale des Sampin'Andriana ou Palladiums royaux de Madagascar. Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

domenichiniramiaramananabakoly&domenichinijeanpierre 1979Domenichini-Ramiaramanana, Bakoly, and Jean-Pierre Domenichini. 1979. La tradition malgache, une source pour l'histoire de l'océan Indien. Taloha 8:57-81.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

domenichiniramiaramananabakoly 1968Domenichini-Ramiaramanana, Bakoly. 1968. Hainteny d'autrefois, poèmes traditionnels malgaches receuillis au début du règne de Ranavalona I (1828-1861). Haintenin'ny fahiny, voaangona tamin'ny voalohandohan'ny nanjakan-dranavalona I. Antananarivo: Librairie Mixte.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

domenichiniramiaramananabakoly 1977Domenichini-Ramiaramanana, Bakoly. 1977. Le malgache. Essai de description sommaire 1. Paris: SELAF.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

This description of the Malagasy language may be "sommaire," but is for that very reason useful as a reference work. Mme. Domenichini gives an overview of the Malagasy language, which clarifies some important structural and functional matters to the student of the Malagasy language. At the time of writing, I am a beginner-student of the language and have gained many helpful insights from her work. I will certainly return to it many times.
The introduction to this work provides interesting historical and sociolinguistic information and is then followed by four chapters describing the phonic, syntactic, grammatical and lexical elements of the Merina language, which the author says was chosen as topic because of its official status and history.

Selected quotes:

  • La langue officielle, 'malagasy' ou 'gasy', est fondée sur le dialecte 'merina' et l'ensemble des dialectes malgaches appartient au rameau hespéronésien de la branche malayo-polynésienne des langues austronésiennes. Le malgache classique a été transcrit pour la première fois au XVIIIIe siècle dans un alphabet arabico-malgache appelé 'sorabé'. Des trois groupes de dialectes, le groupe central compte le plus de locuteurs, environ la moitié des malgachophones, et à l'intérieur de ce groupe la position la plus centrale est occupée par le betsileo mais l'auteur a choisi de décrire le merina du même groupe, en raison de son statut officiel et de son histoire (9).
  • [En 1974] le malgache (était) (.) l'une des deux langues officielles (la secone étant le français) de l'île de Madagascar et des petites îles qui en dépendent territorialement. Mais son domaine s'étend également à certaines parties des Comores (population parlant soit un patois malgache, soit un sabir swahilo-malgache) et son influence est perceptible dans les créoles français des Mascareignes (15).
  • Plus de 50% des Malgaches sont des adeptes des religions "traditionnelles" (cultes dynastiques, culte des ancêtres, rites de possession, rites agraires, rites de guérison, etc); un peu plus de 40% sont chrétiens ou christianisés; quant aux musulmans, malgré l'importance de l'influence passée de l'Islam-influence encore bien perceptible, de nos jours, en certaines régions-, ce sont essentiellement des immigrants et ils ne constituent que 1,5% de la population.
    Les phénomènes de 'glossolalie' dans les rites de possession étant des phénomènes sans régularité et se limitant de surcroît au français et aux dialectes malgaches, les catholiques abandonnant de plus en plus l'usage du latin, et les anglicans n'"archaïsant" plus (en malgache) que dans les psaumes, sauf à dire que le malgache officiel, là ou il n'est pas langue maternelle, peut apparaître parfois comme une langue liée au christianisme et notamment au protestantisme, on peut affirmer que, des malgachophones, seules quelques minorités utilisent réellement une langue religieuse différente de la langue de relation:-certains groupes vazimba qui utilisent dans les rituels un langage ésotérique 'non-malgache'?, d'une part, et-d'autre part, les musulmans et certains islamisés (16).
  • De fait, le malgache classique que la France coloniale s'efforça d'éliminer chez ses locuteurs d'origine à partir de 1896, était une langue déjà dotée d'une littérature abondante et dont on saisit plus exactement l'importance au fur et à mesure de la découverte de nouveaux manuscrits. Il s'agissait par ailleurs d'une langue qui servait depuis près d'un siècle de langue d'enseignement et de langue d'administration dans les provinces de la monarchie, qui s'étendaient à peu près aux deux tiers de l'île (20).
  • Dans l'état actuel des connaissances, l'on s'entend à reconnaître l'existence à Madagascar de deux ou de trois groupes dialectaux se différenciant essentiellement par la prononciation ( b-v, f-v, f-h, l-r, k-g, k-h, li-di, ti-ci,etc) et le vocabulaire o- la divergence est notamment favorisée par le jeu des interdits. L'intercompréhension est néanmoins assurée dans toute l'île puisque les vocabulaires de base des deux dialectes les plus divergents (sakalava et tambahoaka) présentent encore 60% de mots communs. Ces groupes dialectaux reconnus sont, par ordre d'importance numérique des locuteurs d'origine:
    A. le groupe formé par les dialectes du Centre, de l'Est et du Sud-Est,
    B. le groupe formé par les dialectes de l'Ouest et du Sud,
    C. le groupe formé par les dialectes du Nord, qui est parfois considéré comme un simple sous-groupe de l'un ou de l'autre.
    Cela dit, il n'est pas sans intérêt de noter que, soit que l'on se fonde sur la phonologie, soit que l'on se se fonde sur la lexicostatistique, le dialecte qui occupe la position la plus centrale est le betsilio de Fianarantsoa qui appartient en principe au groupe A (.).
    A l'intérieur du groupe A, le merina appartient au sous-groupe du Centre (merina, betsileo d'Ambositra, betsileo de Fianarantsoa, sihanaka, bezanozano) dont le nombre de locuteurs d'origine représente près de la moitié des malgachophones, les autres sous-groupes étant le sous-groupe de l'Est et le sous-groupe du Sud-Est. Ce qu'on appelle merina comporte lui-même divers parlers correspondant grosso modo aux anciennes principautés qui furent réunies en un seul royaume à la fin du XVIIIe siècle ( Imerina traditionnel, Imamo, Vakinankaratra, etc.) (.) (20-21).
  • La langue classique vieillie est celle qui repose sur le corpus de textes transcrits au XIXe siècle (littérature et tradition orale), tandis que la 'langue classique actuelle' est celle qui est reconnue par l'Académie Malgache (séance du 16 avril 1964) et qui se fonde sur 'l'usage adopté par la majeure partie de nos bons écrivains'. En ce sens, la 'langue classique actuelle' recouvre à peu près les niveaux couramment dénommés 'langue cultivée' et 'langue soignée' (.). C'est une langue qu'on trouve en usage, seule ou concurremment avec le français, dans les églises, dans les prétoires, dans les académies, à l'Université (o- il existe aussi des cours de malgache dialectal) et dans les écoles secondaires (l'enseignement primaire se faisant, selon les directives ministérielles, 'dans la langue que comprennent les enfants', ce qui est normalement interprété comme une invitation à recourir, selon la région, au dialecte qui s'y trouve majoritaire), ainsi que dans la plupart des discours publics (.) (22).
  • Enfin, en ce qui est de l'argot, seul semble être un véritable argot constitué celui des Zoam (.) (23).
  • Dans le domaine de l'écrit, seul le malgache classique est actuellement d'un usage courant dans l'ensemble du pays, à côté du français (.).
    Concernant la transcription des textes dialectaux, des groupes d'études s'attachent actuellement à la recherche d'un système de transcription acceptable par tous (.) (23).
  • Sans conteste au niveau des individus, mais dans une certaine mesure également au niveau de la masse, bilinguisme et plurilinguisme sont à Madagascar des situations courantes, qu'il s'agisse de dialectes ou qu'il s'agisse de langues. Dans un cas comme dans l'autre, le nombre de ceux qui comprennent sans pouvoir s'exprimer est évidemment plus grand que celui de ceux qui possèdent réellement deux ou plusieurs codes (23).
  • Néanmoins, abstraction faite des phénomènes liés à la lutte pour le pouvoir, il résulte de la très proche parenté entre les dialectes que la situation apparaît comme "normale" à l'intérieur du domaine malgache, alors qu'elle apparaît comme "critique" dans le domaine du bilinguisme franco-malgache (.) (24).
  • (.) la rapide malgachisation des Makoa d'origine africaine arrivés à la fin du XIXe siècle et au début du XXe siècle (seuls quelques vieillards parlent encore une langue non-malgache) (.) (18).

domenichiniramiaramananabakoly 1983Domenichini-Ramiaramanana, Bakoly. 1983. Du ohabolana au hainteny. Langue, littérature et politique à Madagascar. Paris: Editions Karthala.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

domenichiniramiaramananabakoly 1985Domenichini-Ramiaramanana, Bakoly. 1985. De quelques aspects du fanjakana Antambahoaka. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 21-22:9-17.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Antambahoaka (Tambahoaka),
Eastern,

doriannancyc 1980Dorian, Nancy C. 1980. Linguistic lag as an ethnic marker. Language in Society 9:33-41.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

Language is seen as an important marker of ethnic identity. Dorian shows that in East Sutherland (Scotland) where the East Sutherland Gaelic mother-tongue is almost the sole marker of fisher folk ethnic identity today, the long-standing component of this ethnicity is a lag in linguistic behaviour in comparison with the rest of the population.

doriannancyc 1987Dorian, Nancy C. 1987. The value of language-maintenance efforts which are unlikely to succeed. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 68:57-67.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

A study of the dying Scottish Gaelic dialect of East Sutherland-north-east Scottish mainland, to determine whether language death can be reversed or stopped.

doriannancyc 1990Dorian, Nancy C. 1990. Small languages and small language communities: News, notes and comments, 5. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 86:157-159.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

Short report on some work done by the Alaska Native Language Center (ANLC) on the indigenous languages of the Eskimo-Aleut family, e.g. in the Yupik branch. The outlook is poor for the Indian languages of Alaska, e.g. Athabaskan. Some salvage work is being done and some recording of texts. The ANLC publishes collections of texts for these severely threatened languages.

doriannancyc 1991aDorian, Nancy C. 1991a. Small languages and small language communities: News, notes and comments. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 88:121-128.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

Reports on an international symposium, held in Germany, from 8-12 January, 1990, on "Language Death in East Africa."

doriannancyc 1991bDorian, Nancy C. 1991b. Small languages and small language communities: News, notes and comments, 6. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 87:121-123.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

This segment focuses on information sources re small language communities, e.g. the organisation "Cultural Survival" and the "Revue Diogène."

doughertyjanetwd 1985Dougherty, Janet W. D. (ed.) 1985. Directions in cognitive anthropology. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

downingpamela 1977Downing, Pamela. 1977. On the creation and use of English compound nouns. Language 53:810-842.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

driverhe 1969Driver, H. E. 1969. Indians of north America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

druryrobert 1896Drury, Robert. 1896. Madagascar or Robert Drurys journal during fifteen years captivity on that island and further description of Madagascar by Abbé Rochon. Ed. S.P. Oliver. London: Seminar Press.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),

druryrobert 1897Drury, Robert. 1897. Madagascar, or, Robert Drury's journal, during fifteen years of captivity on that island. London: T. Fisher Unwin Paternoster Square.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),

duboishenrimarie 1938Dubois, Henri-Marie. 1938. Monographie des Betsileo (Madagascar). Travaux et mémoires de l'institut d'ethnologie 34. Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,

duboishenrimarie 1950Dubois, Henri-Marie. 1950. La religion malgache. Cahiers Charles de Foucauld 21:70-100.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

duboisjean&giacomomathee&guespinlouis&marcellesichristiane&marcellesijeanbaptiste&meveljeanpierre 1982Dubois, Jean, Mathée Giacomo, Louis Guespin, Christiane Marcellesi, Jean-Baptiste Marcellesi, and Jean-Pierre Mével. 1982. Dictionnaire de linguistique. Paris VI: Librairie Larousse.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Linguistics,

dulayheidi&burtm&krashens 1982Dulay, Heidi, M. Burt, and S. Krashen. 1982. Language two. New York: Oxford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

dundesalan 1964Dundes, Alan. 1964. The morphology of American Indian folktales. Folklore fellows communications 195. Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

dundesalan 1965aDundes, Alan. 1965a. Structural typology in north American Indian folktales. In The study of folklore, 206-215, edited by Alan Dundes. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

dundesalan 1965bDundes, Alan (ed.) 1965b. The study of folklore. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

dundesalan 1972Dundes, Alan. 1972. Untitled letter. Current Anthropology 13:92-93.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

dupuisj 1989Dupuis, J. 1989. Jésus-Christ à la rencontre des religions. Jésus et Jésus-Christ 39. Paris: Desclée.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

durantialessandro&goodwincharles 1992Duranti, Alessandro, and Charles Goodwin (eds.) 1992. Rethinking context: Language as an interactive phenomenon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

durantialessandro 1988Duranti, Alessandro. 1988. Ethnography of speaking: Toward a linguistics of the praxis. In Language: The sociocultural context. Linguistics: The Cambridge survey 4, 210-228, edited by J. Newmeyer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

durkheimemile 1912Durkheim, Emile. 1912. Les formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse. Le système totémique en Australie. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Religion,

duttontom 1992Dutton, Tom (ed.) 1992. Culture change, language change. Case studies from Melanasia. Pacific linguistics. Series C: Books 120. Canberra: Australian National University, Dept of Linguistics: Research School of Pacific Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,

dyenisidore 1953Dyen, Isidore. 1953. Review of Otto Dahl, Malgache et Manjaan. Language 29(4):577-590.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dyenisidore 1965Dyen, Isidore. 1965. A lexicostatistical classification of the Austronesian languages (International Journal of Linguistics Memoir 19). Baltimore: Waverly Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Research,
History,
Austronesian,

dyenisidore 1966Dyen, Isidore. 1966. Comment. Oceanic Linguistics 5(1):32-49.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
History,

dyenisidore 1971Dyen, Isidore. 1971. The Austronesian languages and proto-Austronesian. Trends in linguistics. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
History,
Austronesian,

eastmancarolm 1990aEastman, Carol M. 1990a. Dissociation: A unified language-policy outcome for Kenya. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 86:69-85.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

"It is the purpose of this paper to explore one possibility for reconciling the outcomes of each approach in a way that would make sense for public language policy" (69). The two approaches are macro (game-theoretic) and micro (transaction-analytical). "Linguistic dissociation" is proposed, namely that which "decreases the domains in which non-indigenous languages have official sanction." A shift in state policy is suggested, namely a de-emphasis of the two non-indigenous official languages (Standard Swahili from Tanzania and English from Britain and the USA).

Selected quotes:

  • An official language is one used in the business of government. A national language is of a political, social and cultural entity (71).

eastmancarolm 1990bEastman, Carol M. 1990b. What is the role of language planning in post-apartheid south Africa? TESOL Quarterly 24(1):9-21.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

Some good definitions on language planning are given is this article. Eastman discusses the role of language planning in post-apartheid South Africa. She draws a distinction between sociolinguistics and political linguistics and shows the effect these two views have on language planning.

ebobissecarl 1989Ebobissé, Carl. 1989. Dialectometrie lexicale des parlers sawabantu. The Journal of West African Languages 19(2):57-65.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
History,

edmondsonjerolda&feagincrawford&muehlhaeuslerpeter 1990Edmondson, Jerold A., Crawford Feagin, and Peter Mühlhäusler. 1990. Development and diversity. Language variation across time and space. Summer institute of linguistics & the university of Texas at Arlington: Publications in linguistics 93. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

educationaltestingservice 1970Educational Testing Service. 1970. Manual for peace Corps language testers. Princeton, New Jersey: Educational Testing Service.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Research,

edwardsjohn 1994Edwards, John. 1994. Multilingualism. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

edwardsjohn 1999Edwards, John. 1999. Refining our understanding of language attitudes (N1). Journal of language and social psychology 18(1):101-111.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

edwardsjohnr 1985Edwards, John R. 1985. Language, society and identity. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

Selected quotes:

  • Environments change, people move, and needs and demands alter; and it is much more natural for language-use to change, or for linguistic contact to emerge and recede, than to have linguistic stasis. The evidence suggests that it is more reasonable to consider group and individual identity altering, in the face of changing social (and linguistic) environments, than it is to see the abandonment of original or static positions as decay or loss (86).

eggertkarl 1979Eggert, Karl. 1979. Mahafaly as misnomer. Paper prepared in advance for participants in Burg Wartenstein symposium, no 83: human adjustment in time and space in Madagascar, August 18-27, 1979.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

In this paper Karl Eggert discusses eight kinds of social groups that the people living in the Mahafaly region identify with, namely traño, foko, tariha, karazana, ziva, then what he calls cultural groups: local and intra-regional, and gasy. He then discusses the name Mahafale in terms of the meaning and the value of the concept where the people themselves do not relate to it in the way "outsiders" view it. The following quotation sums up his thinking:
"The literature classifies the Mahafaly Region's predominant population as Mahafaly. However, the region's contemporary residents neither call themselves Mahafaly nor claim to be members of an all-encompassing Mahafaly group. They describe themselves, instead, as many different people with membership in many different groups." (20).
His paper provides interesting insights, but some of the main points, such as a group being given a name by outsiders, while the internal consciousness of the group is totally different, could be applied to many other populations of Madagascar.

