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Topics : Anthropology and ethnology

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Topics : Indian Ocean region : Madagascar

Topics : Indian Ocean region : Comores, Comorien

Topics : Indian Ocean region : Comores, Comorien : Shingazidja (Grande Comore)

Topics : Indian Ocean region : Comores, Comorien : Shimaorais (Mayotte)

Topics : Indian Ocean region : Comores, Comorien : Shindzwani (Anjouan)

Topics : Indian Ocean region : Comores, Comorien : Shimwali (Moheli)

Topics : Indian Ocean region : Swahili

Topics : Linguistics

Topics : Linguistics : Applied linguistics

Topics : Linguistics : Austronesian linguistics

Topics : Linguistics : Diachronic linguistics

Topics : Linguistics : Language assessment

Topics : Linguistics : Sociolinguistics

Topics : Linguistics : Malagasy language

Topics : Linguistics : Dialectology

Topics : Linguistics : Language ecology

Topics : Linguistics : Language planning

Topics : Linguistics : Translation

Topics : Religion

Topics : Religion : Missiology

Topics : Religion : Theology

Topics : Religion : Church history

Topics : Research

Topics : Research : Research methodology

Topics : Research : Qualitative research

Topics : Research : Quantitative research

Topics : Social sciences - other

abbottandrew 1999Abbott, Andrew. 1999. Department and discipline. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Research methodology,
Research,
Social sciences - other,

achardpierre 1993Achard, Pierre. 1993. La sociologie du langage: Que sais-je? Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

agarmichaelh 1994Agar, Michael H. 1994. Language shock / understanding the culture of conversation. New York: William Morrow and Company.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

andriambohitra 1994Andriambohitra. 1994. Enseigner en français ou en malgache? Recherches et Documents 17:6-20.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

andrianaivoarivonyrafolo 1985Andrianaivoarivony, Rafolo. 1985. Reflections sur la présence Tsimihety dans la région de Mananara Avaratra et de Maroantsetra. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 21-22:61-78.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tsimihety,
Northern,

anonymous ndAnonymous. n.d. Des droits coutumiers oraux "Bara". Province et préfecture de Tuléar. Sous-préfecture de Tuléar. Arrondissement administratif de Sakaraha.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

anonymous 1898bAnonymous. 1898b. Renseignements économiques et commerciaux. Journal officiel de Madagascar et dépendances 15(306):2471-2472.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

archerrobert 1976Archer, Robert. 1976. Madagascar depuis 1972. La marche d'une révolution. Paris: L'Harmattan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

asantem&gudykunstwilliamb 1989Asante, M., and William B. Gudykunst (eds.) 1989. Handbook of international and intercultural communication. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

attenboroughdavid 1961Attenborough, David. 1961. Zoo quest to Madagascar. London: Lutterworth Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

austinwc&worchels 1979Austin, W. C., and S. Worchel (eds.) 1979. The social psychology in intergroup relations. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,

ayachesimon 1976Ayache, Simon. 1976. Raombana l'historien (1809-1855). Introduction à l'édition critique de son ouvre. Collection "Gasikarako". Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

This biography and detailed study of the Malagasy historian, Raombana, contemporary of Ranavalona I, and of his work; reveals some very interesting facts about the first half of the nineteenth century and all the complicated relationships of the time-internationally, nationally, and local-personally.

ayachesimon 1995Ayache, Simon. 1995. Pouvoir central et provinces sous la monarchie au XIXe siècle. Talily 2:41-66.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

This article, which was first published in 1981, is reprinted in Talily because the subject material remains so relevant. The author tries to establish a historical foundation for Malagasy unity by purposing to give an "objective" and "honest" account of the regional conflicts of the past, by describing differences and aspirations among the people as political wars among kingdoms (not tribal wars), and the Merina expansion of the nineteenth century as "political expansion from within," (not as "imperialism" by one "tribe" at the cost of others), seen as the Colonial view of history. While challenging certain prejudices, it seems that the author prefers to uphold his own in defence of the doctrine of or desire for an underlying unity among all Malagasy.

bartlettf 1932Bartlett, F. 1932. Remembering: A study in experimental and social psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,

bastiang 1967Bastian, G. 1967. Madagascar. Etude géographique et économique. Paris: Nathan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

battistinirene 1964aBattistini, René. 1964a. Géographie Humaine de la plaine cotière Mahafaly. Etudes malgaches 12. Toulouse: Éditions Cujas.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

battistinirene 1964bBattistini, René. 1964b. L'extrème-sud de Madagascar: étude géomorphologique. 2 vols. Etude géomorphologique. Études malgaches. Laboratoire de géographie, Université de Madagascar 10-11. Toulouse: Éditions Cujas.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern,

bemananjarazefaniasyrafaralahy 1979bBemananjara, Zefaniasy Rafaralahy. 1979b. Situation de l'enseignement du français à Madagascar. In Le français hors de France, 527-542, edited by Albert Valdman. Paris: Champion.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

bendorsamuelmargaret 1987Bendor-Samuel, Margaret. 1987. Local citizen involvement and language programs. Notes on Literature in Use and Language Programs 13:3-10.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

berlierm 1983Berlier, M. 1983. Polygamie et "mariage chrétien" en Afrique noir. Telema 9(34):47-50.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

bernardalain 1978Bernard, Alain. 1978. Essai sur la transition de la société Mahafaly vers les rapports marchands. Travaux et documents de l'Orstom 90. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tañalaña,
South-western,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Karimbola (Karembola),

Selected quotes:

  • (.)'une langue mahafaly qui n'existe pas (.) (360). [Contradicts himself-e.g. p. 8]

berryj 1964Berry, J. 1964. The making of alphabets. In Readings in the sociology of language, 737-753, edited by Joshua A. Fishman. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

beukesannemarie 1991Beukes, Anne-Marie. 1991. Language teaching and politics of language. Journal for Language Teaching 25(4):89-100.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

In this article the author focuses on the relationship between language policy and language teaching in South Africa. She describes the linguistic situation in S.A. as well as the inequalities. The problem of "linguicism" is defined on p. 93 and is seen as of the same nature as racism, classism, sexism and ageism. Although it was given a fairly general title, the article focuses on Afrikaans and English in S.A.

blochmauriceef 1971bBloch, Maurice E. F. 1971b. The implications of marriage rules and descent: Categories for Merina social structures. American Anthropologist 73:164-178.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

blochmauriceef 1978Bloch, Maurice E. F. 1978. Marriage among equals: An analysis of the marriage ceremony of the Merina of Madagascar. Man n.s. 13(1):21-33.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

bloomalfredh 1981Bloom, Alfred H. 1981. The linguistic shaping of thought: A study in the impact of language on thinking in China and the west. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,

bloomalfredh 1984Bloom, Alfred H. 1984. Caution - the words you use may affect what you say: A response to Au. Cognition 17:275-287.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

blotb 1973Blot, B. 1973. Les coutumes actuelles des Tanala de l'Ikongo à l'occasion des naissances, mariages et enterrements. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 50(1):1-6.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

boittinpatrick ndBoittin, Patrick. n.d. Etude monographique de Bezaha.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,
Bara,

boittinpatrick 1993Boittin, Patrick. 1993. Identification Sampona. Report, Action International Contre la Faim.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

bolingerdwight 1992Bolinger, Dwight. 1992. About furniture and birds. Cognitive Linguistics 3:111-117.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,

brownmervyn 1978Brown, Mervyn. 1978. Madagascar rediscovered. A History from early times to independence. London: Damien Tunnacliffe.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

The author succeeds in producing an attractive account of Malagasy history; touching on geography, fauna and flora, describing different theories on the population of Madagascar and then treating the different phases in historical development until independence in 1960.

brownmervyn 1995Brown, Mervyn. 1995. A history of Madagascar. London: Tunnacliffe.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

brunerjerome 1986Bruner, Jerome. 1986. Actual minds, possible worlds. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

buehlmannw 1983Bühlmann, W. 1983. Questions à propos du mariage et de la famille en Afrique. Familiaris Consortio apporte-t-elle une réponse? Telema 9(34):63-78.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

burlingrobbins 1964Burling, Robbins. 1964. Cognition and componential analysis: God's truth or hocus-pocus? American Anthropologist 66:20.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

burneydavida&ramilisonina 1999Burney, David A., and Ramilisonina. 1999. The kilopilopitsofy, kidoky and bokyboky: Accounts of strange animals from Belo-sur-mer, Madagascar, and the megafaunal "extinction window". American Anthropologist 100(4):957-966.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Vazimba,
Sakalava,
Masikoro,
South-western,
Betsileo,
Central,

burnsdonaldh 1968Burns, Donald H. 1968. Bilingual education in the Andes of Peru. In Language problems of developing nations, 403-413, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

calvetlouisjean 1974Calvet, Louis-Jean. 1974. Linguistique et colonialisme: Petit trait de glottophagie. Paris: Payot.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
History,

calvetlouisjean 1975Calvet, Louis-Jean. 1975. Pour et contre Saussure: Vers une linguistique sociale. Paris: Payot.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

calvetlouisjean 1977Calvet, Louis-Jean. 1977. Marxisme et linguistique. Paris: Payot.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

calvetlouisjean 1987Calvet, Louis-Jean. 1987. La guerre des langues et les politiques linguistiques. Paris: Payot.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

carbaughdonal 1990aCarbaugh, Donal (ed.) 1990a. Cultural communication and intercultural contact. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

carbaughdonal 1990bCarbaugh, Donal. 1990b. Culture talking about itself. In Cultural communication and intercultural contact, 1-9, edited by Donal Carbaugh. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

cassonronaldw 1981Casson, Ronald W. 1981. Language, culture, and cognition: Anthropological perspectives. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