eggertkarl 1981Eggert, Karl. 1981. Who are the Mahafaly? Cultural and social misidentifications in southwestern Madagascar. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 13-14:149-176.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

This is certainly the best of the three papers by Eggert available on the subject of the cultural identity of the people who live in the Mahafaly region. He enlarged the bibliography and organised the contents of his paper in a more logical way. He restated the "Gasy" identity that he found to exist in the region, by situating it within the larger Malagasy context. This paper comes across as less sectarian than the other two.
On page 166, he says in a footnote by the phrase "Gasy, by their own definition, speak a different language than the rest of Madagascar's people."
"The people's claim stands in contrast to the common assumption that is made in the literature that all of Madagascar's people speak the same language, or at least regional dialects of it (e.g. Deschamps 1965:19, and Rajemsa-Raolison 1966:184). Yet, in an objective, linguistic sense there may be more to what the people say than at first meets the eye. Vérin, Kottak, and Gorlin (1969), using a one hundred item basic word list, found that four major Malagasy "dialects" spoken in the section of Madagascar that Gasy believe to be their homeland, have a shared cognate rate of only 60 to 70% with the Merina dialect of Malagasy, the island's official dialect. Since many linguists draw the line at which different dialects diverge enough to become different languages at a 70% rate of shared cognates (Dyen 1965:18), the language that Gasy speak may indeed be another language." (166).
This quote reflects on the purpose of our study, namely to try and assess degrees of intelligibility among Malagasy "ways of speaking."
However, Eggert's paper does seem a bit naïve in some ways and in particular concerning the issue of "Gasy" as a "cultural group." It is as though his study grant was used up before he could get to the bottom of things and then he was perhaps too quick to document his unverified findings.

eggertkarl 1986Eggert, Karl. 1986. Mahafaly as misnomer. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 321-335, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

This paper is the exact replica of the 1979 unpublished paper by the same author and has been slightly altered since the version published in "Omaly sy Anio" (1981).

ehretrebekka 1997Ehret, Rebekka. 1997. Language attitude and the linguistic construction of ethnic identity: The case of the Krio in Sierra Leone. In Language choices: Conditions, constraints, and consequences. Impact: Studies in language and society 1, 327-337, edited by Martin Pütz. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

elderkinedwardd 1988Elderkin, Edward D. 1988. Patterns of sound in northern Khoisan. African Languages and Cultures 1(2):123-148.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

eliadem 1977Eliade, M. 1977. Traité d'histoire des religions. Paris: Payot.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

elleb 1928Elle, B. 1928. Notes sur les tribus de la province de Farafangana. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache 4:126-123.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Zafisoro,
Tefasy (Antefasy, Antaifasy),
Eastern,
Betsileo,
Central,
Tanala (Antanala),

ellenr 1993Ellen, R. 1993. The cultural relations of classification: An analysis of Nuaulu animal categories from central Seram. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

elliluigi 1988Elli, Luigi. 1988. Dizionario Bara-Italiano. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
Bara Malagasy, Italian
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

The most recent dictionary of the Bara language. A comparison with that of Jensenius (1908) and Peressutti (1969) might reveal some interesting language development.

elliluigi 1993Elli, Luigi. 1993. Une civilisation du bouf: Les Bara de Madagascar. Difficultés et perspectives d'une évangélisation. Collection "Gasikarako". Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

This publication of Luigi Elli's Mémoire de Maîtrise, June 1991, Institut Catholique de Paris, covers many aspects of the Bara civilisation in detail and then discusses, in a second part, certain issues relating to the evangelisation of the Bara.
This work provides an excellent insight into Bara culture, especially as far as culture involves the Zébu. And as the Zébu is involved in every aspect of Bara life, this book covers a large part of it. A quick scanning of the bibliography reveals that most writing concerning the Bara was done in and before the first half of the twentieth century.
Elli introduces his manuscript with an account of "La mort de Rebozaky: un phénomène social total" which is an excellent rencontre with the realities of Bara life and custom. He gives other such accounts, such as "le bilo."
For the purposes of our study, the author's remarks on the importance of the Bara dialect are essential. He mentions that although the people are mostly illiterate, they are deep thinkers. He says that official Malagasy is nothing else but the Merina dialect that was enriched by words from dialects "of the coast" and that although many Bara know it, they don't speak it and consider their own way of speaking to be "real Malagasy." Like French, the Merina way of speaking is that of a stranger.
It is clear that the author knows the Bara people and can be seen as an authority on their way of life.

Selected quotes:

  • Nous avons vu qu'une des raisons qui montrent la religion chrétienne sous un jour défavorable aux yeux des Bara, c'est le fait qu'elle est la religion de ceux qui détenaient et qui détiennent le pouvoir, le 'fanjakana' (.). Les missionnaires, même aujourd'hui, (.) sont souvent pris par les Bara pour des fonctionnaires: 'Hanareo fanjaka' (Vous, du Gouvernement), dit-on à l'adresse du missionnaire, et cela s'entend encore très souvent. Mais les gens du 'fanjakana' ont une mauvaise renommée chez les Bara, à cause de leur corruption (163).
  • Parmi les attitudes qui frappent le plus positivement les Bara il faut compter le respect. Nous avons vu comment ils sont méprisés par les 'civilisés' et par les chrétiens (.). Ce respect, cette sympathie et amitié doivent s'exprimer surtout par un effort de connaissance approfondie et scientifique de leur langue et de leurs us et coutumes (164).
  • Une des tfches les plus importantes pour un missionnaire sera l'étude approfondie et scientifique du dialecte bara (.). Le missionnaire arrivé à Madagascar apprend le malgache officiel (malagasy iombonana), qui n'est pas autre chose que le dialecte merina enrichi de mots provenants des dialectes dits 'côtiers' (165).
  • Le malgache officiel est assez aisément compris par tout le monde dans la Grande Ile, donc aussi par les Bara. Mais très peu parmi eux le parlent. La langue de tous les jours c'est bien le dialecte. Qui parle le 'malagasy iombonana' se présente comme un étranger, et est perçu comme tel par les gens (.). Pour les Bara, comme pour les autres ethnies du sud, c'est leur dialecte qui est la vraie langue malgache (165).
  • (.) mais dès mes premières tournées parmi les Bara je me suis nettement aperçu que la langue officiel que je parlais était un obstacle de plus à la communication (165).
  • (.) un étranger parlant ou s'efforçant de parler leur dialecte les rendait heureux; les portes des maisons, et les cours des personnes, s'ouvrent plus facilement au missionnaire qui parle comme eux, et ils perçoivent cette attention comme une marque d'estime et de respect (165).
  • Ce qu'il faut savoir sur les Bara:
    -le'tatara raza' du clan ou du lignage: l'origine, les noms des chefs les plus représentatifs, les migrations;
    -la structure socio-politique, la place du patriarche;
    -la signification de l'hazomanga;
    -les fomban-draza (naissance, circoncision, mariage, socialisation des enfants, bilo, les rites funéraires); le système religieux;
    -les proverbes et les contes;
    -le bouf et sa place dans la culture bara (166).
  • le lien indissoluble entre le religieux et le social (167).
  • ce serait demander le suicide social que d'exiger d'un chrétien de s'abstenir de la participation à ces rites (168).
  • Sur plus de onze millions d'habitants, la Grande Ile compte aujourd'hui à peu près six millions de chrétiens, toutes confessions confondues, dont plus de la moitié sont catholiques. Les chrétiens sont assez inégalement répartis: si les Merina et les Betsileos des Hauts-Plateaux sont chrétiens presque à 100%, les tribus du sud (Bara, Tandroy, Mahafaly), au contraire, le sont peut-être à 10%, et les Bara le sont moins que les Tandroy (133).
  • Il n'y a pas à proprement parler, un peuple Bara ou une tribu Bara. Ceux qui s'appellent aujourd'hui Bara sont les membres de clans qui ont des origines très disparates, dans l'espace comme dans le temps. Les Bara, avec raison, ne se reconnaissent pas une origine commune. Les Bara actuels sont en grande partie les descendants des sujets des rois de famille Zafimanely. Un autre élément de cohésion d'un peuple c'est la langue. Malgré des différences locales inévitables, la langue bara, avec ses variations régionales, par rapport au malgache officiel, surtout au niveau du lexique et de la prononciation, se distingue assez nettement de la langue parlée par les autres ethnies de la région. Avec un peu de pratique on distingue aisément, à la façon de parler, un Bara d'un Tandroy, d'un Mahafaly, d'un Sakalava, d'un Betsileo, d'un Tesaka ou d'un Tanôsy. Les Bara ont aussi en commun un patrimoine de coutumes (.) (136).
  • Les Tandroy montent vers le nord, qui est mieux arrosé que leur pays. A l'est les Tesaka, les Tanala, les Tanôsy progressent. Les riziculteurs Betsileo ont envahi le nord du pays bara et aujourd'hui on les trouve partout, là o- les conditions géographiques permettent d'avoir de belles rizières. Si plus aucune frontière géographique ne sépare les Bara des autres ethnies, des frontières, assez nettes, d'une autre espèce, existent quand même toujours. Ces frontières sont moins précises dans l'unité de tout le sud de Madagascar (seules la langue, l'histoire et certaines coutumes distinguent les Bara des autres ethnies du sud); elles sont beaucoup plus marquées entre les Bara et les Betsileo (137).
  • L'attachement farouche que les Bara ont pour la tradition ancestrale les fait se méfier de toute nouveauté(.) méfiance envers l'Etat moderne et ses représentants les fonctionnaires et les gendarmes, appellés 'vazaha', c'est-à-dire Blancs, Européens, donc étrangers; mais l'enseignement se heurte également à la méfiance des gens, surtout parce qu'il enlève les jeunes au travail des champs et les empêche d'aller aux pfturages avec les boufs. Même pour ce qui a trait à l'agriculture ou à l'élevage, ils restent attachés à la tradition (.) aussi, (.) la religion chrétienne (.) La vie, et donc la survie du groupe sont liées indissolublement à la fidélité aux 'fomban-draza' (les coutumes ancestrales). Toute atteinte à ces coutumes est une atteinte à la vie du groupe (.) (138).
  • Cinquante ans après (Faublée: la cohésion.) je peux dire que si un affaiblissement de la tradition s'est produit, il est minime et les fomban-draza continuent à régler la vie des Bara (139).
  • Les Bara pensent avoir une responsabilité morale vis-à-vis des générations passées et des générations à venir. Les générations actuellement vivantes ne considèrent pas les fomban-draza comme une propriété dont elles pourraient disposer à leur guise, mais comme un héritage reçu des ancêtres et à transmettre aux générations à venir (139).

elliluigi 1999Elli, Luigi. 1999. Fomba Bara. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

elliluigi 2001Elli, Luigi. 2001. Dictionnaire Bara-Français.

language(s):
Bara Malagasy, French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

ellisstephen 1985Ellis, Stephen. 1985. The rising of the red shawls. A revolt in Madagascar 1895-1899. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

elliswilliam 1838Ellis, William. 1838. History of Madagascar. London: Fisher & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

elliswilliam 1858Ellis, William. 1858. Three visits to Madagascar during the years 1853, 1854, 1856. London: John Murray.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

elliswilliam 1859Ellis, William. 1859. Three visits to Madagascar during the years 1853-1854-1856. London: John Murray.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Religion,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

elliswilliam 1867Ellis, William. 1867. Madagascar revisited. London: John Murray.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

elmendorfwilliamw 1951Elmendorf, William W. 1951. Word taboos and lexical change in coast Salish. International Journal of American Linguistics 17:205-208.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,

emphouxjeanpierre&ramiandrisoaclara 1991Emphoux, Jean-Pierre, and Clara Ramiandrisoa. 1991. Archéologie du sud malgache. Aombe 4. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern,

emphouxjeanpierre 1981Emphoux, Jean-Pierre. 1981. Archéologie de l'Androy. Deux sites iimportants: Andranosoa et le manda de Ramananga. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 13-14:89-97.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Bara,
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

The author presents a report of archaeological research done at two sites. The second, the "manda de Ramananga," dating back to about the 15th-16th century is supported by an interesting tradition found 20Kms from the site, where a Tanala king, Retsiombe told the author that the site was the a fortress built by a Tanala king, Ramananga to defend himself from his enemies the Zafimanely.

ennajimoha 1991Ennaji, Moha. 1991. Aspects of multilingualism in the Maghreb. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 87:7-25.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

Very interesting article on the linguistic situation in the Maghreb - i.e. Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, where classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic, Dialectal Arabic, Berber, French, Spanish and English are used.

erringtonjjoseph 1992Errington, J. Joseph. 1992. On the ideology of Indonesian language development: The state of a language of state. Pragmatics 2(3):417-426.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Austronesian,

Indonesian has become the language of 190 million people, since its beginnings 50 years ago as a "colonial intelligentsia's project." 400 or so distinct ethnic languages are spoken there as well. "As questions about Indonesian's viability fade anew, official rhetoric is arising about threats which the dynamic of national development now poses to Indonesia's ethnic languages and cultures" (417). This article considers the Javanese Language Congress "as a kind of diagnostic event which both embodied and also framed contemporary problems in the political culture of language in Indonesia" (417). Interesting parallels with Madagascar, e.g. "The motto formulated by that young group of intellectuals-one island, one race, one language-hardly rings hollow sixty-three years later" (418).

esoavelomandrosofaranirinav 1976Esoavelomandroso, Faranirina V. 1976. Langue, culture et civilisation à Madagascar: Malgache et français dans l'enseignement officiel (1916-1940). Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 3-4:105-155.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

esoavelomandrosofaranirinav 1977Esoavelomandroso, Faranirina V. 1977. L'attitude malgache face au traîté de 1885. Antananarivo: Université de Madagascar.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

esoavelomandrosofaranirinav 1980Esoavelomandroso, Faranirina V. 1980. De la peste maladie à la "peste politique". Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 11:49-95.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1979Esoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1979. La province maritime orientale du "royaume de Madagascar" à la fin du XIXe siècle (1882-1895). Antananarivo: Imprimerie du FTM.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsimisaraka,
Eastern,

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1985Esoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1985. Les "révoltes de l'est" (novembre 1895-février 1896): essai d'explication. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 21-22:33-46.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern Betsimisaraka (Antatsimo, Tatsimo),
Betsimisaraka,
Eastern,
Northern Betsimisaraka (Antavaratra, Tavaratra),
Betanimena,

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1986aEsoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1986a. L'elevage dit traditionnel, est-il un frein au développement? (L'exemple de l'élevage Mahafale dans le sud-ouest). Recherches pour le Développement. Série Science de l'Homme et de la Société 1:9-13.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

The author finds that the "élevage dit traditionnel" is the type of cattle husbandry that is the best adapted to the present ecological, social economical and political conditions of the region. He argues that rural development in general and that of Mahafale country in particular had been consistently neglected by the government.

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1986bEsoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1986b. L'insécurité dans la province Bara du 'royaume de Madagascar' (1888-1895). Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 23-24:229-237.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,
Merina,
Central,

In this short essay Esoavelomandroso describes the failure of the Merina contingent in Ihosy to "keep the peace" in Ibara (and in parts of Betsileo) between the years 1888-1895. "Sanctuaire pour ceux qui viennent désoler le Betsileo, la province bara est aussi le repaire de tous ceux qui ne reconnaissent pas l'ordre royal merina ou qui le contestent ouvertement" (233). This history may explain the presence of so many Betsileo, Tanala and others among the Bara, people who have been living there for a century or more and consider themselves to be Bara.

Selected quotes:

  • Cette province bara est une terre d'accueil pour des populations qui s'opposent à l'ordre royal. Les Ambiloina, par example, (.) constituent un regroupement instable de populations d'origine diverse. Pour l'essentiel ce sont des groupes de Mavorongo et de Tanala-populations du gradin forestier oriental-ayant quitté leur "pays" depuis longtemps, et établis à l'ouest de l'Isalo, à quinze journées de marche au sud-ouest de Tompoananandrariny pour un détachement de l'armée. Dans leur nouveau "pays," boisé et difficile d'accès, d'où ils partent pour attacker le Betsileo et où ils échappent au contrôle effectif des troupes royales, ces Mavorongo et Tanala, que rééunissent leur habitat commun et leurs activités, se donnent comme nom "Ambiloina." On voit là en gestation l'embryon d'une nouvelle population, prête à s'entendre avec tous ceux qui contestent et combattent le pouvoir royal (233-4).

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1986cEsoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1986c. Milieux naturel et peuplement de l'Androy. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 121-131, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

Esoavelomandroso discusses the relationship between the natural milieu of the arid Androy region and the people who live there. He points out that there is no agreement on the name "Androy" and its derivatives, most authors being convinced that the name "roy" refers to the "thorns" that abound there, another seeing no other meaning in the name Androy than that of it being the homeland of the Tandroy people. The name has only been used since end of the seventeenth century. Northern Androy is a humid region, an area of vast pasturelands and little populated, whereas the area south of the Tsihombe-Ambovombe road is much dryer and suffers from a lack of good water, but contains a relatively larger population than the northern area, because of a more fertile soil. This is the area rich in chalky soil and limestone. The Karimbola and Mahandrovato, who live south of the Ambovombe-Tsihombe-Beloha line claim to be the first inhabitants of the area. Different clans were added to these groups, among which the Zafimanara, who subdued the Mahandrovato, obtained control of the Karimbola and then favoured the immigration of different groups from the east, west and north: Sakalava, Bara and others. The author, who is of Tañalaña origin, ends his discussion on the different immigrations with the following statement: "L'étude de ce peuplement montre aussi que les Antandroy qui tirent leur spécificité de leur histoire et du milieu naturel dans lequel ils vivent, proviennent d'une série de métissages ou de mélanges pluri-séculaires. Est-il encore besoin de préciser la profonde unité du sud qui a contribué au peuplement de l'androy, et par-delà ce sud, l'unité de la culture malgache?" (130).