chaigneaupascal 1986Chaigneau, Pascal. 1986. Rivalités politiques et socialisme à Madagascar. La documentation française. Paris: CHEAM.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

chapusgeorgessully&dandouauandre 1961Chapus, Georges-Sully, and André Dandouau. 1961. Manuel d'histoire de Madagascar à l'usage des écoles de la république. Paris: Ed. Larose.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

chazangilligsuzanne 1991Chazan-Gillig, Suzanne. 1991. La société sakalave. Le Menabe dans la construction nationale malgache. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Menabe,

chengpw 1985Cheng, P. W. 1985. Pictures of ghosts: A critique of Aflred Bloom's 'the linguistic shaping of thought'. American Anthropologist 87:917-922.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

chevalierl 1952Chevalier, L. 1952. Madagascar, populations et ressources. Travaux et documents 51. Paris: INED-PUF.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

clarkherberth&havilandsusane 1977Clark, Herbert H., and Susan E. Haviland. 1977. Comprehension and the given-new contract. In Discourse production and comprehension, 1-40, edited by Roy O. Freedle. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Research,
Anthropology and ethnology,

clastrespierre 1974Clastres, Pierre. 1974. De l'ethnocide. L'homme 14(3-4):101-110.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

clignetremi&ernstbernard 1995Clignet, Rémi, and Bernard Ernst. 1995. L'école à Madagascar: Evaluation de la qualité de l'enseignement primaire public. Paris: Editions Karthala.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Dialectology,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Excellent study which contains a discussion of language in Malagasy education that is very relevant to our study.

cloonanjeannedenise&strinejamesmichael 1991Cloonan, Jeanne Denise, and James Michael Strine. 1991. Federalism and the development of language policy: Preliminary investigations. Language Problems and Language Planning 15(3):268-281.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

condominasgeorges 1960Condominas, Georges. 1960. Fokon'olona et collectivités rurales en Imerina. Paris: Berger-Levrault.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

coulauddaniel 1973Coulaud, Daniel. 1973. Les Zafimaniry. Un groupe ethnique de Madagascar à la poursuite de la forêt. Antananarivo: Fanotamboky Malagasy.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Zafimaniry,
Eastern,

coulonalain 1995Coulon, Alain. 1995. Ethnomethodology. Qualitative research methods series 36. London: Sage Publications.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

cousinswe 1963 1931Cousins, W. E. 1963 (1931). Fomba Malagasy. Antananarivo: Trano Printy Imarivolanitra.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Originally written to teach foreigners about Malagasy customs.

dahloeyvind&nilsonbente&waldermogunnar 1996Dahl, Øyvind, Bente. Nilson, and Gunnar Waldermo. 1996. Teachers' Training College in Madagascar. An appraisal report. Report, Senter for Interkulturell Kommunikasjon. Stavanger.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahloeyvind 1990Dahl, Øyvind. 1990. The general education program of the Malagasy Lutheran church. Report from task force visiting the Malagasy Lutheran church. 24 October-14 November 1990. Antananarivo.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahloeyvind 1992Dahl, Øyvind. 1992. Quand le futur vient de derrière: Le concept malgache de temps et d'ordre du monde et conséquences pour le transfert de technologie. In Colloque pour chercheurs en sciences sociales et opérateurs économiques sur "Les changements sociaux dans la région du Vakinankaratra." Antsirabe 6-9 avril 1992. Antananarivo: Trano Printy Loterana.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahloeyvind 1993bDahl, Øyvind. 1993b. Malagasy meanings. PhD dissertation. Center for Intercultural Communication, School of Mission and Theology, Misjonshogskolens forlag.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vakinankaratra,
Central,
Merina,

This study has been the one of the greatest treasures found since we started learning about Malagasy history, culture, and language and should be read by everyone involved in cross-cultural work and particularly by those who endeavour to communicate with the Malagasy people. Working through this practical handbook took us on a journey of discovering ourselves and our own worldviews in relation to that of the Malagasy people; and in identifying with the many practical situations described, we could relate and learn to empathise and were alerted to the fact that we need to let go of our own cultural assumptions, if we wish to truly relate to our friends in Madagascar and not be yet another costly, but passing, irrelevance in the long history of cross-cultural interaction.

dahloeyvind 1997Dahl, Øyvind. 1997. Consolidation de la post-alphabétisation à Madagascar. Evaluation finale du projet (504/MAG/10) UNESCO. SIK-rapport 1997:4. Report, Misjonshøgskolens forlag. Stavanger.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahloeyvind 1999Dahl, Øyvind. 1999. Meanings in Madagascar. Cases of intercultural communication. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vakinankaratra,
Central,
Merina,

dandouauandre 1960Dandouau, André. 1960. Manuel de géographie de Madagascar à l' usage des écoles de la république (avec la nouvelle organisation administrative). Paris: Ed. Larose.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dandraderoygoodwin 1981D'Andrade, Roy Goodwin. 1981. The cultural part of cognition. Cognitive Science 5:179-195.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

dandraderoygoodwin 1984D'Andrade, Roy Goodwin. 1984. Cultural meaning systems. In Culture theory: Essays on mind, self, and emotion, 88-119, edited by Richard A. Shweder, and Robert A. LeVine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

dandraderoygoodwin 1995D'Andrade, Roy Goodwin. 1995. The development of cognitive anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

dasguptajyotirindra&gumperzjohnj 1968Das Gupta, Jyotirindra, and John J. Gumperz. 1968. Language, communication and control in north India. In Language problems of developing nations, 151-166, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

dasylvagermain&ranarivelovalencia&razanoelisoajacqueline 1994Dasylva, Germain, Valencia Ranarivelo, and Jacqueline Razanoelisoa. 1994. Enquête socio-économique sur les communautés de pêcheurs traditionnels dans la région de Toliara. Programme sectorielle pêche. Report, Organisation des Nations Unies pour l'Alimentation et l'Agriculture.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,

ddssinstat 1996DDSS-INSTAT. 1996. Le recencement général de la population et de l'habitat. Report, Direction de la Démographie et des Statistiques Sociales de l'INSTAT (Madagascar). Antananarivo.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Quantitative research,
Research,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

deanepaul 1992Deane, Paul. 1992. Grammar in mind and brain: Explorations in cognitive syntax. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,

decaryraymond 1933Decary, Raymond. 1933. L'Androy. Essai de monographie régionale (2 vol). Paris: Societé d'Editions géographiques, maritimes et coloniales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

decaryraymond 1939Decary, Raymond. 1939. La chasse et le piégage chez les indigènes de Madagascar. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 9:3-41.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1946Decary, Raymond. 1946. Plantes et animaux utiles de Madagascar. Marseille: Annales du Musée Colonial.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1950aDecary, Raymond. 1950a. La faune malgache. Paris: Editions Payot.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1950bDecary, Raymond. 1950b. La population de Madagascar. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 28:1-19.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

delerisf 1986Deleris, F. 1986. Ratsiraka: Socialisme et misère à Madagascar. Paris: L'Harmattan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

delvalraymond 1967Delval, Raymond. 1967. Les Musulmans à Madagascar. La Revue de Madagascar 37:5-32.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Religion,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dewarroberte&wrighthenryt 1993Dewar, Robert E., and Henry T. Wright. 1993. The culture history of Madagascar. Journal of World Prehistory 7(4):417-466.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dezjacques 1971Dez, Jacques. 1971. Au pays Betsimisaraka: Habitat et communications. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 47(1-2):115-145.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsimisaraka,
Eastern,

Selected quotes:

  • Les populations betsimisaraka vivent dans la forêt et de la forêt. (115)

dinajeanne&hoernerjeanmichel 1976Dina, Jeanne, and Jean-Michel Hoerner. 1976. Etude sur les populations Mikea du sud-ouest de Madagascar. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 3-4.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mikea,
South-western,
Masikoro,

Very concise article explaining the problem of the Mikea. No bibliography attached to this copy.

dirvenrene 1993Dirven, René. 1993. Metonymy and metaphor: Different mental strategies of conceptualization. Leuvense Bijdragen 82:1-28.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,

dixonrmw 1986Dixon, R. M. W. 1986. Noun classes and noun classification in typological perspective. In Noun classes and categorization, 105-112, edited by Colette Grinevald Craig. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,

domenichiniramiaramananabakoly 1983Domenichini-Ramiaramanana, Bakoly. 1983. Du ohabolana au hainteny. Langue, littérature et politique à Madagascar. Paris: Editions Karthala.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

doriannancyc 1987Dorian, Nancy C. 1987. The value of language-maintenance efforts which are unlikely to succeed. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 68:57-67.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

A study of the dying Scottish Gaelic dialect of East Sutherland-north-east Scottish mainland, to determine whether language death can be reversed or stopped.

doriannancyc 1990Dorian, Nancy C. 1990. Small languages and small language communities: News, notes and comments, 5. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 86:157-159.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

Short report on some work done by the Alaska Native Language Center (ANLC) on the indigenous languages of the Eskimo-Aleut family, e.g. in the Yupik branch. The outlook is poor for the Indian languages of Alaska, e.g. Athabaskan. Some salvage work is being done and some recording of texts. The ANLC publishes collections of texts for these severely threatened languages.

doriannancyc 1991aDorian, Nancy C. 1991a. Small languages and small language communities: News, notes and comments. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 88:121-128.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

Reports on an international symposium, held in Germany, from 8-12 January, 1990, on "Language Death in East Africa."

doriannancyc 1991bDorian, Nancy C. 1991b. Small languages and small language communities: News, notes and comments, 6. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 87:121-123.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

This segment focuses on information sources re small language communities, e.g. the organisation "Cultural Survival" and the "Revue Diogène."

duttontom 1992Dutton, Tom (ed.) 1992. Culture change, language change. Case studies from Melanasia. Pacific linguistics. Series C: Books 120. Canberra: Australian National University, Dept of Linguistics: Research School of Pacific Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,

edwardsjohnr 1985Edwards, John R. 1985. Language, society and identity. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

Selected quotes:

  • Environments change, people move, and needs and demands alter; and it is much more natural for language-use to change, or for linguistic contact to emerge and recede, than to have linguistic stasis. The evidence suggests that it is more reasonable to consider group and individual identity altering, in the face of changing social (and linguistic) environments, than it is to see the abandonment of original or static positions as decay or loss (86).

elliluigi 1993Elli, Luigi. 1993. Une civilisation du bouf: Les Bara de Madagascar. Difficultés et perspectives d'une évangélisation. Collection "Gasikarako". Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

This publication of Luigi Elli's Mémoire de Maîtrise, June 1991, Institut Catholique de Paris, covers many aspects of the Bara civilisation in detail and then discusses, in a second part, certain issues relating to the evangelisation of the Bara.
This work provides an excellent insight into Bara culture, especially as far as culture involves the Zébu. And as the Zébu is involved in every aspect of Bara life, this book covers a large part of it. A quick scanning of the bibliography reveals that most writing concerning the Bara was done in and before the first half of the twentieth century.
Elli introduces his manuscript with an account of "La mort de Rebozaky: un phénomène social total" which is an excellent rencontre with the realities of Bara life and custom. He gives other such accounts, such as "le bilo."
For the purposes of our study, the author's remarks on the importance of the Bara dialect are essential. He mentions that although the people are mostly illiterate, they are deep thinkers. He says that official Malagasy is nothing else but the Merina dialect that was enriched by words from dialects "of the coast" and that although many Bara know it, they don't speak it and consider their own way of speaking to be "real Malagasy." Like French, the Merina way of speaking is that of a stranger.
It is clear that the author knows the Bara people and can be seen as an authority on their way of life.

Selected quotes:

  • Nous avons vu qu'une des raisons qui montrent la religion chrétienne sous un jour défavorable aux yeux des Bara, c'est le fait qu'elle est la religion de ceux qui détenaient et qui détiennent le pouvoir, le 'fanjakana' (.). Les missionnaires, même aujourd'hui, (.) sont souvent pris par les Bara pour des fonctionnaires: 'Hanareo fanjaka' (Vous, du Gouvernement), dit-on à l'adresse du missionnaire, et cela s'entend encore très souvent. Mais les gens du 'fanjakana' ont une mauvaise renommée chez les Bara, à cause de leur corruption (163).
  • Parmi les attitudes qui frappent le plus positivement les Bara il faut compter le respect. Nous avons vu comment ils sont méprisés par les 'civilisés' et par les chrétiens (.). Ce respect, cette sympathie et amitié doivent s'exprimer surtout par un effort de connaissance approfondie et scientifique de leur langue et de leurs us et coutumes (164).
  • Une des tfches les plus importantes pour un missionnaire sera l'étude approfondie et scientifique du dialecte bara (.). Le missionnaire arrivé à Madagascar apprend le malgache officiel (malagasy iombonana), qui n'est pas autre chose que le dialecte merina enrichi de mots provenants des dialectes dits 'côtiers' (165).
  • Le malgache officiel est assez aisément compris par tout le monde dans la Grande Ile, donc aussi par les Bara. Mais très peu parmi eux le parlent. La langue de tous les jours c'est bien le dialecte. Qui parle le 'malagasy iombonana' se présente comme un étranger, et est perçu comme tel par les gens (.). Pour les Bara, comme pour les autres ethnies du sud, c'est leur dialecte qui est la vraie langue malgache (165).
  • (.) mais dès mes premières tournées parmi les Bara je me suis nettement aperçu que la langue officiel que je parlais était un obstacle de plus à la communication (165).
  • (.) un étranger parlant ou s'efforçant de parler leur dialecte les rendait heureux; les portes des maisons, et les cours des personnes, s'ouvrent plus facilement au missionnaire qui parle comme eux, et ils perçoivent cette attention comme une marque d'estime et de respect (165).
  • Ce qu'il faut savoir sur les Bara:
    -le'tatara raza' du clan ou du lignage: l'origine, les noms des chefs les plus représentatifs, les migrations;
    -la structure socio-politique, la place du patriarche;
    -la signification de l'hazomanga;
    -les fomban-draza (naissance, circoncision, mariage, socialisation des enfants, bilo, les rites funéraires); le système religieux;
    -les proverbes et les contes;
    -le bouf et sa place dans la culture bara (166).
  • le lien indissoluble entre le religieux et le social (167).
  • ce serait demander le suicide social que d'exiger d'un chrétien de s'abstenir de la participation à ces rites (168).
  • Sur plus de onze millions d'habitants, la Grande Ile compte aujourd'hui à peu près six millions de chrétiens, toutes confessions confondues, dont plus de la moitié sont catholiques. Les chrétiens sont assez inégalement répartis: si les Merina et les Betsileos des Hauts-Plateaux sont chrétiens presque à 100%, les tribus du sud (Bara, Tandroy, Mahafaly), au contraire, le sont peut-être à 10%, et les Bara le sont moins que les Tandroy (133).
  • Il n'y a pas à proprement parler, un peuple Bara ou une tribu Bara. Ceux qui s'appellent aujourd'hui Bara sont les membres de clans qui ont des origines très disparates, dans l'espace comme dans le temps. Les Bara, avec raison, ne se reconnaissent pas une origine commune. Les Bara actuels sont en grande partie les descendants des sujets des rois de famille Zafimanely. Un autre élément de cohésion d'un peuple c'est la langue. Malgré des différences locales inévitables, la langue bara, avec ses variations régionales, par rapport au malgache officiel, surtout au niveau du lexique et de la prononciation, se distingue assez nettement de la langue parlée par les autres ethnies de la région. Avec un peu de pratique on distingue aisément, à la façon de parler, un Bara d'un Tandroy, d'un Mahafaly, d'un Sakalava, d'un Betsileo, d'un Tesaka ou d'un Tanôsy. Les Bara ont aussi en commun un patrimoine de coutumes (.) (136).
  • Les Tandroy montent vers le nord, qui est mieux arrosé que leur pays. A l'est les Tesaka, les Tanala, les Tanôsy progressent. Les riziculteurs Betsileo ont envahi le nord du pays bara et aujourd'hui on les trouve partout, là o- les conditions géographiques permettent d'avoir de belles rizières. Si plus aucune frontière géographique ne sépare les Bara des autres ethnies, des frontières, assez nettes, d'une autre espèce, existent quand même toujours. Ces frontières sont moins précises dans l'unité de tout le sud de Madagascar (seules la langue, l'histoire et certaines coutumes distinguent les Bara des autres ethnies du sud); elles sont beaucoup plus marquées entre les Bara et les Betsileo (137).
  • L'attachement farouche que les Bara ont pour la tradition ancestrale les fait se méfier de toute nouveauté(.) méfiance envers l'Etat moderne et ses représentants les fonctionnaires et les gendarmes, appellés 'vazaha', c'est-à-dire Blancs, Européens, donc étrangers; mais l'enseignement se heurte également à la méfiance des gens, surtout parce qu'il enlève les jeunes au travail des champs et les empêche d'aller aux pfturages avec les boufs. Même pour ce qui a trait à l'agriculture ou à l'élevage, ils restent attachés à la tradition (.) aussi, (.) la religion chrétienne (.) La vie, et donc la survie du groupe sont liées indissolublement à la fidélité aux 'fomban-draza' (les coutumes ancestrales). Toute atteinte à ces coutumes est une atteinte à la vie du groupe (.) (138).
  • Cinquante ans après (Faublée: la cohésion.) je peux dire que si un affaiblissement de la tradition s'est produit, il est minime et les fomban-draza continuent à régler la vie des Bara (139).
  • Les Bara pensent avoir une responsabilité morale vis-à-vis des générations passées et des générations à venir. Les générations actuellement vivantes ne considèrent pas les fomban-draza comme une propriété dont elles pourraient disposer à leur guise, mais comme un héritage reçu des ancêtres et à transmettre aux générations à venir (139).

elliluigi 1999Elli, Luigi. 1999. Fomba Bara. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

ellisstephen 1985Ellis, Stephen. 1985. The rising of the red shawls. A revolt in Madagascar 1895-1899. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

esoavelomandrosofaranirinav 1976Esoavelomandroso, Faranirina V. 1976. Langue, culture et civilisation à Madagascar: Malgache et français dans l'enseignement officiel (1916-1940). Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 3-4:105-155.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1985Esoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1985. Les "révoltes de l'est" (novembre 1895-février 1896): essai d'explication. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 21-22:33-46.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern Betsimisaraka (Antatsimo, Tatsimo),
Betsimisaraka,
Eastern,
Northern Betsimisaraka (Antavaratra, Tavaratra),
Betanimena,

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1986aEsoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1986a. L'elevage dit traditionnel, est-il un frein au développement? (L'exemple de l'élevage Mahafale dans le sud-ouest). Recherches pour le Développement. Série Science de l'Homme et de la Société 1:9-13.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

The author finds that the "élevage dit traditionnel" is the type of cattle husbandry that is the best adapted to the present ecological, social economical and political conditions of the region. He argues that rural development in general and that of Mahafale country in particular had been consistently neglected by the government.

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1986bEsoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1986b. L'insécurité dans la province Bara du 'royaume de Madagascar' (1888-1895). Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 23-24:229-237.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,
Merina,
Central,

In this short essay Esoavelomandroso describes the failure of the Merina contingent in Ihosy to "keep the peace" in Ibara (and in parts of Betsileo) between the years 1888-1895. "Sanctuaire pour ceux qui viennent désoler le Betsileo, la province bara est aussi le repaire de tous ceux qui ne reconnaissent pas l'ordre royal merina ou qui le contestent ouvertement" (233). This history may explain the presence of so many Betsileo, Tanala and others among the Bara, people who have been living there for a century or more and consider themselves to be Bara.