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1989aEsoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1989a. Notes sur les espaces economiques du Mahafale occidental à la fin du XIXe siècle. Cahiers du Centre de Recherches Africaines 7:147-152.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

Manassé Esoavelomandroso is convinced of the homogeneity of the Tokobeitelo, a confederation of three clans in Western Mahafale, the Tevondrone, Temitongoa and Temilahehe, which he describes in this paper in terms of their mainly agrico-pastoral activities at the end of the nineteenth century. He also describes other resources tapped by these people, such as the sea and the forest and their interaction with slave traders which also shows their community spirit.
The author clarifies terminology which is important for understanding Tokobeitelo society:
raza: this term indicates the grand parents, the ancestors, the group that descends from a common ancestor which is the clan, the hazomanga (post for religious ceremonies) the vilo (earmark of the group's cattle).
famosora: different lineages within a raza or clan.

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1989bEsoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1989b. Territoires et troupeaux des Temitongoa. In Histoire et organisation de l' espace à Madagascar. Cahiers du Centre de Recherches Africaines 7, 47-56, edited by Jean Fremigacci. Paris: CRA.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

A very instructive paper on aspects of Mahafale culture, not referred to as such, but referred to as "Temitongoa," a traditional clannic subgroup among the inhabitants of the Mahafale region. The author gives insightful definitions of terminology used in clear footnotes. Even though the main focus here is on habitat and cattle herding traditions, one acquires a better understanding of human relations in the South.

Selected quotes:

  • Mais depuis quelques décennies, des communautés importantes de Mahafale, dont des Temitongoa, sont implantées hors de l'aire historique: le long de la nationale 7 entre Ankororoke et Andranovory, dans la région d'Ankazoabo, et sur la route de Morombe, entre Manja et Ankililoake. Dans ces enclaves, où elles se trouvent au contact des Tanôsy, des Bara et des Masikoro, elles ont réussi et réussissent encore à assurer la sécurité à leurs troupeaux. Elles ont résisté victorieusement aux voleurs et, dans les zones où les malaso (=cattle rustlers) font ou faisaient la loi, leurs troupeaux étaient préservés. Faut-il voir là un réflexe d'éleveurs ou le résultat d'une cohésion sociale vivante? J'opterai, pour ma part, pour la deuxième possibilité. En effet, les Bara et les Masikoro sont aussi des éleveurs et pourtant, ils n'ont pas eu la même réaction que ces Mahafale émigrés ou les Tandroy.
    Mahafale et Tandroy se sont pris en charge pour défendre leurs troupeaux. Pour cela ils ont puisé dans leur histoire, dans leur culture, les éléments pour renforcer leur cohésion, gage de leur réussite. Sauront-ils ou pourront-ils préserver, sauvegarder et utiliser cette cohésion pour en faire des fondements de leur stratégie, afin d'affronter le monde moderne qui ne semble pas vouloir les prendre comme des partenaires à part entière mais paraît les voir comme obstacles au développement? (56).

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1991aEsoavelomandroso, Manassé (ed.) 1991a. Cohésion sociale, modernité et pression démographique. L'exemple du Mahafale. Aombe 3. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

This edition of Aombe contains as the title indicates, a series of articles pertaining to Mahafale country and the people who live there. It covers the demographic situation, archaeology, rites, the ecology, religion, social organisation and other issues.

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1991bEsoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1991b. La cohésion sociale dans le Mahafale à la fin du xixè siècle. In Cohésion sociale, modernité et pression démographique. Aombe 3, 27-39, edited by Manassé Esoavelomandroso. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

The author describes Mahafale society at the end of the nineteenth century. There was then, according to him "considerable" social cohesion among them. He describes social entities like the raza, discusses the fact that the Mahafale are more like a mosaic of peoples than a united group and that such "unity" is a label made by others, by outsiders. He affirms that the Mahafale have never known a centralised organisation of state.

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1992Esoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1992. Les souverains du Menarandra dans la deuxième moitié du xixe siècle. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:287-298.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

Manassé Esoavelomandroso has cleared up many an assumption regarding the Mahafaly, and in this paper he discusses the history of the southern part of this territory and in particular the fact that European sources have often represented southern Mahafale as the kingdom of the Menarandra, submitting to the authority of one man. The author shows how there was one dominant raza, the Befira, whose cohesion is represented by the mpisoro, who played both a ritual and political role. This dominance did not signify a united kingdom, but rather a loose confederation of interrelated but autonomous entities.

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1995Esoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1995. Les formations politiques dans le Mahafale au xixe siècle. Talily 2:19-27.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

The author discusses the political structures that existed in Mahafale country in the nineteenth century, where there coexisted three or four different kingdoms with a number of autonomous lineage communities (clans), who had their own territories and related independently with these kingdoms, never submitting to any of them. Some alliances existed, but there was no central political cohesion among the inhabitants of Mahafale, perhaps as the author suggests, due to the strong cohesion of each separate lineage. Instead of a more or less harmonious cohabitation among different powers operating in equilibrium for the common good, one finds the affirmation of powers and counter-powers in conflict. This was then easily exploited by the French colonial power, who found the political structures of Mahafale weakened through division.

estradejeanmarie 1985Estrade, Jean-Marie. 1985. Un culte de possession à Madagascar: Le tromba. Paris: L'Harmattan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
South-western,

everssandra&spindlermarc 1995Evers, Sandra, and Marc Spindler (eds.) 1995. Cultures of Madagascar: Ebb and flow of influences. Working papers series 2. Leiden: International Institute for Asian Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

facelinar 1974Facelina, R. 1974. Théologie en situation. Une communauté Chrétienne dans le tiers-monde (Algérie 1962-1974). etude pour le 5e colloque du Cerdic. Strasbourg, 7-8 juin 1974. Université des sciences humaines de Strasbourg. Hommes et eglises 5. Strasbourg: Cerdic-Publications.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
History,

fagerengedvin 1971Fagereng, Edvin. 1971. Une famille de dynasties malgaches. Zafindravola, Maroseraña, Zafimbolamena, Andrevola, Zafimañely. Instituttet For sammenlignende kulturforskning. Serie B: Skrifter 56. Oslo-Bergen-Tromsö: Universitetsforlaget.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Andrevola,
Masikoro,
South-western,
Zafindravola,
Bara,
Southern,

fagerengemile 1947Fagereng, Emile. 1947. Contribution à l'histoire de Madagascar. Histoire de la dynastie Zafindravola. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 26:49-54.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Andrevola,
Masikoro,
South-western,
Zafindravola,
Bara,
Southern,
Zafimanely,
Tsienimbalala,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),

Selected quotes:

  • On n'est pas au clair sur lequel de ces chefs conduisit une partie des Zafindravola, suivis de leurs sujets, les Tsienimbalala, vers leurs nouvelles habitations, mais il semble que les deux frères se soient d'abord établis à Lamatihy, au bord du Fiherena, à environ 120km de Tulear. Andrianomby est enterré à Bevato, au sud de Manera, dans cette même région. Tsimizetse poursuivit l'exode en remontant la rivière Manandone pour se fixer définitivement dans le Mikoboke, à l'ouest de la chaîne d'Analavelona. Il rencontra, à Trokomby, le chef Andrevola Faony. Un autre chef, Redrakake, était déjà partie pour Andakato, près de Manera, Tsimizetse occupa sa résidence vacante, près de Soatana.
    Tsimialo sétait d'abord tabli aux bords de Sakondry, non loin de Tongobory, et il y est enterré. Son fils, Manananto (ou Renanto) partit ensuite pour Mikoboke, il est reconnu comme roi des zafindravola émigrés(par qui-my question). Il occupe en même temps le poste de chef de canton.
    Les zqfindravola émigrés dans le Mikoboke ont toujours vécu en bons termes avec leurs voisins dans l'Ouest, les andrevola, et s'alliaient fréquemment avec eux pour se défendre contre les zafimanely, lorsque ces derniers envahirent le Bara-Imamono.
    Ils ont gardé leur indépendence jusqu'à l'arrivée des troupes françaises d'occupation. A ce moment, ils ont pris le parti de se sauver dans l'Analavelona, mais n'ont pas tardé à faire leur soumission.

fagerengemile 1950aFagereng, Emile. 1950a. Dynastie Andrevola. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 28:136-159.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Masikoro,
South-western,
Bara,
Southern,

Fagereng combines different sources to compile a very insightful history of the Andrevola, complete with a genealogy of the Andrevola chiefs until the turn of the last century. In the process, he draws links with other relevant groups of the time and fills in an essential chronology in the development of the population of Southwest Madagascar. He ends this article with a paragraph that might have suited the audiences of his time, but which sounds grotesque now: "Ainsi se termine le règne, peu glorieux; de la dynastie Andrevola (.). Il était donc temps qu'une grande nation civilisée se substituât à cette dynastie décadente, permettant aux forces civilisatrices et morales de la vieille Europe de réparer les dommages causés jusqu'alors par des trafiquants sans scrupules, et ouvrant à cette contrée une ère nouvelle de prospérité et de progrès" (158).
Sadly, the Southwest of Madagascar is still waiting for this new era of prosperity and progress.

fagerengemile 1950bFagereng, Emile. 1950b. Histoire des Maroseranana du Menabe. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s 28.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Menabe,
Western,

fagerengemile 1981Fagereng, Emile. 1981. Origine des dynasties ayant régné dans le sud et l'ouest de Madagascar. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 13-14:125-140.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Bara,
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

A very sketchy paper, difficult to follow, recounting the traditional origins of four Southern dynasties, all of whom claim "vazaha" ancestry.

fanonyfulgence 1986Fanony, Fulgence. 1986. A propos des Mikea. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 133-142, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mikea,
South-western,
Masikoro,

faridanonana 1977Faridanonana. 1977. Rantimbolana. Diksionera Tsimihety. Antananarivo: Académie Malgache.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tsimihety,
Northern,

faridanonana 1978Faridanonana. 1978. Traits caractéristiques du dialecte Tsimihety. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 54(1-2):23-26.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tsimihety,
Northern,

fasewillem&jaspaertkoen&kroonsjaak 1992Fase, Willem, Koen Jaspaert, and Sjaak Kroon (eds.) 1992. Maintenance and loss of minority languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

fasoldralphw 1984Fasold, Ralph W. 1984. The sociolinguistics of society: Introduction to sociolinguistics, volume I. Language in society 5. Oxford: Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

Ralph Fasold covers the full range of academic activity in the discipline of sociolinguistics. His two volumes of introduction are foundational to any study of linguistics.

fasoldralphw 1990Fasold, Ralph W. 1990. The sociolinguistics of language: Introduction to sociolinguistics, volume II. Language in society 6. Oxford: Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

faubleejacques&urbainfaubleem 1964Faublée, Jacques, and M. Urbain-Faublée. 1964. Quelques interdits 'fali' du sud-ouest de Madagascar. In Civilisation malgache. Série sciences humaines 1, 25-42, edited by Jean Poirier, and Siméon Rajaona. Antananarivo: Université de Madagascar, Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
South-western,

faubleejacques 1941aFaublée, Jacques. 1941a. Dans le sud de Madagascar. Deux ans chez les Bara. In Compte rendu des séances de l'Académie des sciences coloniales, 344-354, edited by Académie des Sciences coloniales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1941bFaublée, Jacques. 1941b. L'élevage chez les Bara du sud de Madagascar. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 11:115-123, pl. IV-V.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1942aFaublée, Jacques. 1942a. L'alimentation des Bara (sud de madagascar). Journal de la Société des Africanistes 12:157-201, pl. IV-VII.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1942bFaublée, Jacques. 1942b. La prière sacrificielle chez les Bara. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 12:259.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1943Faublée, Jacques. 1943. Démographie de Madagascar. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 13:209-213.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

faubleejacques 1946Faublée, Jacques. 1946. Ethnographie de Madagascar. Paris: Ed. de France et d'Outre-Mer - La Nouvelle Edition.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

faubleejacques 1947aFaublée, Jacques. 1947a. L'évolution des sociétés malgaches. La Revue de Madagascar 1947:73-81.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

faubleejacques 1947bFaublée, Jacques. 1947b. Récits Bara. Travaux et mémoires de l'institut d'ethnologie 48. Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1948aFaublée, Jacques. 1948a. A Madagascar: Les villages Bara, site, migration, évolution. Revue de géographie humaine et d'ethnographie 1:36-53.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1948bFaublée, Jacques. 1948b. Villages Bara. Revue de géographie humaine et d'ethnographie 1:36-53.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1950Faublée, Jacques. 1950. La cohésion des sociétés Bara. PhD dissertation. Université de Paris.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1950Faublée, Jacques. 1950. Les esprits helu et leur rôle dans les religions malgaches. Les esprits de la vie à Madagascar. PhD dissertation. Université de Paris.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1951aFaublée, Jacques. 1951a. L'équilibre d'une société malgache traditionnelle: Les Bara. Cahiers Charles de Foucauld 6(21):165-175.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1951bFaublée, Jacques. 1951b. Techniques divinatoires et magiques chez les Bara de Madagascar. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 21:127-138.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1952Faublée, Jacques. 1952. Sources de la littérature malgache. La Revue Française de l'Elite Européenne 36:81-83.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

faubleejacques 1954aFaublée, Jacques. 1954a. La cohésion des sociétés Bara. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

Jacques Faublée reports here on his very thorough research of the Bara people. It seems that he included every conceivable aspect of their existence. Even though this work was published in 1954, much of his insight into the Bara culture and way of life is still useful and extremely valuable to anyone interested in this people. Faublée is still widely quoted in more recent publications.
He does refer to the "perméabilité" of the Bara society, which suggests that some aspects may have changed since he wrote and which emphasizes the need for updating research on the Bara.

Selected quotes:

  • La société Bara ne différent pas des autres sociétés du Sud de Madagascar. Mais les représentations collectives opposent les Bara de vie traditionnelle aux immigrés venant du Nord, riziculteurs, commerçants et chrétiens (130).
  • Les Bara sont définis par le respect des représentations, collectives de leurs ancêtres. Ceci les intègre dans la civilisation de tout le Sud de Madagascar, qui respecte les normes traditionnelles et se méfie des innovations (142).
  • Les normes établies et respectées par les Bara de jadis, suivies encore en 1941 par leur descendants, survivront-elles à l'afflux d'immigrés chrétiens vivant en symbiose avec les pasteurs Bara? (142).
  • Tandruy et Mahafali venant du Sud sont proches des Bara, pasteurs aimant leurs boufs par-dessus tout (.). Souvant des Tanandru (ou Betsiléo) craignant les razzias des autochtones confient leurs troupeaux à des pasteurs bara (129).
  • Les Bara gardent nombre de représentations collectives: pour tous, l'agriculture, indispensable, reste méprisée, il est mieux d'accroître son troupeau et de laisser les terres à des immigrés. Tous dédaignent les travaux techniques et l'artisanat. Le commerce mercantile déshonore, et les Bara l'abandonnent aux émigrés. Ils répugnent à l'école et aux travaux administratifs, étrangers aux usages ancestraux.
    Les Bara attribuent une faible importance au lieu d'habitat qui ne forme que des liens temporaires, l'essentiel est l'origine de la grande famille raza (.).
    L'individu n'existe pas, il n'y a que des personnages éléments du groupe, inséparables de la collectivité familiale (.).
    Le respect de la coutume caractérise la société bara (.).
    Les Bara méprisent les contingences matérielles, s'intéressant avant tout aux éléments idéologiques (.). Dans cette société à base religieuse 'les morts gouvernent les vivants' (.) (136 -7).

faubleejacques 1954bFaublée, Jacques. 1954b. Les esprits de la vie à Madagascar. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Vazimba,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Bara,
Merina,
Central,
Betsileo,

faubleejacques 1959Faublée, Jacques. 1959. Les sociétés malgaches. Origine, formation et évolution. L'année sociologique 3:322-328.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

faubleejacques 1964Faublée, Jacques. 1964. Langue et dialectes malgaches. In Communications et rapports du premier Congrès International de Dialectologie Générale, edited by A. J. van Windekens. Louvain.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

faubleejacques 1965Faublée, Jacques. 1965. Notes sur quelques points de droit coutumier du sud de Madagascar. In Etudes de droit africain et de droit malgache. Etudes malgaches 16, 27-48, edited by Jean Poirier. Paris: Cujas.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern,

faubleejacques 1984Faublée, Jacques. 1984. Les etudes littéraires malgaches de Jean Paulhan. Journal des Africanistes 54(1):79-93.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

faubleejacques 1987Faublée, Jacques. 1987. Le crocodile et l'animal sauveur interdit. In Ethnologiques: Hommages à Marcel Griaule, 111-118, edited by Solange de Ganay, Annie Lebeuf, Jean-Paul Lebeuf, and Dominique Zahan. Paris: Hermann.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

faubleejacques 1992Faublée, Jacques. 1992. Notes sur un clan du sud-est de Madagascar. Journal des Africanistes 62(2):155-160.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,

Some information on the inhabitants of Savan and three neighbouring villages, Satra, Manarivu and Seranambari; research from 1956 - Antemuru, Antetsimetu, Anakara (re: the work of Suzy Bernu: origins of the Antetsimetu clan).

faubleemarcelle&faubleejacques 1950Faublée, Marcelle, and Jacques Faublée. 1950. Pirogues et navigation chez les Vezo du sud-ouest de Madagascar. L'Anthropologie 54:432-454.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,

faurouxemmanuel 1975Fauroux, Emmanuel. 1975. La formation Sakalava ou l'histoire d'une articulation ratée. PhD dissertation. Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

faurouxemmanuel 1987Fauroux, Emmanuel. 1987. Le bouf dans la vie économique et sociale de la vallée de la Maharivo (édition provisoire). Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

faurouxemmanuel 1989Fauroux, Emmanuel. 1989. Le bouf et le riz dans la vie économique et sociale de la vallée de la Maharivo. Aombe 2. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

faurouxemmanuel 1992Fauroux, Emmanuel. 1992. Les structures invisibles du pouvoir dans les villages Sakalava de la vallée de la Maharivo. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:61-74.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

fauveauvincent&fauveauclaire 1984Fauveau, Vincent, and Claire Fauveau. 1984. Mayotte, coutumes et traditions. A la découverte des mahorais. Collection Anchaing. Sainte-Suzanne, Réunion: Editions UDIR.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fayerjoanm&krasinskiemily 1987Fayer, Joan M., and Emily Krasinski. 1987. Native and nonnative judgments of intelligibility and imitation. Language Learning 37(3):313-326.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

feeleyharnikgillian 1978Feeley-Harnik, Gillian. 1978. Divine kinship and the meaning of history among the Sakalava of Madagascar. Man n.s. 13:402-417.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

feeleyharnikgillian 1986Feeley-Harnik, Gillian. 1986. Ritual and work in Madagascar. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 157-174, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

feeleyharnikgillian 1991Feeley-Harnik, Gillian. 1991. A green estate: Restoring independence in Madagascar. Smithsonian series in ethnographic enquiry. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava Analalava,
Sakalava,
Western,

Very insightful work on the Sakalava of the Analalava region.