Selected quotes:

  • Cette province bara est une terre d'accueil pour des populations qui s'opposent à l'ordre royal. Les Ambiloina, par example, (.) constituent un regroupement instable de populations d'origine diverse. Pour l'essentiel ce sont des groupes de Mavorongo et de Tanala-populations du gradin forestier oriental-ayant quitté leur "pays" depuis longtemps, et établis à l'ouest de l'Isalo, à quinze journées de marche au sud-ouest de Tompoananandrariny pour un détachement de l'armée. Dans leur nouveau "pays," boisé et difficile d'accès, d'où ils partent pour attacker le Betsileo et où ils échappent au contrôle effectif des troupes royales, ces Mavorongo et Tanala, que rééunissent leur habitat commun et leurs activités, se donnent comme nom "Ambiloina." On voit là en gestation l'embryon d'une nouvelle population, prête à s'entendre avec tous ceux qui contestent et combattent le pouvoir royal (233-4).

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1986cEsoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1986c. Milieux naturel et peuplement de l'Androy. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 121-131, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

Esoavelomandroso discusses the relationship between the natural milieu of the arid Androy region and the people who live there. He points out that there is no agreement on the name "Androy" and its derivatives, most authors being convinced that the name "roy" refers to the "thorns" that abound there, another seeing no other meaning in the name Androy than that of it being the homeland of the Tandroy people. The name has only been used since end of the seventeenth century. Northern Androy is a humid region, an area of vast pasturelands and little populated, whereas the area south of the Tsihombe-Ambovombe road is much dryer and suffers from a lack of good water, but contains a relatively larger population than the northern area, because of a more fertile soil. This is the area rich in chalky soil and limestone. The Karimbola and Mahandrovato, who live south of the Ambovombe-Tsihombe-Beloha line claim to be the first inhabitants of the area. Different clans were added to these groups, among which the Zafimanara, who subdued the Mahandrovato, obtained control of the Karimbola and then favoured the immigration of different groups from the east, west and north: Sakalava, Bara and others. The author, who is of Tañalaña origin, ends his discussion on the different immigrations with the following statement: "L'étude de ce peuplement montre aussi que les Antandroy qui tirent leur spécificité de leur histoire et du milieu naturel dans lequel ils vivent, proviennent d'une série de métissages ou de mélanges pluri-séculaires. Est-il encore besoin de préciser la profonde unité du sud qui a contribué au peuplement de l'androy, et par-delà ce sud, l'unité de la culture malgache?" (130).

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1989aEsoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1989a. Notes sur les espaces economiques du Mahafale occidental à la fin du XIXe siècle. Cahiers du Centre de Recherches Africaines 7:147-152.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

Manassé Esoavelomandroso is convinced of the homogeneity of the Tokobeitelo, a confederation of three clans in Western Mahafale, the Tevondrone, Temitongoa and Temilahehe, which he describes in this paper in terms of their mainly agrico-pastoral activities at the end of the nineteenth century. He also describes other resources tapped by these people, such as the sea and the forest and their interaction with slave traders which also shows their community spirit.
The author clarifies terminology which is important for understanding Tokobeitelo society:
raza: this term indicates the grand parents, the ancestors, the group that descends from a common ancestor which is the clan, the hazomanga (post for religious ceremonies) the vilo (earmark of the group's cattle).
famosora: different lineages within a raza or clan.

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1989bEsoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1989b. Territoires et troupeaux des Temitongoa. In Histoire et organisation de l' espace à Madagascar. Cahiers du Centre de Recherches Africaines 7, 47-56, edited by Jean Fremigacci. Paris: CRA.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

A very instructive paper on aspects of Mahafale culture, not referred to as such, but referred to as "Temitongoa," a traditional clannic subgroup among the inhabitants of the Mahafale region. The author gives insightful definitions of terminology used in clear footnotes. Even though the main focus here is on habitat and cattle herding traditions, one acquires a better understanding of human relations in the South.

Selected quotes:

  • Mais depuis quelques décennies, des communautés importantes de Mahafale, dont des Temitongoa, sont implantées hors de l'aire historique: le long de la nationale 7 entre Ankororoke et Andranovory, dans la région d'Ankazoabo, et sur la route de Morombe, entre Manja et Ankililoake. Dans ces enclaves, où elles se trouvent au contact des Tanôsy, des Bara et des Masikoro, elles ont réussi et réussissent encore à assurer la sécurité à leurs troupeaux. Elles ont résisté victorieusement aux voleurs et, dans les zones où les malaso (=cattle rustlers) font ou faisaient la loi, leurs troupeaux étaient préservés. Faut-il voir là un réflexe d'éleveurs ou le résultat d'une cohésion sociale vivante? J'opterai, pour ma part, pour la deuxième possibilité. En effet, les Bara et les Masikoro sont aussi des éleveurs et pourtant, ils n'ont pas eu la même réaction que ces Mahafale émigrés ou les Tandroy.
    Mahafale et Tandroy se sont pris en charge pour défendre leurs troupeaux. Pour cela ils ont puisé dans leur histoire, dans leur culture, les éléments pour renforcer leur cohésion, gage de leur réussite. Sauront-ils ou pourront-ils préserver, sauvegarder et utiliser cette cohésion pour en faire des fondements de leur stratégie, afin d'affronter le monde moderne qui ne semble pas vouloir les prendre comme des partenaires à part entière mais paraît les voir comme obstacles au développement? (56).

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1991aEsoavelomandroso, Manassé (ed.) 1991a. Cohésion sociale, modernité et pression démographique. L'exemple du Mahafale. Aombe 3. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

This edition of Aombe contains as the title indicates, a series of articles pertaining to Mahafale country and the people who live there. It covers the demographic situation, archaeology, rites, the ecology, religion, social organisation and other issues.

everssandra&spindlermarc 1995Evers, Sandra, and Marc Spindler (eds.) 1995. Cultures of Madagascar: Ebb and flow of influences. Working papers series 2. Leiden: International Institute for Asian Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

fasewillem&jaspaertkoen&kroonsjaak 1992Fase, Willem, Koen Jaspaert, and Sjaak Kroon (eds.) 1992. Maintenance and loss of minority languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

faubleejacques 1941bFaublée, Jacques. 1941b. L'élevage chez les Bara du sud de Madagascar. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 11:115-123, pl. IV-V.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1942aFaublée, Jacques. 1942a. L'alimentation des Bara (sud de madagascar). Journal de la Société des Africanistes 12:157-201, pl. IV-VII.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1943Faublée, Jacques. 1943. Démographie de Madagascar. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 13:209-213.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

faubleejacques 1946Faublée, Jacques. 1946. Ethnographie de Madagascar. Paris: Ed. de France et d'Outre-Mer - La Nouvelle Edition.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

faubleejacques 1947aFaublée, Jacques. 1947a. L'évolution des sociétés malgaches. La Revue de Madagascar 1947:73-81.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

faubleejacques 1948aFaublée, Jacques. 1948a. A Madagascar: Les villages Bara, site, migration, évolution. Revue de géographie humaine et d'ethnographie 1:36-53.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1954aFaublée, Jacques. 1954a. La cohésion des sociétés Bara. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

Jacques Faublée reports here on his very thorough research of the Bara people. It seems that he included every conceivable aspect of their existence. Even though this work was published in 1954, much of his insight into the Bara culture and way of life is still useful and extremely valuable to anyone interested in this people. Faublée is still widely quoted in more recent publications.
He does refer to the "perméabilité" of the Bara society, which suggests that some aspects may have changed since he wrote and which emphasizes the need for updating research on the Bara.

Selected quotes:

  • La société Bara ne différent pas des autres sociétés du Sud de Madagascar. Mais les représentations collectives opposent les Bara de vie traditionnelle aux immigrés venant du Nord, riziculteurs, commerçants et chrétiens (130).
  • Les Bara sont définis par le respect des représentations, collectives de leurs ancêtres. Ceci les intègre dans la civilisation de tout le Sud de Madagascar, qui respecte les normes traditionnelles et se méfie des innovations (142).
  • Les normes établies et respectées par les Bara de jadis, suivies encore en 1941 par leur descendants, survivront-elles à l'afflux d'immigrés chrétiens vivant en symbiose avec les pasteurs Bara? (142).
  • Tandruy et Mahafali venant du Sud sont proches des Bara, pasteurs aimant leurs boufs par-dessus tout (.). Souvant des Tanandru (ou Betsiléo) craignant les razzias des autochtones confient leurs troupeaux à des pasteurs bara (129).
  • Les Bara gardent nombre de représentations collectives: pour tous, l'agriculture, indispensable, reste méprisée, il est mieux d'accroître son troupeau et de laisser les terres à des immigrés. Tous dédaignent les travaux techniques et l'artisanat. Le commerce mercantile déshonore, et les Bara l'abandonnent aux émigrés. Ils répugnent à l'école et aux travaux administratifs, étrangers aux usages ancestraux.
    Les Bara attribuent une faible importance au lieu d'habitat qui ne forme que des liens temporaires, l'essentiel est l'origine de la grande famille raza (.).
    L'individu n'existe pas, il n'y a que des personnages éléments du groupe, inséparables de la collectivité familiale (.).
    Le respect de la coutume caractérise la société bara (.).
    Les Bara méprisent les contingences matérielles, s'intéressant avant tout aux éléments idéologiques (.). Dans cette société à base religieuse 'les morts gouvernent les vivants' (.) (136 -7).

faubleejacques 1965Faublée, Jacques. 1965. Notes sur quelques points de droit coutumier du sud de Madagascar. In Etudes de droit africain et de droit malgache. Etudes malgaches 16, 27-48, edited by Jean Poirier. Paris: Cujas.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern,

faurouxemmanuel 1987Fauroux, Emmanuel. 1987. Le bouf dans la vie économique et sociale de la vallée de la Maharivo (édition provisoire). Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

faurouxemmanuel 1989Fauroux, Emmanuel. 1989. Le bouf et le riz dans la vie économique et sociale de la vallée de la Maharivo. Aombe 2. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

feeleyharnikgillian 1991Feeley-Harnik, Gillian. 1991. A green estate: Restoring independence in Madagascar. Smithsonian series in ethnographic enquiry. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava Analalava,
Sakalava,
Western,

Very insightful work on the Sakalava of the Analalava region.