Selected quotes:

  • The French conquered Madagascar in 1895, or more accurately, subdued diverse Malagasy polities over a period of several years beginning in 1895 (xix).
  • Monarchies flourished in several parts of Madagascar during the precolonial period, encompassing various groups of conquered peoples as well as slaves from Madagascar and Africa. The French abolished the highland monarchy when they conquered the island in 1895, while using members of other royal groups to govern some areas of the provinces through indirect rule. The Analalava region of the northwest coast was such an area. People there included migrants from all over the island who had come at different times for different purposes: the descendants of the Southern Bemihisatra branch of the Zafinimena (Grandchildren of Gold) or Maroserana dynasty, which had once dominated the west coast, as well as descendants of their former followers and slaves. The domains of the 'Sakalava', as they called themselves collectively, were founded in the course of migrations and conquests that lasted from the late 16th through the 19th century. By the early 20th century, Sakalava-the term for one of the eighteen officially recognized ethnies-were not known for moving about like Tsimihety, Merina, or Betsileo, ethnies identified with remnants of other pre-colonial polities. On the contrary, French ethnographers since the turn of the 20th century described the Sakalava as dying out in the face of more vigorous competitors for their land (2).
  • (.) the 'commotion' (rotaka) of 1972, widely seen as a second independence movement toward 'Malgachization' nationwide(2).
  • I conclude in this book that contemporary Malagasy preoccupations with ancestors, attributed to age-old tradition, are a reletavely recent development. The realm of the dead has expanded primarily because, in a complex way involving many different kinds of 'corpses', it has become the hidden abode of production. It is currently the principal place where still unresolved-perhaps unresolvable-struggles over labor and loyalty continue to be carried on, largely outside the law as any of the participants would define it (3).

fergusoncharlesa&slobindanisaac 1973Ferguson, Charles A., and Dan Isaac Slobin (eds.) 1973. Studies of child language development. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

fergusoncharlesa 1959Ferguson, Charles A. 1959. Diglossia. Word 15.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

fergusoncharlesa 1968aFerguson, Charles A. 1968a. Language development. In Language problems of developing nations, 27-35, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

Selected quotes:

  • (.) the use of writing adds another variety of language to the community's repertory. The vocabulary, grammatical structure, and even the phonological structure of the language as used in writing begin immediately, as it were, to have a life of their own. Linguists like to point out that speech is primary and writing secondary and that written language is always in some sense a representation of speech. Although this is true in a general way, (.)the fact is that writing almost never reflects speech in an exact way, written language frequently develops characteristics not found in the corresponding spoken language, and it may change along lines quite different from changes in the spoken language. After the spread of writing, varieties of the spoken language can no longer be described in vacuo; they will interact with the written form to a greater or a lesser degree, and the linguistic analyst must note spelling pronunciations, lexical displacements, and grammatical fluctuations which originate in or are reinforced by written usage.
    It is remarkable that communities, as they begin the regular use of writing, generally do not feel that ordinary, everyday speech is appropriate for written use (29).
  • Sometimes this may be because the community already makes use of a classical language, but sometimes it merely transfers to the new medium some of the attitudes already present in the community toward the language of higher levels of discourse such as formal speeches, religious rituals, and the like. It may be assumed that all speech communities show linguistic differentiation along a casual/non-casual dimension (Voegelin 1960), and many communities will regard the new use of writing as far along the noncasual end, only much later coming to recognize the value of written representation of casual speech (.).
    It is sometimes asserted that the existence of a written variety inhibits language change, thus constituting an important influence for uniformity through time comparable to the kind of regional and social uniformity implicit in standardization (.).
    The second point to be made is that the use of writing leads to the folk belief that the written language is the "real" language and speech is a corruption of it. This attitude seems to be nearly universal in communities which have attained the regular use of writing. It is only the occasional perceptive observer, or in more recent times the professional linguist, who sees the relationship in other terms. To the extent that after the passage of time the written form of the language seems to be the more conservative (.).
    The importance of this folk belief for language development lies in the way it limits the kind of conscious intervention in the form of language planning that the community will conceive of or accept (30).

fergusoncharlesa 1968bFerguson, Charles A. 1968b. St Stefan of perm and applied linguistics. In Language problems of developing nations, 253-265, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fernandezjamesw 1991Fernandez, James W. (ed.) 1991. Beyond metaphor: The theory of tropes in anthropology. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fernandezmf 1970Fernandez, M. F. 1970. Contribution à l'étude du peuplement ancien du lac Alaotra. Taloha 3:3-55.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sihanaka,
Central,

ferrandg 1903Ferrand, G. 1903. Essai de grammaire malgache. Paris: Leroux.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

ferrandgabriel 1904Ferrand, Gabriel. 1904. Madagascar et les îles Uâq-Uâq. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Wakwak,
Other,
Malagasy,

fettermandavidm 1997Fetterman, David M. 1997. Ethnography. Applied social research methods series 17. London: Sage Publications.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

ffkm 1985FFKM. 1985. Tari-dalana momba ny ekiomenisma. Fianarantsoa: Imprimerie St. Paul.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

fiedlerarkady 1946Fiedler, Arkady. 1946. The Madagascar I love. London: Orbis.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

fieldingnigelg 1999Fielding, Nigel G. 1999. The norm and the text: Denzin and Lincoln's handbooks of qualitative method. British Journal of Sociology 50(3):525-535.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Research methodology,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Linguistics,

fielouxmichele&lombardjacques 1987Fieloux, Michèle, and Jacques Lombard. 1987. Elevage et société. Etude des transformations socio-économiques dans le sud-ouest malgache: L'exemple du couloir Antseva. Aombe 1. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Sakalava,
Masikoro,
South-western,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Bara,

fillalwin 1996Fill, Alwin. 1996. Sprachökologie und Ökolinguistik. Tübingen: Stauffenburg.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

firingamichaelignace 1971Firinga, Michaël Ignace. 1971. La dynastie des Maroseranana. Taloha 4:87-97.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

Very interesting observations on the origins of the Sakalava people. This article is a reprinted version of a study that first appeared in the "Revue de Madagascar," Sept 1901, pp. 658-672.

firingamichaelignace 1990Firinga, Michaël Ignace. 1990. Anthropologie vetero-testamenta et vision malgache de l'homme. Recherches et Documents 8:32-53.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

firingamichaelignace 1993aFiringa, Michaël Ignace. 1993a. Christianisme et religions: Approche globale et cas Réunionnais. Recherches et Documents 15:27-51.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Indian Ocean region,
History,

firingamichaelignace 1993bFiringa, Michaël Ignace. 1993b. Considérations sur la politique et le politique. Recherches et Documents 16:1-27.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,

firingamichaelignace 1994Firinga, Michaël Ignace. 1994. La problématique transcendantale selon Karl Rahner. Recherches et Documents 17:33-60.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Religion,

firingamichaelignace 1995Firinga, Michaël Ignace. 1995. La résurrection de Jésus, illustration de l'unité psych-somatique de l'homme. Recherches et Documents 20:27-54.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Religion,

fischerann 1970Fischer, Ann (ed.) 1970. Current directions in anthropology. Washington, DC: American Anthropological Association.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

fishmanjoshuaa&cooperrobertl 1978Fishman, Joshua A., and Robert L. Cooper. 1978. The sociolinguistic foundations of language testing. In Approaches to language testing. Papers in Applied Linguistics. Advances in Language Testing Series 2, 31-38, edited by Bernard Spolsky. Arlington, Virginia: Center for Applied Linguistics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

fishmanjoshuaa&dasguptajyotirindra&fergusoncharlesa 1968Fishman, Joshua A., Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson (eds.) 1968. Language problems of developing nations. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,

A very comprehensive collection of papers on most relevant aspects of language planning issues in the first post-colonial decades.

fishmanjoshuaa&dasguptajyotirindra&jernuddbjoernh&rubinjoan 1971Fishman, Joshua A., Jyotirindra Das Gupta, Bjørn H. Jernudd, and Joan Rubin. 1971. Research outline for comparative studies of language planning. In Can language be planned?, 293-305, edited by Joan Rubin, and Bjørn H. Jernudd. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

This paper suggests, in a practical way, some possible research in the field of language planning.

fishmanjoshuaa&gertnermichaelh&lowyestherg&milanwilliamg 1984Fishman, Joshua A., Michael H. Gertner, Esther G. Lowy, and William G. Milan. 1984. The rise and fall of the ethnic revival: Perspectives on language and ethnicity. Contributions to the sociology of language 37. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fishmanjoshuaa 1964Fishman, Joshua A. 1964. Language maintenance and language shift as a field of inquiry. Linguistics 9:32-70.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

fishmanjoshuaa 1965Fishman, Joshua A. 1965. Who speaks what to whom and when? Linguistique 2:67-88.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

fishmanjoshuaa 1967Fishman, Joshua A. 1967. Bilingualism with and without diglossia, diglossia with and without bilingualism. Journal of Social Issues 23(2):29-38.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

fishmanjoshuaa 1968aFishman, Joshua A. 1968a. Language problems and types of political and sociocultural integration: A conceptual summary. In Language problems of developing nations, 491-498, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

fishmanjoshuaa 1968bFishman, Joshua A. 1968b. Nationality-nationalism and nation-nationism. In Language problems of developing nations, 39-51, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

Selected quotes:

  • Thus the sociocultural nationality and the politico-geographic nation are rarely in phase with each other (42).
  • There are both direct and indirect ties between language and nationism as well as between language and nationalism (43).
  • It is nationalism that views self-identity, group-identity, and self-identity through group-identity as impossible (unthinkable) without a particular language rather than merely without a common language. For nationism, language questions are initially not questions of authenticity (identity) but of efficiency (cohesion) (44).
  • Linguists recognise language differences (whether in phonology, morphology, or syntax) that millions of native speakers consciously or unconsciously ignore (44).
  • Wolff claims that mutual intelligibility is largely a function of intergroup attitudes (44).
  • Differences do not need to be divisive. Divisiveness is an ideologised position and it can magnify major differences; indeed it can manufacture differences in languages as in other matters almost as easily as it can capitalize on more obvious differences. Similarly, unification is also an ideologized position and it can minimize seemingly major differences or ignore them entirely, whether these be in the realm of language, religion, culture, race, or any other basis of differentiation (45).

fishmanjoshuaa 1968cFishman, Joshua A. (ed.) 1968c. Readings in the sociology of language. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

fishmanjoshuaa 1968dFishman, Joshua A. 1968d. Sociolinguistic perspective on the study of bilingualism. Linguistics 39:21-49.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

fishmanjoshuaa 1968eFishman, Joshua A. 1968e. Sociolinguistics and the language problems of developing countries. In Language problems of developing nations, 3-16, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,

This article may be a few decades old, but the issues raised are still relevant.

Selected quotes:

  • Thus language may and has become a symbol of supralocal ethnic-cultural identification at the nationality level (therefore: nationalism), just as it may and has become a symbol of contranational ethnic-cultural identification on the part of smaller groups who, resisting fusion into the larger nationality, develop a localized nationality consciousness of their own (Haugen 1959) (6).
  • Thus the ideologization of languages, which enables them to display desired roles in symbolic mobilization and unification, also leads to the development of these languages per se into fitting instruments of government, technology and High Culture (7).
  • The need for a broader ethnic-cultural unity may well point to the long-term espousal of a given language as the national language. Nevertheless, the immediate operational needs of the country may well necessitate the short-term recognition of another or of multiple languages, which leads away from the long-range goal of creating a new, supralocal authenticity. Thus some nations have hit upon the expediency of recognizing several local languages as permissable for early education (i.e. grades one to three or even six), whereas the preferred national language is retained for intermediate education and a nonindigenous language of international significance is retained (at least temporarily) for governmental activity and higher education. If such a pattern promotes or retains sufficient stability, language policies can subsequently be set in motion to continually develop the preferred language, enabling it to successively displace the language of wider communication above it and, eventually, the languages of narrower communication below it (7).
  • (.)not only are the new nations beset by problems that are clearly language-related, but the earliest stages of these problems are the most fleeting and the ones most difficult to reconstruct by means of archival or laboratory analysis.
    Languages undergo development when their functions undergo real or anticipatory expansion as a result of the expanded role repertories (once more, real or anticipatory) of those for whom these languages have become too symbolic of group membership and of group goals to be easily displaced. Such expansion and symbolic elaboration of language functions has, in recent years, occurred most frequently in developing nations.
    Both nationism and nationalism are concerned with language choice (selection) but in quite different ways. For the nationalist, language represents the continuity of a Great Tradition with all of its symbolic elaborations in terms of ideologized values and goals. Language selection therefore represents a triumph over other, purportedly lesser traditions and goals. Nationalisms do not need to ponder language choice, since each nationalism is seemingly irrevocably and seemingly naturally committed in this connection. Thus nationalisms pursue language reinforcement and maintenance rather than selection per se. For the nationist, however, language choice is a matter of calculated effectiveness, of communicational ease, of operational efficiency (Fishman, 1966b) (9).
  • A study of the social component of developing languages requires more than linguistic sophistication embellished by societal curiosity or sensitivity. It requires thorough familiarity with theories of social change and social innovation and social research methodology (11).
  • (.) language problems of disadvantaged speakers of nonstandard varieties represents another area of growing interaction with sociolinguistics (.). Some of these varieties have already been found to command intragroup moyalty so that the impediments between them and the activization of more standard varieties are not only structural but functional as well and fully ideologized to boot (.). In general, the problems of disadvantaged populations might helpfully be seen in broader perspective if they were considered against a background of coterritorial language differences more generally and of planned language shift in particular (12).

fishmanjoshuaa 1968fFishman, Joshua A. 1968f. Some contrasts between linguistically homogeneous and linguistically heterogeneous polities. In Language problems of developing nations, 53-68, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

Selected quotes:

  • (.) only worldwide-and-diachronic data can hope to answer many of the questions posed by interaction of linguistics and the social-behavioral sciences (53).

fishmanjoshuaa 1970Fishman, Joshua A. 1970. Sociolinguistics: A brief introduction. Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House Publishers.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

fishmanjoshuaa 1971aFishman, Joshua A. (ed.) 1971a. Advances in the sociology of language 1. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

fishmanjoshuaa 1971bFishman, Joshua A. 1971b. The impact of nationalism on language planning. In Can language be planned?, 3-20, edited by Joan Rubin, and Bjørn H. Jernudd. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

fishmanjoshuaa 1971cFishman, Joshua A. 1971c. The sociology of language: An interdisciplinary social science approach to language in society. Advances in the sociology of language. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

fishmanjoshuaa 1972Fishman, Joshua A. 1972. Language and ethnicity in minority sociolinguistic perspective. Multilingual matters 45. Clevedon, Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fishmanjoshuaa 1977Fishman, Joshua A. 1977. Language and ethnicity. In Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations, 15-57, edited by Howard Giles. London: Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fishmanjoshuaa 1978Fishman, Joshua A. 1978. Advances in the study of societal multilingualism. Paris-La Haye: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

fishmanjoshuaa 1987Fishman, Joshua A. 1987. English: Neutral tool or ideological protagonist? A 19th century east-central European Jewish intellectual views English from afar. English World-wide. A Journal of Varieties of English 8(1):1-10.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

fishmanjoshuaa 1991aFishman, Joshua A. 1991a. Putting the 'socio' back into the sociolinguistic enterprise. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 92:127-138.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

In this article, Fishman points to the divide between sociolinguistics and sociology and pleads for graduate studies in sociology to be had together with linguistics, and particularly with sociolinguistics.

fishmanjoshuaa 1991bFishman, Joshua A. 1991b. Reversing language shift. Clevedon, Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fishmanjoshuaa 1997Fishman, Joshua A. 1997. Bloomington, summer 1964: the birth of American sociolinguistics. In The early days of sociolinguistics. Memories and reflexions. SIL International: Publications in sociolinguistics, 87-95, edited by Christina Bratt Paulston, and G. Richard Tucker. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fishmanjoshuaa 1998Fishman, Joshua A. 1998. Language and ethnicity: The view from within. In The handbook of sociolinguistics. Blackwell handbooks in linguistics 4, edited by Florian Coulmas. Oxford: Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fishmanjoshuaa 1999Fishman, Joshua A. 1999. The new linguistic order. Foreign Policy 113:26-40.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

fishmanjoshuaa 2000aFishman, Joshua A. 2000a. Charles A. Ferguson 1921-1998 an appreciation. Journal of Sociolinguistics 4(1):120-129.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

fishmanjoshuaa 2000bFishman, Joshua A. 2000b. English: The killer language? Whole Earth 100:13-15.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

fiskest&taylorse 1991Fiske, S. T., and S. E. Taylor. 1991. Social cognition. New York: McGraw-Hill.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,

flacourtetiennede 1658Flacourt, Etienne de. 1658. Histoire de la grande isle Madagascar. Paris: Alexandre Lesselin.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

flacourtetiennede 1920Flacourt, Etienne de. 1920. Histoire de la grande isle Madagascar, 1642-1660. Collection des ouvrages anciens concernant Madagascar, 9 vols 8-9. Paris: Comité de Madagascar.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

flacourtetiennede 1995Flacourt, Etienne de. 1995. Histoire de la grande isle Madagascar. Edition présentée et annotée par Claude Allibert. Paris: Editions Karthala.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

foleywilliama 1997Foley, William A. 1997. Anthropological linguistics: An introduction. Language in society 24. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fontoynont&roamandahy 1937Fontoynont, and Roamandahy. 1937. La grande Comore. Mémoires de l'Académie malgache 23. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

Interesting information on Malagasy incursions in the Comores.

fontoynont 1910Fontoynont. 1910. La légende des Kimosy. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache 7:51-59.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Kimosy,
Southern,
Bara,

fouchetmp 1981Fouchet, M.-P. 1981. Les peuples nus. Paris: Buchet/Chastel.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

fowlerfloydj 1993Fowler, Floyd J. 1993. Survey research methods. Applied social research methods series 1. London: Sage Publications.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Research,

fraserc&bellugiu&brownr 1973Fraser, C., U. Bellugi, and R. Brown. 1973. Control of grammar in imitation, comprehension and production. In Studies of child language development, edited by Charles A. Ferguson, and Dan Isaac Slobin. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

freedleroyo 1977Freedle, Roy O. (ed.) 1977. Discourse production and comprehension. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,

frenderrobert&lambertwallace 1973Frender, Robert, and Wallace Lambert. 1973. Speech style and scholastic success: The tentative relationships and possible implications for lower social class children. In Sociolinguistics: Current trends and prospects. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 1972, 237-272, edited by Roger W. Shuy. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

freneem 1931Frénée, M. 1931. Madagascar. Guide des colonies françaises. Paris: Societé d'Editions géographiques, maritimes et coloniales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

freres 1958Frère, S. 1958. Madagascar. Panorame de l'Androy. Paris: Editions Aframpe.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

freudenbergerkarenschoonmaker 1998Freudenberger, Karen Schoonmaker. 1998. Brousse, bovins, et bien-être: Une étude sur la gestion des ressources familiales et communautaires dans le village d'Andaladranovao, Madagascar. Rapport d'une étude de cas d'une RRA réalisée du 17 au 22 décembre 1998. Report, LDI. Fianarantsoa.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

freudenbergerkarenschoonmaker 1999aFreudenberger, Karen Schoonmaker. 1999a. Course pour le corridor: Une étude sur l'économie familiale et la gestion de ressources naturelles dans la commune d'Ikongo, Madagascar. Une étude de cas basée sur la recherche MARP, effectuée du 12 au 19 juin 1999. Report, LDI. Fianarantsoa.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

freudenbergerkarenschoonmaker 1999bFreudenberger, Karen Schoonmaker. 1999b. Le corridor coincé: Une étude sur l'économie familiale et la gestion de ressources naturelles dans la commune d'Alatsinainy Ialamarina, Madagascar. Une étude de cas basée sur la recherche MARP, effectuée le 16 au 21 février 1999. Report, LDI. Fianarantsoa.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,

frithjamesr 1980Frith, James R. (ed.) 1980. Measuring spoken language proficiency. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

froidevauxhenri 1903Froidevaux, Henri. 1903. Les Lazaristes à Madagascar. Paris: Poussielgues.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

fuglestadf&simensenj 1986Fuglestad, F., and J. Simensen. 1986. Norwegian missions in African history. Vol. 2: Madagascar. Oslo: Norwegian University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

fullerjanetm 1996Fuller, Janet M. 1996. When cultural maintenance means linguistic convergence: Pennsylvania German evidence for the matrix language turnover hypothesis. Language in Society 25(4):493-514.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

Selected quotes:

  • Convergence involves a change in the selection of the language which sets the morpho-syntactic frame involved in language production. This is called a turnover in the Matrix language (ML) (493).
  • When social factors do not foster either stable bilingualism or language shift, linguistic varieties which Thomason and Kaufman term "nongenetic" (1988:3) may develop (493).
  • Convergence is defined here as the adoption of lexical and structural features from one language into another; thus, it includes, but is more than, lexical borrowing. The mechanism which accounts for convergence is the turnover of the ML in code-switching; before completion of the turnover, there is the intermediate stage of a composite ML (494).
  • Myers-Scotton's MLF model, first developed to explain intrasentential code-switching constraints, contains principles which apply to all language contact phenomena: the System/Content Morpheme distinction, and the Matrix/Embedded Language distinction. While Myers-Scotton does not argue that all language contact phenomena are versions of code-switching, she does argue that they all undergo versions of the same processes. Work has been done in the MLF model on the development of pidgins and creoles., on the structure of interlanguage and the process of L2 acquisition. and on language change.
    A key element of the MLF model is the distinction between system and content morphemes (see Myers-Scotton 199:99-101). Prototypical system morphemes are tense/aspect inflections; prototypical content morphemes are nouns, verbs, and descriptive adjectives.
    A second assumption basic to the MLF model is that the languages involved in code-switching do not contribute equally to the discourse. The ML sets the morpho-syntactic frame; the other language(s) involved in code-switching, I.e. the EL(s), provide content morphemes in mixed constituents.
    Two principles of the MLF model are crucial to this analysis. First, the Morpheme Order Principle states that, in mixed constituents, the morphemes will appear in an order which is well-formed for the ML. Second, the System Morpheme Principle states that all syntactically relevant system morphemes will come from the ML (Myers-Scotton 1993:7).
    For an EL content morpheme to appear in an ML frame, there must be sufficient CONGRUENCE between the two morphemes. If there is not, an EL "island" or bare form will appear. Congruence is defined as a correspondence of lexical-conceptual features, predicate-argument structure, and morphological realization patterns.
    For the label ML to be meaningful in a linguistic analysis, the ML and EL must interact in language production. Often, this interaction is code-switching; indeed, code-switching is claimed to be the catalyst for an ML turnover.
    An important issue underlying the assumption that code-switching leads to convergence is the much-debated distinction between code-switching and borrowing. The position taken here is that, while the two phenomena differ, they are related, and they comply with the same linguistic principles. Within the MLF model, the assumption is that code-switching leads to borrowing (Myers-Scotton 1993:174) . (496).
  • Along the path to a turnover, a composite language emerges which carries features of the two languages in contact, the original ML and EL (510).

galindodletticia 1995Galindo, D. Letticia. 1995. Language attitudes toward Spanish and English varieties: A Chicano perspective. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 17(1):77-100.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gallaghercharlesf 1980Gallagher, Charles F. 1980. North African problems and prospects: Language and identity. Language Problems and Language Planning 4(1):129-150.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gallienijosephs 1900Gallieni, Joseph S. 1900. La pacification de Madagascar (opérations d'octobre 1896 à mars 1899). Ouvrage rédigé d'après les archives de l'Etat-Major du Corps d'Occupation par F. Hellot, capitaine du Génie. Paris: Chapelot.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gallienijosephs 1905Gallieni, Joseph S. 1905. Madagascar de 1896 à 1905. I: Rapport du général Gallieni, gouverneur général, au ministre des colonies (30 avril 1905). II: Annexes au Rapport du général Gallieni. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gallimoreronald&tharprolandg 1981Gallimore, Ronald, and Roland G. Tharp. 1981. The interpretation of elicited sentence imitation in a standardized context. Language Learning 31(2):369-392.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

gaoge&schmidtkarenl 1994Gao, Ge, and Karen L. Schmidt. 1994. Strength of ethnic identity and perceptions of ethnolinguistic vitality among Mexican Americans. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 16(3):332-342.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

Selected quotes:

  • The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between strength of ethnic identify and perceived group vitality. Mexican Americans in the Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan are perceived English and Anglos as more vital than Spanish and Mexican Americans. Ethnic identity had a significant influence on perceived in-group vitality but not on perceived out-group vitality. Respondents who strongly identified their ethnic group, perceived their group's vitality to be higher than did those who identified less strongly with their ethnic group. First language did not influence vitality perceptions.

gardenierwilliamjg 1986Gardenier, William J. G. 1986. Divination and kinship among the Sakalava of west Madagascar. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 337-351, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

gardinbernard&marcellesijeanbaptiste 1980Gardin, Bernard, and Jean-Baptiste Marcellesi. 1980. Sociolinguistique. Approches, théories, pratiques 1-2. Rouen: Université de Rouen.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

gardmmdu 1934Gard, M. M. du. 1934. Le voyage de Madagascar. Paris: Flammarion.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gardnerrc 1979Gardner, R. C. 1979. Social psychological aspects of second language acquisition. In Language and social psychology. Language in society 1, 193-220, edited by Howard Giles, and Robert N. St Clair. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

garennealbert 1918Garenne, Albert. 1918. La forêt tragique: récit authentique. Paris: Plon-Nourrit.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gasssusan&varonisevangelinemarlos 1984Gass, Susan, and Evangeline Marlos Varonis. 1984. The effect of familiarity on the comprehensibility of nonnative speech. Language Learning 34(1):65-89.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

gattie 1980Gatti, E. 1980. Temi biblici sulla Missione. Missione oggi. Bologna: EMI.

language(s):
Italian
topic(s):
Religion,
History,

gaudinfrancois 1994Gaudin, François. 1994. Pour une socioterminologie. Rouen: Université de Rouen.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

gaulmefrancois 1992Gaulme, François. 1992. Tribus, ethnies, frontières. Afrique Contemporaine 164:43-49.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

A discussion of the terms "tribu," "ethnie," and how these have changed over time. Interesting exposure of the prejudice that calls the problems of the South African Zulu nation "tribalism," whereas the problems of the Slovaks and the Croats in Eastern Europe are in the league of "nationalism." Some good arguments in the light of the term 'ethnie,' "being one of the least theorised notions in the anthropological and ethnological discipline" (43).

gautieref 1898Gautier, E. F. 1898. Western Madagascar: Its geology and physical geography. The Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine 22:137-148.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Western,

gautieremilefelix 1902Gautier, Émile Félix. 1902. Madagascar: essai de géographie physique. Thèse pour le Doctorat, présentée à la Faculté des Lettres de l'Université de Paris. Paris: B. Challamel.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

geelenemile&botkeesde 1986Geelen, Emile, and Kees de Bot. 1986. Dialectverlies op individueel niveau. Taal en Tongval 38:172-184.

language(s):
Dutch
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

geertsguido&broeckjefvanden&nootensjohan 1978Geerts, Guido, Jef van den Broeck, and Johan Nootens. 1978. Flemish attitudes towards dialect and standard language: A public opinion poll. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 15:33-46.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

Interesting report on a public opinion poll about the attitudes of the Flemish community towards dialect and standard Dutch.

geertzc 1963Geertz, C. 1963. Old societies and new states: The quest for modernity in Asia and Africa. Glencoe, Illinois: Free Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

geffrec 1984Geffre, C. 1984. Théologie et choc des cultures. Colloque de L 'institut Catholique de Paris. Cogitatio Fidei 121. Paris: Cerf.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

geffrec 1988Geffre, C. 1988. Le Christianisme au risque de l'interprétation. Cogitatio Fidei 120. Paris: Cerf.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

geigerricharda&rudzkaostynbrygida 1993Geiger, Richard A., and Brygida Rudzka-Ostyn (eds.) 1993. Conceptualizations and mental processing in language. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,

genetteg 1980Genette, G. 1980. Narrative discourse: An essay in method. Translated by J.E. Lewin. New York: Cornell University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,

genetteg 1982Genette, G. 1982. Figures of literary discourse. Translated by 1. Sheridan. New York: Columbia University.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,

genetteg 1988Genette, G. 1988. Narrative discourse revisited. Translated by J E Lewin. New York: Cornell University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,

genetteg 1992Genette, G. 1992. The architext. Translated by J E Lewin. Berkeley: University of California Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,
Linguistics,

gennepavan 1904Gennep, A. van. 1904. Tabou et totémisme à Madagascar. Etude descriptive et théorique. Paris: E. Leroux.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gerbinisml 1964Gerbinis, M. L. 1964. La langue malgache: Enseignée suivant la méthode directe, livre 2. Cours publics professés à Tananarive. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Nationale.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gernboecklotte 1958Gernböck, Lotte. 1958. Die Krankheiten bei den Eingeborenen Madagaskars ethnologisch und ethno-medizinisch betrachtet. PhD dissertation. Universität Wien.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gernboecklotte 1961aGernböck, Lotte. 1961a. Bericht Über Eine Studienreise nach Madagaskar von März bis Oktober 1961. Wiener Völkerkundliche Mitteilungen 9(1-4):69-71.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

gernboecklotte 1961bGernböck, Lotte. 1961b. Zur Frage der Kleinwüchsigen in Madagaskar. Archiv für Völkerkunde 16:23-28.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gernboecklotte 1962aGernböck, Lotte. 1962a. Dringende Forschungsaufgaben in Madagaskar. Bulletin of the International Committee on Urgent Anthropological and Ethnological Research 5:45-47.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Research,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gernboecklotte 1962bGernböck, Lotte. 1962b. Mohair aus Madagaskar. Confrontation. Afrika-Asien-Europa 2(2):16-18.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

gernboecklotte 1965aGernböck, Lotte. 1965a. Beiträge Zur Kennttnis von Ehe- und Familiensitten in Madagaskar. Mitteilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft 95:49-54.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gernboecklotte 1965bGernböck, Lotte. 1965b. Die Vazimbafrage. Anzeiger der philosophisch-historischen Klasse der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 102:86-92.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vazimba,
Western,

gernboecklotte 1966aGernböck, Lotte. 1966a. Im unerforschten Madagaskar. Wien-Munchen: Jugend und Volk.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gernboecklotte 1966bGernböck, Lotte. 1966b. Quelques observations dans un village Mahafaly-Karimbola. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 42(2):25-28.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,
Karimbola (Karembola),

gernboecklotte 1967aGernböck, Lotte. 1967a. Die Vazimba. Bulletin of the International Committee on Urgent Anthropological and Ethnological Research 9:27-30.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vazimba,
Western,

gernboecklotte 1967bGernböck, Lotte. 1967b. Vorläufiger Bericht Über Eine Völkerkundliche Forschungsreise nach Madagaskar. Anzeiger der philosophisch-historischen Klasse der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 104:8-l2.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

giesbersherman 1986Giesbers, Herman. 1986. Code switching, dialectverlies en dialectbehoud. Taal en Tongval 38:128-145.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

gileshoward&bourhisrichardyvon&taylordonaldm 1977Giles, Howard, Richard Yvon Bourhis, and Donald M. Taylor. 1977. Towards a theory of language in ethnic group relations. In Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations, 307-349, edited by Howard Giles. London: Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gileshoward&couplandnikolas 1991Giles, Howard, and Nikolas Coupland. 1991. Language: Contexts and consequences. Buckingham: Open University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gileshoward&johnsonp 1981Giles, Howard, and P. Johnson. 1981. The role of language in ethnic group relations. In Intergroup behavior, 199-243, edited by J. C. Turner, and Howard Giles. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gileshoward&johnsonp 1987Giles, Howard, and P. Johnson. 1987. Ethnolinguistic identity theory: A social psychological approach to language maintenance. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 68:69-99.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gileshoward&stclairrobertn 1979Giles, Howard, and Robert N. St Clair (eds.) 1979. Language and social psychology. Language in society 1. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

gileshoward 1977Giles, Howard (ed.) 1977. Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations. London: Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gintherpaul&nouraultjeanclaude 1970Ginther, Paul, and Jean-Claude Nourault. 1970. Madagascar. Antananarivo: Editions Tout pour I'Ecole.