Selected quotes:

  • The French conquered Madagascar in 1895, or more accurately, subdued diverse Malagasy polities over a period of several years beginning in 1895 (xix).
  • Monarchies flourished in several parts of Madagascar during the precolonial period, encompassing various groups of conquered peoples as well as slaves from Madagascar and Africa. The French abolished the highland monarchy when they conquered the island in 1895, while using members of other royal groups to govern some areas of the provinces through indirect rule. The Analalava region of the northwest coast was such an area. People there included migrants from all over the island who had come at different times for different purposes: the descendants of the Southern Bemihisatra branch of the Zafinimena (Grandchildren of Gold) or Maroserana dynasty, which had once dominated the west coast, as well as descendants of their former followers and slaves. The domains of the 'Sakalava', as they called themselves collectively, were founded in the course of migrations and conquests that lasted from the late 16th through the 19th century. By the early 20th century, Sakalava-the term for one of the eighteen officially recognized ethnies-were not known for moving about like Tsimihety, Merina, or Betsileo, ethnies identified with remnants of other pre-colonial polities. On the contrary, French ethnographers since the turn of the 20th century described the Sakalava as dying out in the face of more vigorous competitors for their land (2).
  • (.) the 'commotion' (rotaka) of 1972, widely seen as a second independence movement toward 'Malgachization' nationwide(2).
  • I conclude in this book that contemporary Malagasy preoccupations with ancestors, attributed to age-old tradition, are a reletavely recent development. The realm of the dead has expanded primarily because, in a complex way involving many different kinds of 'corpses', it has become the hidden abode of production. It is currently the principal place where still unresolved-perhaps unresolvable-struggles over labor and loyalty continue to be carried on, largely outside the law as any of the participants would define it (3).

ffkm 1985FFKM. 1985. Tari-dalana momba ny ekiomenisma. Fianarantsoa: Imprimerie St. Paul.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

fielouxmichele&lombardjacques 1987Fieloux, Michèle, and Jacques Lombard. 1987. Elevage et société. Etude des transformations socio-économiques dans le sud-ouest malgache: L'exemple du couloir Antseva. Aombe 1. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Sakalava,
Masikoro,
South-western,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Bara,

firingamichaelignace 1993bFiringa, Michaël Ignace. 1993b. Considérations sur la politique et le politique. Recherches et Documents 16:1-27.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,

fishmanjoshuaa 1968aFishman, Joshua A. 1968a. Language problems and types of political and sociocultural integration: A conceptual summary. In Language problems of developing nations, 491-498, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

fishmanjoshuaa 1968cFishman, Joshua A. (ed.) 1968c. Readings in the sociology of language. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

fishmanjoshuaa 1968fFishman, Joshua A. 1968f. Some contrasts between linguistically homogeneous and linguistically heterogeneous polities. In Language problems of developing nations, 53-68, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

Selected quotes:

  • (.) only worldwide-and-diachronic data can hope to answer many of the questions posed by interaction of linguistics and the social-behavioral sciences (53).

fishmanjoshuaa 1971aFishman, Joshua A. (ed.) 1971a. Advances in the sociology of language 1. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

fishmanjoshuaa 1997Fishman, Joshua A. 1997. Bloomington, summer 1964: the birth of American sociolinguistics. In The early days of sociolinguistics. Memories and reflexions. SIL International: Publications in sociolinguistics, 87-95, edited by Christina Bratt Paulston, and G. Richard Tucker. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fishmanjoshuaa 1998Fishman, Joshua A. 1998. Language and ethnicity: The view from within. In The handbook of sociolinguistics. Blackwell handbooks in linguistics 4, edited by Florian Coulmas. Oxford: Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fiskest&taylorse 1991Fiske, S. T., and S. E. Taylor. 1991. Social cognition. New York: McGraw-Hill.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,

fowlerfloydj 1993Fowler, Floyd J. 1993. Survey research methods. Applied social research methods series 1. London: Sage Publications.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Research,

frenderrobert&lambertwallace 1973Frender, Robert, and Wallace Lambert. 1973. Speech style and scholastic success: The tentative relationships and possible implications for lower social class children. In Sociolinguistics: Current trends and prospects. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 1972, 237-272, edited by Roger W. Shuy. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

freudenbergerkarenschoonmaker 1998Freudenberger, Karen Schoonmaker. 1998. Brousse, bovins, et bien-être: Une étude sur la gestion des ressources familiales et communautaires dans le village d'Andaladranovao, Madagascar. Rapport d'une étude de cas d'une RRA réalisée du 17 au 22 décembre 1998. Report, LDI. Fianarantsoa.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

freudenbergerkarenschoonmaker 1999aFreudenberger, Karen Schoonmaker. 1999a. Course pour le corridor: Une étude sur l'économie familiale et la gestion de ressources naturelles dans la commune d'Ikongo, Madagascar. Une étude de cas basée sur la recherche MARP, effectuée du 12 au 19 juin 1999. Report, LDI. Fianarantsoa.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

freudenbergerkarenschoonmaker 1999bFreudenberger, Karen Schoonmaker. 1999b. Le corridor coincé: Une étude sur l'économie familiale et la gestion de ressources naturelles dans la commune d'Alatsinainy Ialamarina, Madagascar. Une étude de cas basée sur la recherche MARP, effectuée le 16 au 21 février 1999. Report, LDI. Fianarantsoa.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,

garennealbert 1918Garenne, Albert. 1918. La forêt tragique: récit authentique. Paris: Plon-Nourrit.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gaudinfrancois 1994Gaudin, François. 1994. Pour une socioterminologie. Rouen: Université de Rouen.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

gautieref 1898Gautier, E. F. 1898. Western Madagascar: Its geology and physical geography. The Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine 22:137-148.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Western,

geertzc 1963Geertz, C. 1963. Old societies and new states: The quest for modernity in Asia and Africa. Glencoe, Illinois: Free Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

geigerricharda&rudzkaostynbrygida 1993Geiger, Richard A., and Brygida Rudzka-Ostyn (eds.) 1993. Conceptualizations and mental processing in language. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,

gernboecklotte 1958Gernböck, Lotte. 1958. Die Krankheiten bei den Eingeborenen Madagaskars ethnologisch und ethno-medizinisch betrachtet. PhD dissertation. Universität Wien.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gernboecklotte 1962bGernböck, Lotte. 1962b. Mohair aus Madagaskar. Confrontation. Afrika-Asien-Europa 2(2):16-18.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

gileshoward&johnsonp 1987Giles, Howard, and P. Johnson. 1987. Ethnolinguistic identity theory: A social psychological approach to language maintenance. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 68:69-99.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

giveletnoel 1978Givelet, Noël. 1978. The fokonolona of Madagascar or the expression of a collective spirit. Ceres 63:31-37.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

goedefroitsophie 1998Goedefroit, Sophie. 1998. A l'ouest de Madagascar: Les Sakalava du Menabe. Collection "hommes et sociétés". Paris: Editions Karthala.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern Sakalava,
Sakalava,
Western,
Sakalava Menabe,
Vezo,
Masikoro,
South-western,

grandidierguillaume&decaryraymond 1958Grandidier, Guillaume, and Raymond Decary. 1958. Histoire politique et coloniale: Histoire des populations autres que les merina. Fascicule I: Betsileo, Betsimisaraka, AnTanôsy, Sihanaka, Tsimihety, Bezanozaro, Antanala, Antankarana, Bara, Mahafaly, Antandroy. Histoire physique, naturelle et politique de Madagascar 5. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,
Bara,
Sihanaka,
Central,
Bezanozano,
Betsileo,
Tsimihety,
Northern,
Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana),
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,
Betsimisaraka,

grandidierguillaume&petitg 1932Grandidier, Guillaume, and G. Petit. 1932. Zoologie de Madagascar. Paris: Societé d'Editions géographiques, maritimes et coloniales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

grimshawallenday 1988Grimshaw, Allen Day. 1988. Sociolinguistics vs sociology of language: Tempest in a teapot or profound academic conundrum? In An international handbook of the science of language and society 1-2, 9-15, edited by Ulrich Ammon, Norbert Dittmar, and Klaus J. Mattheier. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

grimshawallenday 1997Grimshaw, Allen Day. 1997. Origins and milestones. In The early days of sociolinguistics. Memories and reflexions. SIL International: Publications in sociolinguistics, 101-112, edited by Christina Bratt Paulston, and G. Richard Tucker. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
History,

grimshawallenday 1998Grimshaw, Allen Day. 1998. What is a 'handbook of sociolinguistics'? Journal of Sociolinguistics 2(3):432-445.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

gudykunstwilliamb&hallb&schmidtkarenl&tingtoomeys 1989Gudykunst, William B., B. Hall, Karen L. Schmidt, and S. Ting-Toomey. 1989. Language and intergroup communication. In Handbook of international and intercultural communication, 145-162, edited by M. Asante, and William B. Gudykunst. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gudykunstwilliamb 1988Gudykunst, William B. (ed.) 1988. Language and ethnic identity. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

guerinmichel 1969Guérin, Michel. 1969. Les transformations socio-économiques de l'Androy. Antananarivo: Université de Madagascar.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

gueuniernoeljacques 1985Gueunier, Noël Jacques. 1985. Contes de la côte ouest de Madagascar. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Makoa,
Masikoro,
South-western,

guygregoryr&baughjohn&feagincrawford&schiffrindeborah 1995Guy, Gregory R., John Baugh, Crawford Feagin, and Deborah Schiffrin (eds.) 1995. Towards a social science of language. Papers in honor of William Labov. Volume I: Variation and change in language and society. Amsterdam studies in the theory and history of linguistic science 127. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

haarmanharald 1986Haarman, Harald. 1986. Language in ethnicity. A view of basic ecological relations. Contributions to the sociology of language 44. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