language(s):
French, English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

This author obviously loved Madagascar. Some excellent photos of the Madagascar that was 35 years ago. Some facts haven't changed. Good background reading.

gintzburgeralphonse 1982Gintzburger, Alphonse. 1982. Accommodation to poverty: The case of the Malagasy peasant communities. Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines 23:419-442.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

An attempt to explain the accommodation of poverty in Malagasy peasant communities, as an oral-sadistic fixation in Freudian terms. Some interesting thoughts on the existence of e.g. the mpaka-fo myth and on the importance of firaisana and the occurrence of witchcraft as a means to check progress, as well as on the rituals and beliefs concerning the ancestors.

giveletnoel 1978Givelet, Noël. 1978. The fokonolona of Madagascar or the expression of a collective spirit. Ceres 63:31-37.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

glausciuszjosie 1997Glausciusz, Josie. 1997. The ecology of language. Discover 18(8):30.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

goedefroitsophie 1992Goedefroit, Sophie. 1992. Analyse des coutumes d'ensevelissement des corps chez les Sakalava du Menabe: Manifestations d'ordre lignager et affirmation d'une hierarchie sociale. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:223-234.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Menabe,

goedefroitsophie 1998Goedefroit, Sophie. 1998. A l'ouest de Madagascar: Les Sakalava du Menabe. Collection "hommes et sociétés". Paris: Editions Karthala.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern Sakalava,
Sakalava,
Western,
Sakalava Menabe,
Vezo,
Masikoro,
South-western,

gohinolivier&mauricepierre 1992Gohin, Olivier, and Pierre Maurice (eds.) 1992. Mayotte: Actes du Colloque Universitaire tenu à Mamoudzou les 23 et 24 avril 1991. St Denis: Université de la Réunion: Fac de Droit et des Sciences Economiques et Politiques.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,

gontardmarc&braymaryse 1996Gontard, Marc, and Maryse Bray (eds.) 1996. Regards sur la francophonie. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

gorterdirk 1987Gorter, Dirk. 1987. Surveys of the Frisian language situation: Some considerations of research methods on language maintenance and language shift. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 68:41-56.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

gowbonaralexander 1979Gow, Bonar Alexander. 1979. Madagascar and the Protestant impact: The work of the British missions, 1881-1895. London: Longman & Dalhousie University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

goyaugeorges 1933Goyau, Georges. 1933. Les grands desseins missionnaires d'Henri de Solages. Le Pacifique - L'Ile Bourbon - Madagascar. Paris: Librairie Plon.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gracegeorgew 1966Grace, George W. 1966. Austronesian lexicostatistical classification: A review article. Oceanic Linguistics 5(1):13-57.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
History,
Austronesian,

graeberdavid 1997Graeber, David. 1997. Painful memories. Journal of Religion in Africa 27(4):374-400.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

grandidieralfred&grandidierguillaume 1891Grandidier, Alfred, and Guillaume Grandidier. 1891. Funeral ceremonies among the Malagasy. The Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine 15:304-320.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

grandidieralfred&grandidierguillaume 19081928Grandidier, Alfred, and Guillaume Grandidier. 1908-1928. Ethnographie de Madagascar. 4 vols. Histoire physique, naturelle et politique de Madagascar 4. Paris: Societé d'Editions géographiques, maritimes et coloniales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

grandidieralfred 1971Grandidier, Alfred. 1971. Souvenirs de voyages (1865-1870) d'après son manuscrit inédit de 1916. Documents anciens sur Madagascar 6. Tananarive: Association Malgache d' Archéologie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

grandidierguillaume&decaryraymond 1958Grandidier, Guillaume, and Raymond Decary. 1958. Histoire politique et coloniale: Histoire des populations autres que les merina. Fascicule I: Betsileo, Betsimisaraka, AnTanôsy, Sihanaka, Tsimihety, Bezanozaro, Antanala, Antankarana, Bara, Mahafaly, Antandroy. Histoire physique, naturelle et politique de Madagascar 5. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,
Bara,
Sihanaka,
Central,
Bezanozano,
Betsileo,
Tsimihety,
Northern,
Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana),
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,
Betsimisaraka,

grandidierguillaume&petitg 1932Grandidier, Guillaume, and G. Petit. 1932. Zoologie de Madagascar. Paris: Societé d'Editions géographiques, maritimes et coloniales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

grandidierguillaume 1899Grandidier, Guillaume. 1899. Mours des Mahafaly. La Revue de Madagascar 1(3):175-185.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

grandidierguillaume 1902Grandidier, Guillaume. 1902. Dans le sud de Madagascar. Mission Grandidier. La Revue de Madagascar 4(3):219-224.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern,

grandidierguillaume 1942Grandidier, Guillaume. 1942. Histoire politique et coloniale: De la découverte de Madagascar à la fin du règne de Ranavalona Ière (1861). Histoire physique, naturelle et politique de Madagascar 5. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

grandidierguillaume 1956Grandidier, Guillaume. 1956. Histoire politique et coloniale: Histoire des Merina (1861-1897). Histoire physique, naturelle et politique de Madagascar 5. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

greenbergjosephh 1956Greenberg, Joseph H. 1956. The measurement of linguistic diversity. Language 32:109-115.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

grenoblelenore&whaleylindsay 1996Grenoble, Lenore, and Lindsay Whaley (eds.) 1996. Language loss and community response. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

grijnscd 1995Grijns, C. D. 1995. Don Kulick, language shift and cultural reproduction, socialization, self and syncretism in a Papua new Guinean village. Cambridge/new York/Victoria: Cambridge university press, 1992. Bijdragen Tot de Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde 151:150-151.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

grilloralph 1989aGrillo, Ralph. 1989a. Anthropology, language, politics. In Social anthropology and the politics of language. The sociological review 36, 1-24, edited by Ralph Grillo. London and New York: Routledge.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

grilloralph 1989bGrillo, Ralph (ed.) 1989b. Social anthropology and the politics of language. The sociological review 36. London and New York: Routledge.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

Selected quotes:

  • In their different ways, linguistic anthropologists, 'sociolinguists' (such as Labov in the United States and Trudgill in Britain) and 'sociologists of language' (outstandingly Fishman and Haugen) have each helped rescue language from the transformationalists (3).

grimesbarbaraf 1986Grimes, Barbara F. 1986. Evaluating bilingual proficiency in language groups for cross-cultural communication. Notes on Linguistics 33:5-27.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,
Anthropology and ethnology,

grimesbarbaraf 1987Grimes, Barbara F. 1987. How bilingual is bilingual? Notes on Linguistics 40:3-23.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

grimesbarbaraf 1988aGrimes, Barbara F. 1988a. On bilingual proficiency thresholds. Notes on Scripture in Use 16:1-10.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

grimesbarbaraf 1988bGrimes, Barbara F. 1988b. Why test intelligibility? Notes on Linguistics 42:39-64.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

grimesjosephe 1988Grimes, Joseph E. 1988. Interpreting sample variation in intelligibility tests. In Synchronic and diachronic approaches to linguistic variation and change. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 1988, 138-146, edited by Thomas J. Walsh. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

grimesjosephe 1994Grimes, Joseph E. 1994. Systematic comparison in language surveys. Notes on Literature in Use and Language Programs Special issue 3:30-47.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Research,
History,

grimesjosephe 1995Grimes, Joseph E. 1995. Language survey reference guide. Dallas, Texas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

grimesjosephe 1998Grimes, Joseph E. 1998. The logic of survey information. Notes on Linguistics 3(2):71-82.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Quantitative research,
Research,
Qualitative research,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

grimshawallenday 1971Grimshaw, Allen Day. 1971. Sociolinguistics. In Advances in the sociology of language 1, 92-151, edited by Joshua A. Fishman. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

grimshawallenday 1988Grimshaw, Allen Day. 1988. Sociolinguistics vs sociology of language: Tempest in a teapot or profound academic conundrum? In An international handbook of the science of language and society 1-2, 9-15, edited by Ulrich Ammon, Norbert Dittmar, and Klaus J. Mattheier. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

grimshawallenday 1997Grimshaw, Allen Day. 1997. Origins and milestones. In The early days of sociolinguistics. Memories and reflexions. SIL International: Publications in sociolinguistics, 101-112, edited by Christina Bratt Paulston, and G. Richard Tucker. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
History,

grimshawallenday 1998Grimshaw, Allen Day. 1998. What is a 'handbook of sociolinguistics'? Journal of Sociolinguistics 2(3):432-445.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

grinfrancois 1992Grin, François. 1992. Towards a threshold theory of minority language survival. Kyklos 45(1):69-98.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

grottanellivl 1965Grottanelli, V. L. 1965. Ethnologica. L'uomo e la civilità. 3 Vol. Milano: Labor.

language(s):
Italian
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

gudschinskysarah 1956Gudschinsky, Sarah. 1956. The ABC's of lexicostatistics. Word 12:175-210.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,
History,

gudykunstwilliamb&hallb&schmidtkarenl&tingtoomeys 1989Gudykunst, William B., B. Hall, Karen L. Schmidt, and S. Ting-Toomey. 1989. Language and intergroup communication. In Handbook of international and intercultural communication, 145-162, edited by M. Asante, and William B. Gudykunst. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gudykunstwilliamb&schmidtkarenl 1988Gudykunst, William B., and Karen L. Schmidt. 1988. Language and ethnic identity: An overview and prologue. In Language and ethnic identity, 1-14, edited by William B. Gudykunst. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gudykunstwilliamb 1988Gudykunst, William B. (ed.) 1988. Language and ethnic identity. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

guerinmichel 1969Guérin, Michel. 1969. Les transformations socio-économiques de l'Androy. Antananarivo: Université de Madagascar.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

guerinmichel 1977Guérin, Michel. 1977. Le défi: L'Androy et l'appel à la vie. Collection "Gasikarako". Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

Anyone interested in the Tandroy people of Madagascar, should read this work. Michel Guérin wrote about his experiences in Androy with understanding and with respect. This is not an academic work, but is an excellent source.

gueuniernicole 1992Gueunier, Nicole. 1992. Le français langue d'Afrique. Présence Francophone 40.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

gueuniernoeljacques&raharinjanaharysolo 1993Gueunier, Noël Jacques, and Solo Raharinjanahary. 1993. Vocabulaire médical d'après l'enquête de l'Académie malgache de 1912. Atlas linguistique et ethnographique de Madagascar. Travaux préliminaires 3. Strasbourg: Université des Sciences Humaines.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gueuniernoeljacques&raharinjanaharysolo 1998Gueunier, Noël Jacques, and Solo Raharinjanahary. 1998. Raki-pandihana: Etudes de linguistique, d'anthropologie et de littérature malgaches offertes au Professeur Siméon Rajaona. Fianarantsoa: Editors.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gueuniernoeljacques&raharinjanaharysolo&rasoamalalavaoclaire 1992Gueunier, Noël Jacques, Solo Raharinjanahary, and Claire Rasoamalalavao. 1992. Une enquête sur les noms des parties du corps. Atlas linguistique et ethnographique de Madagascar. Travaux préliminaires 1. Strasbourg: Université des Sciences Humaines.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gueuniernoeljacques 1985Gueunier, Noël Jacques. 1985. Contes de la côte ouest de Madagascar. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Makoa,
Masikoro,
South-western,

gueuniernoeljacques 1986Gueunier, Noël Jacques. 1986. Lexique du dialecte malgache de Mayotte (comores). Etudes Océan Indien 7. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gueuniernoeljacques 1988Gueunier, Noël Jacques. 1988. Dialectologie et lexicostatistique: Cas du dialecte malgache de Mayotte (comores). In Linguistique de Madagascar et des Comores. Etudes Océan Indien 9, 143-116, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Research,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Kibushi (Shibushi),
Other,

gueuniernoeljacques 1992aGueunier, Noël Jacques. 1992a. La genèse de l'homme blanc. Récits d'origine du sud-ouest de Madagascar. In Le scribe et la grande maison. Etudes Océan Indien 15, 227-244, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
South-western,

gueuniernoeljacques 1992bGueunier, Noël Jacques. 1992b. Une copie de la lettre de Tsiomeko, reine des Sakalava, à Louis-Philippe, roi des français (1840). Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:513-524.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

gueuniernoeljacques 1993aGueunier, Noël Jacques. 1993a. "Aucune langue n'est indigne de louer Dieu". Poèmes Musulmans malgaches en dialecte Sakalava (deuxième recueil). Transcrits et traduits par NJ Gueunier. In Religions. Etudes Océan Indien 16, 87-103, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

Some interesting remarks in the introduction to the poems.

Selected quotes:

  • D'ailleurs on se moque de ceux dont la conversion n'est que superficielle en les appelant des "Silamo kofia, " des "Musulmans seulement par le bonnet" (.) (88).
  • A Madagascar comme dans bien d'autres contrées, l'islam populaire est mêlée de pratiques magiques diverses: astrologie, divination, commerce des amulettes, etc. Les Musulmans partout qu'une toute petite minorité, se voient attribuer par la superstition populaires des pouvoirs extraordinaires de guérisseurs et de magiciens (88).
  • L'emploi du malgache pour des chants religieux a besoin d'une justification. Il se heurte en effet à une vive opposition des musulmans traditionalistes: toute traduction en langue vulgaire est dès l'abord ressentie comme un risque de trahison du message divin, exprimé de manière parfaite et inimitable dans le Coran, révélé "en claire langue arabe. " (89).
  • Les Malgaches musulmans zanatany, les "enfants de la terre," ou "enfants du pays" forment aujourd'hui une communauté qui a ses institutions-précisément la confrérie shadhuli, implantée en terre malgache depuis les dernières années du XIXe siècle par le sheikh Ahmad al-Kabir. Quant à la langue, elle n'a rien d'indigne en elle-même (.). On peut et on doit en user pour "mikosifo Ndranahary" "faire la louange de Dieu. " (89).

gueuniernoeljacques 1993bGueunier, Noël Jacques. 1993b. L'arche de Noë dans l'Océan Indien, un thème d'origine de l'homme dans les contes malgaches et Comoriens. In Religions. Etudes Océan Indien 16, 145-169, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gueuniernoeljacques 1994Gueunier, Noël Jacques. 1994. Les chemins de l'Islam à Madagascar. Paris: L'Harmattan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana),
Northern,
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,
Anjoaty,

gueuniernoeljacques 1995Gueunier, Noël Jacques. 1995. La maladie et la guérison chez les Masikoro de la région de Tulear (sud-ouest de madagascar) diagnostiquer et guérir. Thèse de Bertin Ramamonjisoa. In Diagnostiquer et guérir à Madagascar. Etudes Océan Indien 19, 115-119, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Masikoro,
South-western,

gumperzjohnj 1964Gumperz, John J. 1964. Linguistic and social interaction in two communities. American Anthropologist 66:37-53.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

gumperzjohnj 1968Gumperz, John J. 1968. Types of linguistic communities. In Readings in the sociology of language, 460-472, edited by Joshua A. Fishman. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

This article has not lost any of its relevance for the study of speech communities, but presents some very solid, very valuable thinking on the topic.

Selected quotes:

  • In a very relevant paper on Language Communities Gumperz (1968:463). says that "linguistic distribution within a social or geographical space is usually described in terms of speech communities" referring to Bloomfield and shows that many studies of "speech communities" deal with a "single language and its dialects and styles," that "bilinguals are said to 'bridge speech communities' (quoting Hockett, 1958). Gumperz points out that bi- or multilingualism seems to be the rule in many societies and that there is therefore no "a priori grounds which force us to define speech communities so that all members speak the same language" (463). He cites Weinreich (1953) referring to Yiddish speech communities of Eastern Europe as "bilingual speech communities" and his own 1961 and Martinet's 1954 work showing that "from the point of social function the distinction between bilingualism and bidialectalism is often not a significant one" (463). Gumperz employs the term "linguistic community" as an areal concept, defining it as a social group which may be either monolingual or multilingual, held together by frequency of social interaction patterns and set off from the surrounding areas by weaknesses in the lines of communication. Linguistic communities may consist of small groups bound together by face-to-face contact or may cover large regions, depending on the level of abstraction we wish to achieve.
    Social communication within a linguistic community may be viewed in terms of functionally related roles, defined according to Nadel (1957, 31ff.) as "modes of acting allotted to individuals within a society." (463).
  • Gumperz calls "communication matrix" the collection of communication roles within a society, for his purposes indicating "only those roles or role clusters which corellate with significant speech differences" (464). He also speaks of the "code matrix" which represents the set of codes and subcodes, i.e. the "dialects or styles of the same language" (subcodes) and "genetically distinct languages" (codes), a linguistic distinction which does not "necessarily correspond to a difference in social function" (464). The criterion for a code to be included "in a study of a linguistic community is that its exclusion will produce a gap in the communication matrix.

gumperzjohnj 1982Gumperz, John J. 1982. Language and social identity. Studies in interactional sociolinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

guthriemalcolm 19671971Guthrie, Malcolm. 1967-1971. Comparative Bantu: An introduction to the comparative linguistics and prehistory of the Bantu languages. 4 vols. Farnborough: Gregg International.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
History,

guygregoryr&baughjohn&feagincrawford&schiffrindeborah 1995Guy, Gregory R., John Baugh, Crawford Feagin, and Deborah Schiffrin (eds.) 1995. Towards a social science of language. Papers in honor of William Labov. Volume I: Variation and change in language and society. Amsterdam studies in the theory and history of linguistic science 127. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

haarmanharald 1980aHaarman, Harald. 1980a. Multilingualismus (1): Probleme der Systematik und Typologie. Tübinger Beiträge zur Linguistik 116(1).

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

haarmanharald 1980bHaarman, Harald. 1980b. Multilingualismus (2): Elemente einer Sprachökologie. Tübinger Beiträge zur Linguistik 116(2).

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

haarmanharald 1986Haarman, Harald. 1986. Language in ethnicity. A view of basic ecological relations. Contributions to the sociology of language 44. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

Selected quotes:

  • As language is involved in interethnic relations, it is only a language-oriented view of ecology which can provide the key for understanding ethnicity and its place in the network of ecological relations (2).
  • Language ecology is not specified as a special subject or area of language sociology. The ecology of language is not a field of research with a limited sphere of application or of objects investigated. Rather it is based on principles of sociolinguistic analysis. Thus language ecology is valuable as a methodology in the sociology of language dealing as it does with the principles underlying the sociological study of language (2).
  • One can view language ecology as an attempt to find ecological principles applicable to the social study of language, an attempt to construct models of ecological relations for the purpose of elaborating a general theory about such relations. With such a theory, language ecology could serve as an integrating research perspective, one which promises progress in reaching the general goal of sociolinguistic studies. If one shares the view of Grimshaw that this general goal is the examination of the interaction of language structure and social structure and of the interimplications of speech behavior and social behavior (1971:93) then the application of ecology related principles is likely to become a favoured methodology for sociologists (3).
  • Language ecology should cover the whole network of social relations which control the variability of languages and their modal speakers' behavior (3).

haarmanharald 1990Haarman, Harald. 1990. Language planning in the light of a general theory of language: A methodological framework. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 86:103-126.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Language ecology,
Sociolinguistics,

Outlines the functional ranges of language planning and the methodological implications necessary for theory making, etc. Three elementary ranges of language-planning activities have to be distinguished, (1) corpus planning (2) status planning and (3) prestige planning. Interesting article for a basic theory of language planning, especially concerning demographic factors (p.109). Excellent outlines.

Selected quotes:

  • As one of its subdivision, language planning is of great significance to sociolinguistics, but so far its theoretical foundation is only poorly developed (.) (103).
  • In language planning, all activities which are directed at the structure of a language (I.e. its corpus) and at its status appear in the light of prestige values which form a network of evaluations and attitudes (105).

halekennethl&craigc&englandn&kraussm&masayesvajeannel&watahomigiel&yamamotoa 1992Hale, Kenneth L., C. Craig, N. England, M. Krauss, Jeanne L. Masayesva, L. Watahomigie, and A. Yamamoto. 1992. Endangered languages. Journal of the Linguistic Society of America 68(1):1-42.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

An excellent motivating article on endangered languages and the "rescue" of such.

halekennethl 1996Hale, Kenneth L. 1996. Universal grammar and the roots of linguistic diversity. In Papers on language endangerment and the maintenance of linguistic diversity. The MIT working papers in linguistics 28, 137-161, edited by Jonathan David Bobaljik, Rob Pensalfini, and Luciana Storto. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

hallbergcalindae&olearyclaref 1992Hallberg, Calinda E., and Clare F. O'Leary. 1992. Dialect variation and multilingualism among Gujars of Pakistan. In Hindko and Gujari. Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan 3, 91-194, edited by Calvin R. Rensch, Calinda E. Hallberg, and Clare F. O'Leary. Islamabad: National Institute of Pakistan Studies and Summer Institute of Linguistics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Language assessment,
Research,
Social sciences - other,

halle 1976Hall, E. 1976. Beyond culture. New York: Doubleday.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

halversonaltonco&ellertsoncarrollf 1973Halverson, Alton C. O., and Carroll F Ellertson. 1973. Madagascar: Footprint at the end of the world. Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

hamayanelse&markmanbarbarar&pelletiersusanne&tuckergrichard 1978Hamayan, Else, Barbara R. Markman, Susanne Pelletier, and G. Richard Tucker. 1978. Differences in performance in elicited imitation between French monolingual and English-speaking bilingual children. International Review of Applied Linguistics 16(4):330-339.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

hameljacques 1993Hamel, Jacques. 1993. The case study in sociology: The contribution of methodological research in the French language. Canadian Review of Sociology & Anthropology 30(4).

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

A very clear, convincing argument for the appropriateness of the case study approach in sociology, on condition that the objectives of the study are clearly formulated.

hamelrainerenrique 1997Hamel, Rainer Enrique. 1997. Language conflict and language shift: A sociolinguistic framework for linguistic human rights. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 127:105-134.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

handfestc 1950Handfest, C. 1950. Histoire du fisakana. Antananarivo: Imprimerie de l'Emyrne.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

hardymanjamestrenchard 1950Hardyman, James Trenchard. 1950. Madagascar on the move. London: Livingstone Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

harrieslyndon 1968Harries, Lyndon. 1968. Swahili in modern east Africa. In Language problems of developing nations, 415-429, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Swahili,
Indian Ocean region,

haspelmathmartin&koenigekkehard&oesterreicherwulf&raiblewolfgang 2001Haspelmath, Martin, Ekkehard König, Wulf Oesterreicher, and Wolfgang Raible (eds.) 2001. Language typology and language universals. 2 vols. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

hatchevelyn&farhadyhossein 1982Hatch, Evelyn, and Hossein Farhady. 1982. Research design and statistics for applied linguistics. Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House Publishers.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Research,

hatchmaryjo 1996Hatch, Mary Jo. 1996. The role of the researcher: An analysis of narrative position in organization theory. Journal of Management Inquiry 5(4):359-375.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Social sciences - other,
Research,
Linguistics,

Explores the role of the researcher in terms of "narrative position," showing how traditional ethnography and modernist organizational theory has placed the researcher on the outside of the study object.

hatfielddeborah&lewismpaul 1996Hatfield, Deborah, and M. Paul Lewis. 1996. Surveying ethnolinguistic vitality. Notes on Literature in Use and Language Programs 48:34-47.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,
Anthropology and ethnology,

hattorishiro 1953Hattori, Shirô. 1953. On the method of glottochronology and the time depth of proto-Japanese. Gengo Kenkyu (Journal of the Linguistic Society of Japan) 22-23:29-77.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
History,

haugeneinar 1968Haugen, Einar. 1968. The Scandinavian languages as cultural artifacts. In Language problems of developing nations, 267-284, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

haugeneinar 1972aHaugen, Einar. 1972a. Author's postscript. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 340-343, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

haugeneinar 1972bHaugen, Einar. 1972b. Construction and reconstruction in language planning: Ivar Aasen's grammar. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 191-214, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

haugeneinar 1972cHaugen, Einar. 1972c. Dialect, language, nation. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 237-254, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Dialectology,
Sociolinguistics,

Haugen clarifies the terms " language" and "dialect" in terms of their history, the first entering the English language from French which had it from the Latin "lingua" in the twelfth century. "Dialect" was a loanword from Greek since the Renaissance. Greece knew no unified norm during classical times and referred to the closely related and written regional forms, each one with a specialized literary use descended from a previous common Greek usage. Subsequently "Greek" was to refer to a convergence of these dialects, the Greek koiné. The Greek situation became the model for all later usage of the terms "language" and "dialect." The term "language" comprises the idea of the result of historical convergence of dialects, which in its turn could be the result of divergence from a common language. French added the term "patois" to indicate "degraded dialects," but in English the term "dialect" has had to carry every sense.
Some of the confusion with the two terms stem from the fact that it is sometimes used in "structural" sense, (i.e. descriptive of the language itself) and at other times in a "functional" sense, that is, in terms of the social uses in communication.

haugeneinar 1972dHaugen, Einar. 1972d. Language and immigration. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 1-36, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

haugeneinar 1972eHaugen, Einar. 1972e. Language planning in modern Norway. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 133-147, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

haugeneinar 1972fHaugen, Einar. 1972f. Language planning, theory and practice. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 287-298, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

haugeneinar 1972gHaugen, Einar. 1972g. Linguistics and dialinguistics. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 299-306, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

haugeneinar 1972hHaugen, Einar. 1972h. Linguistics and language planning. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 159-190, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Language ecology,
Sociolinguistics,

haugeneinar 1972iHaugen, Einar. 1972i. National and international languages. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 255-264, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

haugeneinar 1972jHaugen, Einar. 1972j. Problems of bilingualism. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 59-78, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

haugeneinar 1972kHaugen, Einar. 1972k. Problems of linguistic research among Scandinavian immigrants in America. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 37-58, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

haugeneinar 1972lHaugen, Einar. 1972l. Schizoglossia and the linguistic norm. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 148-158, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

haugeneinar 1972mHaugen, Einar. 1972m. Semicommunication: The language gap in Scandinavia. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 215-236, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Research,
Anthropology and ethnology,

haugeneinar 1972nHaugen, Einar. 1972n. The analysis of linguistic borrowing. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 79-109, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

haugeneinar 1972oHaugen, Einar. 1972o. The confusion of tongues. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 110-132, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

haugeneinar 1972pHaugen, Einar. 1972p. The ecology of language. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 325-339, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

haugeneinar 1972qHaugen, Einar. 1972q. The stigmata of bilingualism. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 307-324, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

haugeneinar 1987Haugen, Einar. 1987. Blessings of Babel: Bilingualism and language planning. Problems and pleasures. Contributions to the sociology of language 46. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

healeyalan 1964Healey, Alan. 1964. Handling unsophisticated linguistic informants. Pacific linguistics. Series A: Occasional papers 2. Canberra: Linguistic Circle of Canberra Publications.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

Some good advice given on aspects of surveying, although in a different era. The PR tips are very good.

hebertjeanclaude 1958Hébert, Jean-Claude. 1958. Couleurs et robes de boufs dans l'Ambongo. Bulletin de Madagascar 36:223-240.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

hebertjeanclaude 1960Hébert, Jean-Claude. 1960. Quelques notes sur les Marques d'oreilles de boufs. Naturaliste Malgache 12:167-179.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

hebertjeanclaude 1962Hébert, Jean-Claude. 1962. Recherches sur l'histoire et la civilisation malgaches. Bulletin de Madagascar 191:339-352.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

This is a follow-up article on Bulletin no 172 of 1960, pp 809-820 and presents in maps the results of the survey done. It represents another attempt at clarifying the mystery of the origins of the first inhabitants of Madagascar. Hébert feels that the Bara and the Sakalava are the best representatives of the first Indonesians to land in Madagascar. He surveyed the dialectal forms during seven months out of twelve.

hebertjeanclaude 1965Hébert, Jean-Claude. 1965. La cosmographie ancienne malgache suivie de l'enumeration des points cardinaux et l'importance du nord-est. Taloha 1:83-195.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,

hebertjeanclaude 1971aHébert, Jean-Claude. 1971a. Madagascar et Malagasy. Histoire d'un double nom de baptême. Bulletin de Madagascar 302-303:583-613.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

hebertjeanclaude 1971bHébert, Jean-Claude. 1971b. Notes sur les Vazimba du Betsiriry. Bulletin de Madagascar 304:721-733.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vazimba,
Western,

hebertjeanclaude 1992aHébert, Jean-Claude. 1992a. Le droit et le crochu: Les concepts de "droit" et de "justice" en malgache d'après la sémantique diachronique. In Le scribe et la grande maison. Etudes Océan Indien 15, 69-92, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

hebertjeanclaude 1992bHébert, Jean-Claude. 1992b. Le problème des aborigènes de Mayotte: Les Shi-bushi. In Mayotte: Actes du Colloque Universitaire tenu à Mamoudzou les 23 et 24 avril 1991, 51-73, edited by Olivier Gohin, and Pierre Maurice. St Denis: Université de la Réunion: Fac de Droit et des Sciences Economiques et Politiques.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Kibushi (Shibushi),
Other,

hebertm 1960Hébert, M. 1960. Les calendriers provinciaux malgaches. Bulletin de Madagascar 172:809-820.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

heckeledouard 1910Heckel, Edouard. 1910. Les plantes utiles de Madagascar. Marseille: Annales du Musée colonial de Marseille.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

hendricksdebby&johnsonm&scholzg&spurlingr&vandenburgl 1980Hendricks, Debby, M. Johnson, G. Scholz, R. Spurling, and L. Vandenburg. 1980. Oral proficiency testing in an intensive English language program. In Research in language testing, 77-90, edited by John W. Oller Jr., and K. Perkins. Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House Publishers.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

henninggrant 1983Henning, Grant. 1983. Oral proficiency testing: Comparative validities of interview, imitation and completion methods. Language Learning 33(3):315-332.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

herfurthhans 1972Herfurth, Hans. 1972. Zur Lexicostatistique in Anwendung auf malaiopolenesische Sprachen. Orbis: bulletin international de documentation linguistique 21(1):479-519.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Research,
History,
Austronesian,

heseltinenigel 1971Heseltine, Nigel. 1971. Madagascar. London: Pall Mall Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

heurtebizegeorges 1981Heurtebize, Georges. 1981. Les progressions démographique et spatiale chez les Antandroy vues à travers le clan des Afomarolahy. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 13-14:113-121.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Afomarolahy,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

George Heurtebize presents here an excerpt from his very detailed study on the Afomarolahy, published later in book form. He explains very clearly the hierarchy among Tandroy lineages, giving examples to illustrate. He points out that the Afomarolahy form part of the Renivave (or Renive) group of Antandroy and constitutes, together with the Afondriambita and the Afomilaha, the three main subgroups of Renivave. In marriage, a man may take a wife from his own lineage or from a different Afomarolahy line, or from a different clan within the Renivave or, more rarely, from a non-Renivave group, but always respecting the rule of belonging to the same generation from the furthest ancestor. The author makes interesting applications from his detailed studies, such as the calculation that based on information collected and present numbers of Afomarolahy, one can project that three centuries before, there were very few of them (a small family) who started off the migratory process from the South (well known in oral traditions), by the mouth of the Manabovo River and later, when the population increased, moved further northwards in search of open land.
It should be feasible to record the full history of the Tandroy and other peoples, working backwards, as this researcher has done with one group.