Selected quotes:

  • As language is involved in interethnic relations, it is only a language-oriented view of ecology which can provide the key for understanding ethnicity and its place in the network of ecological relations (2).
  • Language ecology is not specified as a special subject or area of language sociology. The ecology of language is not a field of research with a limited sphere of application or of objects investigated. Rather it is based on principles of sociolinguistic analysis. Thus language ecology is valuable as a methodology in the sociology of language dealing as it does with the principles underlying the sociological study of language (2).
  • One can view language ecology as an attempt to find ecological principles applicable to the social study of language, an attempt to construct models of ecological relations for the purpose of elaborating a general theory about such relations. With such a theory, language ecology could serve as an integrating research perspective, one which promises progress in reaching the general goal of sociolinguistic studies. If one shares the view of Grimshaw that this general goal is the examination of the interaction of language structure and social structure and of the interimplications of speech behavior and social behavior (1971:93) then the application of ecology related principles is likely to become a favoured methodology for sociologists (3).
  • Language ecology should cover the whole network of social relations which control the variability of languages and their modal speakers' behavior (3).

halekennethl&craigc&englandn&kraussm&masayesvajeannel&watahomigiel&yamamotoa 1992Hale, Kenneth L., C. Craig, N. England, M. Krauss, Jeanne L. Masayesva, L. Watahomigie, and A. Yamamoto. 1992. Endangered languages. Journal of the Linguistic Society of America 68(1):1-42.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

An excellent motivating article on endangered languages and the "rescue" of such.

hallbergcalindae&olearyclaref 1992Hallberg, Calinda E., and Clare F. O'Leary. 1992. Dialect variation and multilingualism among Gujars of Pakistan. In Hindko and Gujari. Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan 3, 91-194, edited by Calvin R. Rensch, Calinda E. Hallberg, and Clare F. O'Leary. Islamabad: National Institute of Pakistan Studies and Summer Institute of Linguistics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Language assessment,
Research,
Social sciences - other,

hameljacques 1993Hamel, Jacques. 1993. The case study in sociology: The contribution of methodological research in the French language. Canadian Review of Sociology & Anthropology 30(4).

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

A very clear, convincing argument for the appropriateness of the case study approach in sociology, on condition that the objectives of the study are clearly formulated.

hatchmaryjo 1996Hatch, Mary Jo. 1996. The role of the researcher: An analysis of narrative position in organization theory. Journal of Management Inquiry 5(4):359-375.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Social sciences - other,
Research,
Linguistics,

Explores the role of the researcher in terms of "narrative position," showing how traditional ethnography and modernist organizational theory has placed the researcher on the outside of the study object.

haugeneinar 1972mHaugen, Einar. 1972m. Semicommunication: The language gap in Scandinavia. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 215-236, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Research,
Anthropology and ethnology,

heurtebizegeorges 1981Heurtebize, Georges. 1981. Les progressions démographique et spatiale chez les Antandroy vues à travers le clan des Afomarolahy. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 13-14:113-121.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Afomarolahy,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

George Heurtebize presents here an excerpt from his very detailed study on the Afomarolahy, published later in book form. He explains very clearly the hierarchy among Tandroy lineages, giving examples to illustrate. He points out that the Afomarolahy form part of the Renivave (or Renive) group of Antandroy and constitutes, together with the Afondriambita and the Afomilaha, the three main subgroups of Renivave. In marriage, a man may take a wife from his own lineage or from a different Afomarolahy line, or from a different clan within the Renivave or, more rarely, from a non-Renivave group, but always respecting the rule of belonging to the same generation from the furthest ancestor. The author makes interesting applications from his detailed studies, such as the calculation that based on information collected and present numbers of Afomarolahy, one can project that three centuries before, there were very few of them (a small family) who started off the migratory process from the South (well known in oral traditions), by the mouth of the Manabovo River and later, when the population increased, moved further northwards in search of open land.
It should be feasible to record the full history of the Tandroy and other peoples, working backwards, as this researcher has done with one group.

Selected quotes:

  • Le territoire dénommé Androy ne correspond pas à une unité géologique ou géographique; à ces points de vue il présente au contraire des caractères fort diversifiés. La définition de l'Androy est purement humaine: c'est la patrie des Antandroy. Aussi ses limites ne sont-elles pas absolument fixes, mais tendent-elles à s'écarter toujours davantage en suivant l'expansion de la population antandroy. Actuellement ces limites s'établissent sensiblement à l'ouest le long de la rivière Menarandra, à l'est au pied des chaînes anosyennes à partir de l'embouchure du fleuve Mandrare, au nord suivant une ligne sinueuse passant à Bekily et au sud de Beraketa; non que, au nord de cette ligne, il n'y ait plus d'Antandroy, mais ils n'y sont plus seuls. Pour un habitant des environs d'Antanimora, au centre de la région envisagée, la limite nord de l'Androy se situe une vingtaine de kilomètres au sud de Beraketa. Pourtant, s'il doit faire un voyage vers le sud, vers Tsihombe ou Beloha, il dira: "Nous partons dans l'Androy"; ce qui sous-entend qu'en fait, il ne considère pas la région qu'il occupe comme faisant partie de l'Androy véritable.
    C'est qu'en effet toute la région centrale de l'Androy actuel est d'occupation récente. On peut même dire qu'elle reste encore maintenant en voie de colonisation ou d'appropriation, car d'année en année on y voit apparaître de nouveaux villages. L'histoire des déplacements récents peut être étudiée et précisée à partir d'un groupe bien défini (.)(113).
  • Les Afomarolahy font partie du groupe des Renivave, ou Renive, le plus important sans doute des divers groupes antandroy, au moins par son extension géographique. Les Renivave occupent en effet une région allongée en Sud-Nord sur 70km environ, commençant 20 à 30 km au nord de Tsihombe et allant au nord presque jusqu'à la limite de l'Androy. Les Renivave se divisent en plusieurs sous-groupes dont les trois plus importantes sont les Afomarrolahy, les Afondriambita et les Afomihala. Les Afomarolahy sont les plus nombreux. L'effectif des Afondriambita est plus réduit, celui des Afomihala davantage encore (115).
  • Les Afomarolahy occupent la partie sud du territoire des Renivave. Leurs derniers villages ne dépassent guère au nord la latitude d'AndalaTanôsy. Ils s'étendent donc sur une bande de terrain longue d'une cinquantaine de kilomètres, et dont la largeur est d'une vingtaine de kilomètres entre la rivière Manambovo à l'ouest et la grande route de Fort-Dauphin à l'est.
    Le premier arbre généalogique (.) concerne le village d'Analamahery, situé 20km au nord-ouest d'Antanimora. Il s'étend sur huit générations. Il comporte, en plus des noms des maillons de la chaîne familiale, les noms des conjoints ou des conjointes avec le clan et le village d'origine, et l'emplacement des tombeaux. Cet arbre génalogique recouvre la totalité d'un groupe qui se dénomme les Maromainty. La filiation se faisant en ligne patrilinéaire, à chaque génération les femmes nées d'un père maromainty sont elles-mêmes maromainty, mais leurs enfants, si elles se marient en dehors du groupe, ne le sont pas eux-mêmes: ils n'apparaissent donc pas dans l'arbre généalogique des Maromainty, mais dans les arbres généalogiques des groupes voisins (.).
    La première génération (de Maromainty) est représentée par un homme unique, Tsimiantoa, qui a dû naître vers 1800; la deuxième génération par ses trois fils, (.) (115).
  • (.) Actuellement les Maromainty, hommes et femmes, sont environ 300, vivant tous dans le village d'Analamahery, à l'exception, bien entendu, des femmes mariées dans d'autres villages et de ceux qui sont partis chercher du travail dans de lointaines régions de Madagascar (émigration en général temporaire, mais dans certains cas cependant quasi définitive) (116).
  • (.) Tsimiantoa avait trois frères qui ont fait souche de la façon que lui. Leur descendants peuplent plusieurs agglomérations qui forment le long village d'Antanandava, 4km à l'ouest d'Analamahery. De même que Tsimiantoa est l'ancêtre unique des Maromainty, Tsimagnola est l'ancêtre unique des Marofoty, Taindraza l'ancêtre unique des Marotsontsa, et Voriay l'ancêtre unique des Tebagnake. Le père des quatre frères est donc, lui, l'ancêtre unique des quatre branches, que recouvre le nom général de Tandranatelo. Tous les Tandranatelo, au nombre de 1000 environ, sont donc des cousins plus ou moins éloignés. C'est bien ainsi qu'ils se ressentent, comme des parents proches (.). Les Tandranatelo possèdent pour eux tous un seul poteau sacré hazomanga.
    (.) Mais revenons maintenant aux Afomarolahy. Les Tandranatelo sont en effet un de la quinzaine de lignages qui constitue le clan des Afomarolahy. Certains de ces lignages sont plus importants que celui des Tandranatelo, d'autres moins (.). Un des lignages les plus fournis est celui des Marokobo (.) (qui) peuplent quatre gros villages dispersés du sud au nord de l'aire couverte par les Afomarolahy. De même que les Tandranatelo sont divisés en quatre sous-lignages, les Marokobo, et aussi les autres lignages des Afomarolahy, sont également subdivisés. Mais quel que soit le nombre de ses membres et la dispersion actuelle de ses implantations, chaque lignage ne possède qu'un seul poteau sacré hazomanga (sauf accident temporaire provenant par exemple de querelle à l'intérieur d'un lignage) devant lequel tout le monde se retrouve pour le Savatse,la cérémonie préparatoire à la circoncision (117).
  • Tous les Afomarolahy ont conscience d'être apparentés, alors que l'appartenance au groupe plus vaste des Renivave avec les Afondriambita et les Afomihala ne paraît pas susciter à l'égard de ces derniers un sentiment de réelle parenté. Tous, disent-ils, ont un ancêtre commun. Le nom d'Andriamarolahy est souvent prononcé, mais le souvenir des filiations entre Andriamarolahy et les ancêtres situés à la racine de chaque lignage s'est perdu. Sauf peut-être chez un vieil homme (né vers 1890), habitant près de Jafaro et nommé Fanambinae, ou plus couramment Imbina. Il est dépositaire d'une tradition orale qui donne ce qui serait le fond généalogique commun à tous les Afomarolahy. Andriamarolahy serait un Bara Zafemaroza venu avec cinq fils de la région de Vangaindrano. Tous ont été accueillis par le roi antandroy des Temagnorikandro, qui habitait la région de Faralambo, à l'embouchure de la Manambovo. Les cinq fils se sont mariés là, et sont à l'origine des Afomarolahy (.) (117).
  • (.) Il faut cependant noter que deux lignages, même s'ils se considèrent comme entièrement Afomarolahy, se sont adjoints aux descendents d'Andriamarolahy sans en descendre eux-mêmes. Il s'agit des Tandranatelo et des Tantsaha. L'ancêtre des Tandranatelo est en réalité un Bara qui, avec son cousin, l'ancêtre des Tantsaha, est venu prendre femme parmi les Afomarolahy. Les descendants de ces deux hommes se sont intégrés complètement au clan. Mais pour les calculs de progression démographique, il faut donc soustraire ces deux lignages de la descendance réelle d'Andria marolahy-encore qu'ils en descendent cependant, mais par les femmes (118).
  • (.) dès (l'époque de Tsimiantoa) existait la complète liberté de choix qui préside encore maintenant à la conclusion des mariages. C'est-à-dire qu'un homme peut prendre comme épouse dans son propre lignage une parenté très proche (cousine germaine) ou une cousine plus éloignée; ou bien une parenté plus lointaine dans un autre lignage des Afomarolahy; ou bien une fille d'un autre clan que les Afomarolahy à l'intérieur des Renivave; ou bien enfin, plus rarement, une "étrangère" appartenant à un autre groupe, non Renivave. La seule règle, qui est et a toujours été respectée, est que les conjointes doivent appartenir à la même génération à partir de l'ancêtre commun, si éloigné soit-il. C'est d'ailleurs un excellent moyen de contrôler les uns par les autres les arbres généalogiques des différents lignages, en vérifiant que les multiples mariages qui y apparaissent de l'un et de l'autre n'enfreignent pa cette règle (119).
  • (.)Le village d'Analamahery a été créé vers 1920, en terrain libre, ce qui ne veut pas dire que personne auaravant n'avait occupé ces parages. Sans remonter au peuplement très ancien qui n'apparaît dans aucune tradition orale, mais dont on trouve de nombreuses traces archéologiques, une vague antandroy au moins avait précédé dans cette région les actuels occupants. Il s'agissait de forgerons qui ont laissé de nombreux témoins de leur travail et que la tradition dit avoir été des Tebekitro, qui sont ensuite partis vers l'ouest, ou ils ont fondé le village de Bekitro.
    Les parents et grands-parents des vieillards actuels avaient connu plusieurs étapes avant d'arriver à Analamahery, la plus importante de beaucoup étant celle d'Andragnanivo, 30 km au sud d'Antanimora. Tous les lignages afomarolahy, qui à cette époque ne s'étaient pas encore dispersés, ont fait en commun une longue station à Andragnanivo, et ce lieu est considéré par tous comme la "terre des ancêtres" par excellence (.) (119).
  • (.) Les noms des diverses étapes sont restés dans la mémoire de beaucoup (.) Successivement: Antsera, puis Kobaignabo, (.) puis Lahabe, 8 km au sud-est d'Andragnanivo, où beaucoup d'ancêtres ont leur tombeaux, enfin Andragnanivo (.). Tous les Afomarolahy sont restés groupés jusqu'à Andragnanivo. La dispersion des divers lignages à partir d'Andragnanivo a commencé un peu avant 1900, pour cause de pression démographique (.). Les hameaux créés il y a 40 à 60 ans sont devenus autant de villages, et l'on comprend pourquoi chacun de ces villages, encore maintenant, constitue une seule grande famille dont tous les individus trouvent place sur un arbre généalogique unique (120).
  • En résumé, les Afomarolahy, initialement petite famille habitant près de la mer à l'embouchure de la Manambavo, ont progressivement remonté vers le nord, en restant groupés, jusqu'à Andragnanivo. C'est de là qu'après une longue station s'est faite vers 1900, sous la poussée démographique qui imposait à chaque groupe d'aller plus loin chercher de nouvelles terres, la dispersion des lignages sur le vaste territoire (.).
    (.) les voisins des Afomarolahy ont connu des cheminements comparables, c'-est-à-dire qu'ils sont partis de l'embouchure de la Manambovo pour remonter vers le nord. C'est en particulier le cas des Afondriambita (dont l'ancêtre est venu de l'Anosy) et des Afomihala, Renivave comme les Afomarolahy, et qui ont habité Andragnanivo avec ces derniers. C'est aussi le cas des Milahe, les voisins actuels des Afomarolahy de l'autre côté de la Manambovo, qui ont été longtemps des ennemis contre qui se livraient des batailles meurtrières (120).

hoernerjeanmichel 1986Hoerner, Jean-Michel. 1986. Géographie régionale du sud-ouest de Madagascar. Antananarivo: Association des Géographes de Madagascar.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
South-western,

More than a handbook on Geography, this study is a discovery of the southwest of Madagascar in terms of population, history, development, and way of life. It is the result of more than ten years' experience of the region. Hoerner answers many questions one might have on the South and its people.

hoernerjeanmichel 1988Hoerner, Jean-Michel. 1988. L'espace migratoire des Mahafale, facteur de cohésion et de développement. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 28:113-121.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

The Mahafaly people have a remarkable faculty to adapt and although they were traditionally herdsmen and farmers, are now becoming craftsmen and traders. This, argues Hoerner, does not destroy the social cohesion they have known, but shows cohesion in the transition they experience.

hoggmichaela 1995Hogg, Michael A. 1995. Intra group processes, group structure and social identity. In Social groups and identities, edited by W. P. Robinson. Oxford: Butterworth-Heineman.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

homanroger 1980Homan, Roger. 1980. The ethics of covert methods. British Journal of Sociology 31(1):46-59.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Social sciences - other,

hugotbernard 1973Hugot, Bernard. 1973. Etudes des facteurs humains de la production agricole de trois périmètres hydro-agricoles Behara-Andratsay-Belamoty. Tome 2: Belamoty. Report, Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer. Antananarivo.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

huntingtonwilliamrichard 1986bHuntington, William Richard. 1986b. The transformation of the Bara rural economy. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 299-319, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,
Merina,
Central,
Betsileo,

Richard Huntington presents here an interesting case study of the area of his field work during 1970-1974, namely the village of Anosibe, consisting of 14 small Bara hamlets. He discusses social relationships and interaction, economic and cultural activities, and emphasises the changes he had perceived in the four years of close contact with this population, mainly change brought about by external governmental factors and controls, resulting in a self-sufficient and independent economy becoming reliant on outside control and becoming increasingly vulnerable to the evils of organised cattle-stealing.
The author describes the self-containedness of Bara society, the impermeability to Western thought and ideology, such as a total disinterest in the Christian faith. They had (to a measure) opened up to the idea of education during the years the author describes, after the opening of the first school in Anosibe in 1975. Another factor of change is in the main road between Ihosy and Ranotsara, which passes by Anosibe, facilitating contact with the "outside world."
Having discussed a number of adjustments that the author has observed over time among the population of Anosibe, he says in closing that "it may well be that the most important period of human adjustment for the Bara is now upon them" (318).