Selected quotes:

  • Le territoire dénommé Androy ne correspond pas à une unité géologique ou géographique; à ces points de vue il présente au contraire des caractères fort diversifiés. La définition de l'Androy est purement humaine: c'est la patrie des Antandroy. Aussi ses limites ne sont-elles pas absolument fixes, mais tendent-elles à s'écarter toujours davantage en suivant l'expansion de la population antandroy. Actuellement ces limites s'établissent sensiblement à l'ouest le long de la rivière Menarandra, à l'est au pied des chaînes anosyennes à partir de l'embouchure du fleuve Mandrare, au nord suivant une ligne sinueuse passant à Bekily et au sud de Beraketa; non que, au nord de cette ligne, il n'y ait plus d'Antandroy, mais ils n'y sont plus seuls. Pour un habitant des environs d'Antanimora, au centre de la région envisagée, la limite nord de l'Androy se situe une vingtaine de kilomètres au sud de Beraketa. Pourtant, s'il doit faire un voyage vers le sud, vers Tsihombe ou Beloha, il dira: "Nous partons dans l'Androy"; ce qui sous-entend qu'en fait, il ne considère pas la région qu'il occupe comme faisant partie de l'Androy véritable.
    C'est qu'en effet toute la région centrale de l'Androy actuel est d'occupation récente. On peut même dire qu'elle reste encore maintenant en voie de colonisation ou d'appropriation, car d'année en année on y voit apparaître de nouveaux villages. L'histoire des déplacements récents peut être étudiée et précisée à partir d'un groupe bien défini (.)(113).
  • Les Afomarolahy font partie du groupe des Renivave, ou Renive, le plus important sans doute des divers groupes antandroy, au moins par son extension géographique. Les Renivave occupent en effet une région allongée en Sud-Nord sur 70km environ, commençant 20 à 30 km au nord de Tsihombe et allant au nord presque jusqu'à la limite de l'Androy. Les Renivave se divisent en plusieurs sous-groupes dont les trois plus importantes sont les Afomarrolahy, les Afondriambita et les Afomihala. Les Afomarolahy sont les plus nombreux. L'effectif des Afondriambita est plus réduit, celui des Afomihala davantage encore (115).
  • Les Afomarolahy occupent la partie sud du territoire des Renivave. Leurs derniers villages ne dépassent guère au nord la latitude d'AndalaTanôsy. Ils s'étendent donc sur une bande de terrain longue d'une cinquantaine de kilomètres, et dont la largeur est d'une vingtaine de kilomètres entre la rivière Manambovo à l'ouest et la grande route de Fort-Dauphin à l'est.
    Le premier arbre généalogique (.) concerne le village d'Analamahery, situé 20km au nord-ouest d'Antanimora. Il s'étend sur huit générations. Il comporte, en plus des noms des maillons de la chaîne familiale, les noms des conjoints ou des conjointes avec le clan et le village d'origine, et l'emplacement des tombeaux. Cet arbre génalogique recouvre la totalité d'un groupe qui se dénomme les Maromainty. La filiation se faisant en ligne patrilinéaire, à chaque génération les femmes nées d'un père maromainty sont elles-mêmes maromainty, mais leurs enfants, si elles se marient en dehors du groupe, ne le sont pas eux-mêmes: ils n'apparaissent donc pas dans l'arbre généalogique des Maromainty, mais dans les arbres généalogiques des groupes voisins (.).
    La première génération (de Maromainty) est représentée par un homme unique, Tsimiantoa, qui a dû naître vers 1800; la deuxième génération par ses trois fils, (.) (115).
  • (.) Actuellement les Maromainty, hommes et femmes, sont environ 300, vivant tous dans le village d'Analamahery, à l'exception, bien entendu, des femmes mariées dans d'autres villages et de ceux qui sont partis chercher du travail dans de lointaines régions de Madagascar (émigration en général temporaire, mais dans certains cas cependant quasi définitive) (116).
  • (.) Tsimiantoa avait trois frères qui ont fait souche de la façon que lui. Leur descendants peuplent plusieurs agglomérations qui forment le long village d'Antanandava, 4km à l'ouest d'Analamahery. De même que Tsimiantoa est l'ancêtre unique des Maromainty, Tsimagnola est l'ancêtre unique des Marofoty, Taindraza l'ancêtre unique des Marotsontsa, et Voriay l'ancêtre unique des Tebagnake. Le père des quatre frères est donc, lui, l'ancêtre unique des quatre branches, que recouvre le nom général de Tandranatelo. Tous les Tandranatelo, au nombre de 1000 environ, sont donc des cousins plus ou moins éloignés. C'est bien ainsi qu'ils se ressentent, comme des parents proches (.). Les Tandranatelo possèdent pour eux tous un seul poteau sacré hazomanga.
    (.) Mais revenons maintenant aux Afomarolahy. Les Tandranatelo sont en effet un de la quinzaine de lignages qui constitue le clan des Afomarolahy. Certains de ces lignages sont plus importants que celui des Tandranatelo, d'autres moins (.). Un des lignages les plus fournis est celui des Marokobo (.) (qui) peuplent quatre gros villages dispersés du sud au nord de l'aire couverte par les Afomarolahy. De même que les Tandranatelo sont divisés en quatre sous-lignages, les Marokobo, et aussi les autres lignages des Afomarolahy, sont également subdivisés. Mais quel que soit le nombre de ses membres et la dispersion actuelle de ses implantations, chaque lignage ne possède qu'un seul poteau sacré hazomanga (sauf accident temporaire provenant par exemple de querelle à l'intérieur d'un lignage) devant lequel tout le monde se retrouve pour le Savatse,la cérémonie préparatoire à la circoncision (117).
  • Tous les Afomarolahy ont conscience d'être apparentés, alors que l'appartenance au groupe plus vaste des Renivave avec les Afondriambita et les Afomihala ne paraît pas susciter à l'égard de ces derniers un sentiment de réelle parenté. Tous, disent-ils, ont un ancêtre commun. Le nom d'Andriamarolahy est souvent prononcé, mais le souvenir des filiations entre Andriamarolahy et les ancêtres situés à la racine de chaque lignage s'est perdu. Sauf peut-être chez un vieil homme (né vers 1890), habitant près de Jafaro et nommé Fanambinae, ou plus couramment Imbina. Il est dépositaire d'une tradition orale qui donne ce qui serait le fond généalogique commun à tous les Afomarolahy. Andriamarolahy serait un Bara Zafemaroza venu avec cinq fils de la région de Vangaindrano. Tous ont été accueillis par le roi antandroy des Temagnorikandro, qui habitait la région de Faralambo, à l'embouchure de la Manambovo. Les cinq fils se sont mariés là, et sont à l'origine des Afomarolahy (.) (117).
  • (.) Il faut cependant noter que deux lignages, même s'ils se considèrent comme entièrement Afomarolahy, se sont adjoints aux descendents d'Andriamarolahy sans en descendre eux-mêmes. Il s'agit des Tandranatelo et des Tantsaha. L'ancêtre des Tandranatelo est en réalité un Bara qui, avec son cousin, l'ancêtre des Tantsaha, est venu prendre femme parmi les Afomarolahy. Les descendants de ces deux hommes se sont intégrés complètement au clan. Mais pour les calculs de progression démographique, il faut donc soustraire ces deux lignages de la descendance réelle d'Andria marolahy-encore qu'ils en descendent cependant, mais par les femmes (118).
  • (.) dès (l'époque de Tsimiantoa) existait la complète liberté de choix qui préside encore maintenant à la conclusion des mariages. C'est-à-dire qu'un homme peut prendre comme épouse dans son propre lignage une parenté très proche (cousine germaine) ou une cousine plus éloignée; ou bien une parenté plus lointaine dans un autre lignage des Afomarolahy; ou bien une fille d'un autre clan que les Afomarolahy à l'intérieur des Renivave; ou bien enfin, plus rarement, une "étrangère" appartenant à un autre groupe, non Renivave. La seule règle, qui est et a toujours été respectée, est que les conjointes doivent appartenir à la même génération à partir de l'ancêtre commun, si éloigné soit-il. C'est d'ailleurs un excellent moyen de contrôler les uns par les autres les arbres généalogiques des différents lignages, en vérifiant que les multiples mariages qui y apparaissent de l'un et de l'autre n'enfreignent pa cette règle (119).
  • (.)Le village d'Analamahery a été créé vers 1920, en terrain libre, ce qui ne veut pas dire que personne auaravant n'avait occupé ces parages. Sans remonter au peuplement très ancien qui n'apparaît dans aucune tradition orale, mais dont on trouve de nombreuses traces archéologiques, une vague antandroy au moins avait précédé dans cette région les actuels occupants. Il s'agissait de forgerons qui ont laissé de nombreux témoins de leur travail et que la tradition dit avoir été des Tebekitro, qui sont ensuite partis vers l'ouest, ou ils ont fondé le village de Bekitro.
    Les parents et grands-parents des vieillards actuels avaient connu plusieurs étapes avant d'arriver à Analamahery, la plus importante de beaucoup étant celle d'Andragnanivo, 30 km au sud d'Antanimora. Tous les lignages afomarolahy, qui à cette époque ne s'étaient pas encore dispersés, ont fait en commun une longue station à Andragnanivo, et ce lieu est considéré par tous comme la "terre des ancêtres" par excellence (.) (119).
  • (.) Les noms des diverses étapes sont restés dans la mémoire de beaucoup (.) Successivement: Antsera, puis Kobaignabo, (.) puis Lahabe, 8 km au sud-est d'Andragnanivo, où beaucoup d'ancêtres ont leur tombeaux, enfin Andragnanivo (.). Tous les Afomarolahy sont restés groupés jusqu'à Andragnanivo. La dispersion des divers lignages à partir d'Andragnanivo a commencé un peu avant 1900, pour cause de pression démographique (.). Les hameaux créés il y a 40 à 60 ans sont devenus autant de villages, et l'on comprend pourquoi chacun de ces villages, encore maintenant, constitue une seule grande famille dont tous les individus trouvent place sur un arbre généalogique unique (120).
  • En résumé, les Afomarolahy, initialement petite famille habitant près de la mer à l'embouchure de la Manambavo, ont progressivement remonté vers le nord, en restant groupés, jusqu'à Andragnanivo. C'est de là qu'après une longue station s'est faite vers 1900, sous la poussée démographique qui imposait à chaque groupe d'aller plus loin chercher de nouvelles terres, la dispersion des lignages sur le vaste territoire (.).
    (.) les voisins des Afomarolahy ont connu des cheminements comparables, c'-est-à-dire qu'ils sont partis de l'embouchure de la Manambovo pour remonter vers le nord. C'est en particulier le cas des Afondriambita (dont l'ancêtre est venu de l'Anosy) et des Afomihala, Renivave comme les Afomarolahy, et qui ont habité Andragnanivo avec ces derniers. C'est aussi le cas des Milahe, les voisins actuels des Afomarolahy de l'autre côté de la Manambovo, qui ont été longtemps des ennemis contre qui se livraient des batailles meurtrières (120).

heurtebizegeorges 1986aHeurtebize, Georges. 1986a. Histoire des Afomarolahy (clan Tandroy, extrème-sud de madagascar). Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Afomarolahy,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Karimbola (Karembola),

Georges Heurtebize produced an easy-to-read ethnographic reference work of the Tandroy, referring to history, and describing their customs, their way of life, etc., with an analytical index for quick reference. Although, as the title indicates, this work concerns mainly the Afomarolahy clan, one gains from it an excellent understanding of the Tandroy people in general.

heurtebizegeorges 1986bHeurtebize, Georges. 1986b. Les anciennes cultures de l'androy central. Taloha 10:171-179.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

This article was written in 1979, recording the first archaeological finds pointing to the ancient inhabitants of Central Androy.

heurtebizegeorges 1986cHeurtebize, Georges. 1986c. Quelques aspects de la vie dans l'Androy. Travaux et documents 24. Antananarivo: Musee d'art et d'archeologie, Universite de Madagascar.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

heurtebizegeorges 1997Heurtebize, Georges. 1997. Mariage et deuil dans l'extrème-sud de Madagascar. Collection repères pour Madagascar et l'océan Indien. Paris: L'Harmattan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

hinskensfrans&kallenjeffreyl&taeldemanjohan 2000Hinskens, Frans, Jeffrey L. Kallen, and Johan Taeldeman. 2000. Merging and drifting apart. Convergence and divergence of dialects across political borders. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 145:1-28.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
History,

hinskensfrans 1986Hinskens, Frans. 1986. Onderzoek van dialektverlies in de lexicale component, enkele kanttekeningen. Taal en Tongval 38:185-197.

language(s):
Dutch
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

hoernerjeanmichel 1982Hoerner, Jean-Michel. 1982. Les vols de boufs dans le sud malgache. Madagascar. Revue de Géographie 41:85-105.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern,

hoernerjeanmichel 1986Hoerner, Jean-Michel. 1986. Géographie régionale du sud-ouest de Madagascar. Antananarivo: Association des Géographes de Madagascar.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
South-western,

More than a handbook on Geography, this study is a discovery of the southwest of Madagascar in terms of population, history, development, and way of life. It is the result of more than ten years' experience of the region. Hoerner answers many questions one might have on the South and its people.

hoernerjeanmichel 1988Hoerner, Jean-Michel. 1988. L'espace migratoire des Mahafale, facteur de cohésion et de développement. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 28:113-121.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

The Mahafaly people have a remarkable faculty to adapt and although they were traditionally herdsmen and farmers, are now becoming craftsmen and traders. This, argues Hoerner, does not destroy the social cohesion they have known, but shows cohesion in the transition they experience.

hoggmichaela&rigolininetta 1996Hogg, Michael A., and Ninetta Rigoli. 1996. Effects of ethnolinguistic vitality, ethnic identification, and linguistic contacts on minority language use. Journal of language and social psychology 15(1):76-90.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

hoggmichaela 1995Hogg, Michael A. 1995. Intra group processes, group structure and social identity. In Social groups and identities, edited by W. P. Robinson. Oxford: Butterworth-Heineman.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

homanroger 1980Homan, Roger. 1980. The ethics of covert methods. British Journal of Sociology 31(1):46-59.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Social sciences - other,

hopperpaulj&thompsonsandraa 1984Hopper, Paul J., and Sandra A. Thompson. 1984. The discourse basis for lexical categories in universal grammar. Language 60(3):703-752.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

hornbergernancyh 1997Hornberger, Nancy H. 1997. Literacy, language maintenance, and linguistic human rights: Three telling cases. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 127:87-103.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

horvathbarbaram&vaughanpaul 1991Horvath, Barbara M., and Paul Vaughan. 1991. Community languages: A handbook. Multilingual matters 67. Clevedon, Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

The chapter on sociolinguistic profiles represents very relevant reading for sociolinguistic surveyors in that the author gives clear and succinct definitions of different sociolinguistic profiles that are found in language/speech communities. The term "community languages" is the Australian term for what the Canadians call "heritage languages," replacing terms like "migrant" language or "foreign" language, indicating a shift from assimilationist to multiculturalist attitudes on the part of language politicians.

horvathbarbaram 1998Horvath, Barbara M. 1998. Some 'fractious energy'. Journal of Sociolinguistics 2(3):446-457.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

houkjames 1996Houk, James. 1996. Anthropological theory and the breakdown of eclectic folk religions. Journal for the scientific study of religion 35(4):442-448.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

houlderja 1881Houlder, J. A. 1881. Madagascar and its proverbs. The Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine 2:58-75.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

houlderja 1894Houlder, J. A. 1894. Ohabolana, or wit and wisdom of the Hova of Madagascar. The Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine 18:188-204.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

houlderja 1960Houlder, J. A. 1960. Ohabolana ou proverbes malgaches. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Luthérienne.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

An excellent collection of proverbs, with a very interesting introduction by this missionary of the LMS who holds the traditional prejudice that the Merina "are intellectually superior to the other peoples of Madagascar" (III).

houtmanfrederickde 1603Houtman, Frederick de. 1603. Spraeckende woord-boeck inde Maleysche ende Madagascarsche talen met vele Arabische ende Turcsche woorden. Amsterdam: Jan Evertsz.

language(s):
Dutch
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

howesoniaf 1938Howe, Sonia F. 1938. The drama of Madagascar. London: Methuen.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

huebschbruno&bethazgiustino 1987Hübsch, Bruno, and Giustino Bethaz. 1987. Ny tantaran'ny Fiangonana. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

huebschbruno&raliberadaniel 1994Hübsch, Bruno, and Daniel Ralibera. 1994. Pour une histoire oecuménique du Christianisme à Madagascar. Recherches et Documents 17:21-32.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

huebschbruno 1993Hübsch, Bruno. 1993. Madagascar et le Christianisme. Histoire Ocuménique. Antananarivo: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

This excellent and well-researched work covers a wide range of topics relating to the religious and cultural history of the Malagasy people and their ancestors, as well as to church history, in general. It is essential background study-material for any student or researcher of Madagascar. Pertinent facts and tremendous insights blend together to present life in Madagascar as it was, in the nineties, explaining all the complicated relationships between churches and state and among churches, showing the importance of the church in Malagasy life. It analyses some of the divisions that exist and presents some of the problems in achieving the unity that seems so important to this nation. One would wish for a similar work to be written for every nation on the face of the earth!
This team effort to describe Christianity in Madagascar has produced an excellent bank of information, which should be read by anyone with an interest in the country, especially by Christian workers. It takes decades to understand Malagasy culture a little, especially if one comes from a different background, but this scholarly work provides insights that can go a long way as an introduction to many aspects of worldview, history, anthropology, origins, and many other subjects. With more than twenty different authors participating, the problem of reflecting a particular bias is side-stepped, at least to an extent.

Selected quotes:

  • Many quotes worth mentioning, but one in particular, namely:
  • Comment Madagascar pourrait-il avoir un texte biblique commun, alors que l'on prononce différemment le nom du Seigneur? On reste en effet marqué par les habitudes laissées par l'enseignement des missionnaires, et qui divisent les chrétiens; elles ont conduit les protestants a employer 'Jesosy' a partir de la prononciation anglaise, les catholiques a user de 'Jeso' ou 'Iezo' proche du français, et les anglicans a utiliser 'Iesosy' plus près du grec(415).

hudsonab&hudsonjm 1967Hudson, A. B., and J. M. Hudson. 1967. Telang: A Ma'anyan village of central Kalimantan. In Villages in Indonesia, 90-114, edited by Koentjaraningrat. New York: Cornell University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,

hudsonab 1966Hudson, A. B. 1966. Death ceremonies of the Padju Epat Ma'anyan Dayaks. Sarawak Museum Journal 13:341-416.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,

huebernard 1996Hue, Bernard. 1996. La langue française en question dans le discours du colonisé: L'exemple vietnamien. In Regards sur la francophonie, 77-81, edited by Marc Gontard, and Maryse Bray. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

A very provocative (and short) article on the effects of colonial language learning in cases where people love and are proficient in the colonial (here French) language.

Selected quotes:

  • Pour se mal comprendre, le pire n'est pas de parler une langue différente et que l'on ignore, mais de parler différemment la même langue; et dans ce cas parlant français de ne pas l'entendre de la même manière, de ne pas donner aux mots la même signification, la même portée, de ne pas mettre dessous les mêmes concepts (Raoul Serène dans Cahiers de la jeunesse :10) (79).
  • Prenez un texte très bien écrit en français par un Annamite. C'est toujours une sorte d'habit d'Arlequin, fait de pièces de choix cousues comme on peut. La pense tâchera de se loger comme elle peut là-dedans (Raoul Serène dans Cahiers de la jeunesse :12) (79).

hugotbernard 1973Hugot, Bernard. 1973. Etudes des facteurs humains de