Selected quotes:

  • European-derived attitudes and institutions have had a minimal influence on customs, perceptions and aspirations (314).
  • As one example, consider Christianity. Not one person at Anosibe is even nominally Christian or has ever attended a Christian worship service. In a country where it is often claimed that a large majority of its people are Christian, the Bara stand as a firm exception. There are Protestant and Catholic churches in Ranotsara, Ivohibe, and Ihosy, but they are filled with people of other ethnic groups. The Bara are simply not interested. The contrast between this Bara situation and the rapid and early conversion of the Betsileo is striking and would provide an interesting subject for further investigation (314-5).

huntingtonwilliamrichard 1988Huntington, William Richard. 1988. Gender and social structure in Madagascar. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

instat 1996INSTAT. 1996. Recensement général de la population et de l'habitat. Résultats définitifs:Tableaux statistiques. Report, Institut National de la Statistique. Antananarivo.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Quantitative research,
Research,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

A general census was done in 1993, in collaboration between the Institut National de la Statistique, the Recencement général de la population et de l'habitat, US AID, FNUAP, and PNUD. Much helpful information was published.

jernuddbjoernh 1968Jernudd, Bjørn H. 1968. Linguistic integration and national development: A case study of the Jebel Marra area, Sudan. In Language problems of developing nations, 167-181, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

jollyalison 1980Jolly, Alison. 1980. A world like our own: Man and nature in Madagascar. New Haven: Yale University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

jollyalison 1990Jolly, Alison. 1990. On the edge of survival. In Madagascar: A world out of time, 110-121, edited by Frans Lanting. New York: Aperture.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

jurgensenphilippe 1991Jurgensen, Philippe. 1991. La crise du Golfe et l'Afrique. Afrique Contemporaine 159:3-13.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,

kashimaemikos&kashimayoshihisa 1998Kashima, Emiko S., and Yoshihisa Kashima. 1998. Culture and language. The case of cultural dimensions and personal pronoun use. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 29(3):461-487.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

keenanelinorochs 1989Keenan, Elinor Ochs. 1989. Norm-makers, norm-breakers: Uses of speech by men and women in a Malagasy community. In Explorations in the ethnography of speaking, 125-143, edited by Richard Bauman, and Joel Sherzer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vakinankaratra,
Central,
Merina,

An excellent article on Malagasy speech culture, written from experiences in the village of Namoizamanga in the Vakinankaratra. A learning experience for a vazaha (foreigner) to read this article-du savoir-vivre.

koentjaraningrat 1967Koentjaraningrat (ed.) 1967. Villages in Indonesia. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,

koernerfrancis 1999Koerner, Francis. 1999. Histoire de l'enseignement privé et officiel à Madagascar (1820-1995). Les implications religieuses et politiques dans la formation d'un peuple. Paris: L'Harmattan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

kottakconradphillip&rakotoarisoajeanaime&southallaidan&verinpierre 1986Kottak, Conrad Phillip, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin (eds.) 1986. Madagascar: Society and history 38. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

See under individual authors.

kottakconradphillip 1977Kottak, Conrad Phillip. 1977. The process of state formation in Madagascar. American Ethnologist 4(1):136-155.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Bara,
Southern,
Merina,
Central,
Betsileo,
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,

lahaj 1988Laha, J. 1988. Fomba amam-panaon'ny Bara Marovola. Dia Raiky 4-7.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Marovola,
Bara,
Southern,

laitindavidd 2000Laitin, David D. 2000. What is a language community? American Journal of Political Science 44(1):142-156.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

lambertwallace&gardnerrc&oltonr&tunstallk 1968Lambert, Wallace, R. C. Gardner, R. Olton, and K. Tunstall. 1968. A study of the roles, attitudes and motivation in second-language learning. In Readings in the sociology of language, 473-491, edited by Joshua A. Fishman. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

layderderek 1988Layder, Derek. 1988. The relation of theory and method: Causal relatedness, historical contingency and beyond. Sociological Review 36(3):441-463.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Research methodology,
Research,
Social sciences - other,

lebigrejeanmichel 1997Lebigre, Jean-Michel (ed.) 1997. Milieux et sociétés dans le sud-ouest de Madagascar. Iles et archipels 23. Bordeaux: CRET.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Sakalava,
Menabe,
Masikoro,
South-western,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,
Bara,

Very good source for more than geography and environment!

letsonben 1995Letson, Ben. 1995. Richard Rorty and the meaning of social science. International Social Science Review 70(1-2):43-52.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Quantitative research,
Research,
Qualitative research,
Social sciences - other,

Pragmatists such as Richard Rorty do not see the natural sciences as an ideal, able to offer methodological lessons to the social sciences. In other words, success in the natural sciences does not guarantee fruitful application of the same methods in other areas of research. To Rorty there is no such thing "as scientific method in any sense that would set this method apart from what most of us do all the time (Letson, nd:44). This makes the "search for scientific method (to be) misguided" (Ibid) except if by method we mean "approach." Rorty's holistic way of thinking teasingly brings the scientific ideal back down to earth, indicating that "while scientists may bristle at the suggestion that what they do is no more rational or objective than what ethicists do, ethicists (and theologians) can take comfort in the fact that, contrary to what most of the culture believes, what they do is every bit as rational and objective as what scientists do" (47). Rorty's view offers a "useful protest against the fetishism of old-fashioned 'behaviourist' social scientists who worry about whether they are being 'scientific'" (49). He does not subscribe however, to views that draw "a principled distinction between man and nature, announcing that the ontological difference dictates a methodological difference" (49). The value of the interpretive approach is in the beginning stages of any inquiry, "when we are searching for a useful vocabulary in which to cast a problem"(49) and in dealing with human beings as "moral creatures."

Selected quotes:

  • No sooner does one discover the categories of the pure understanding for a Newtonian age than somebody draws up another list that would do nicely for an Aristotelian or an Einsteinian one. No sooner does one draw up a categorical imperative for Christians than somebody draws up one which works for cannibals (.). The reason this game is so easy to play is that none of these philosophical theories have to do much work. The real work has been done by scientists who have developed the explanatory theories by patience and genius, or the societies which developed the moralities and institutions in struggle and pain. All the Platonic or Kantian philosopher does is to take the finished first-level product, jack it up a few levels of abstraction, invent a metaphysical or epistemologiocal or semantical vocabulary into which to translate it, and announce that he has grounded it (45: from Rorty, 1982:168).
  • "Explanation" is merely the sort of understanding one looks for when one wants to predict and control. It does not contrast with something else called "understanding" as the abstract contrasts with the concrete, or the artificial with the natural, or the "repressive" with the "liberating." To say that something is better "understood" in one vocabulary than another is always an ellipsis for the claim that a description in the preferred vocabulary is more useful for a certain purpose. If the purpose is prediction, then one will want one sort of vocabulary. If it is evaluation, one may or may not want a different sort of vocabulary. (In the case of evaluating artillery fire, for example, the predictive vocabulary of ballistics will do nicely. In the case of evaluating human character, the vocabulary of stimulus and response is beside the point (48: from Rorty 1982:197).

leyewzelealem 1998Leyew, Zelealem. 1998. An Ethiopian language on the verge of extinction: K'Emant, a preliminary sociolinguistic survey. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 134:69-84.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Research,

lindzeygardner&aronsonelliot 1968Lindzey, Gardner, and Elliot Aronson (eds.) 1968. The handbook of social psychology. 4 Vol. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,

lintonralph 1928Linton, Ralph. 1928. Culture areas in Madagascar. American Anthropologist 30(3):363-390.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Tsimihety,
Northern,
Betsimisaraka,
Eastern,

There has been much back-and-forth about uniformity in Madagascar, and as can be seen from this article, from the earliest times. Linton points out that there are "three fairly well-marked culture areas in Madagascar, with the usual marginal tribes of mixed culture (.) which agree in a general way with the main geographic and climatic divisions of the island" (363).
He draws comparisons among three main areas of Madagascar, namely 1. the East Coast, which to the North includes the Betsimisaraka and to the South a "number of small tribes commonly, but incorrectly, grouped under the term Antaimorona" (363); 2. the "Plateaux, occupied by the Betsileo, Imerina (commonly called Hova) and Sihanaka," and 3. the "West Coast and Extreme South, occupied by the Sakalava, Mahafaly, Antandroy, and Bara."
The Tanala and Bezanozano tribes are intermediate in culture between areas 1 and 2, while the Tsimahety and Antankarana in the extreme north and the Tanôsy in the southeast seem to be intermediary between areas 1 and 3" (365).
The most interesting phenomenon of this article is the division into three areas, later taken up by linguists in connection with language. Linton makes no mention of language in this article, nor does he indicate his sources for postulating the three areas or the anthropological data he proposes. Other notable points are his sorting of a number of groups under the term "Sakalava" without specifying which, as well as the spelling of Tsimahety and the omission of the Tanôsy migration towards the Onilahy.
His argument is for cultural diversity in Madagascar, uniformity seemingly an assumption of his time, but he argues the point using terms like "tribe," "gens" and "gentes," indicative of the longstanding confusion concerning Malagasy cultures.
The main fault of this historical work is the lack of references: one does not know where the author got his information from. Researchers in Madagascar often present their specific area of research as representative of Malagasy culture as a whole. Linton was aware of this problem.

lojacomofrancois 1986Lo Jacomo, François. 1986. Plurilinguisme et communication. Paris: Société d'Etudes Linguistiques et Anthropologiques de France.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

luporaveloarimananamonique 1995Lupo-Raveloarimanana, Monique. 1995. Pauvreté et culture dans le faritany de Tulear. Talily 1:91-100.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

This paper summarises some of the findings made by a pluridisciplinary group of researchers on cultural and economic aspects in the region. They were reporting to the World Bank and to various NGO's who are interested in working in the area. The summary given here contains many interesting facts, confirming the people's continued attachment to tradition and the intensity of community life, pointing out tendencies towards change, especially where education has been involved. Traditions pertaining to ancestral religion are a heavy economic load, especially when it concerns burial. Mentioning costs calculated for 1992-1993, the average burial would cost between four million and ten million Fmg (between four hundred and one thousand dollars) and if someone was really poor, the cost was at least two bulls and about ten goats totalling about two million Fmg(two hundred dollars). According to the report, some people, especially among the poorest, have converted to Christianity to escape this heavy burden in a dignified manner.
Some of the fady have counter-productive significance, e.g. the fady of the pike (faly manao pike-drying sweet potatoes) among the Tandroy. While they may consume it dry, they are not themselves allowed to ever dry their abundant harvest of sweet potatoes which doesn't keep for long, and consequently have to sell it cheaply to resellers (mpanao kinanga) who will dry it and sell it back to them at a higher cost. This taboo seems like a mockery in an area where famine is a constant threat and where food supplies are generally insufficient.

luporaveloarimananamonique 1996aLupo-Raveloarimanana, Monique. 1996a. L'eau dans le grand sud. Talily 3-4:113-126.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern,

This article is an analysis of the problem of water in the south of Madagascar and deals with four main themes, namely: problems with water and the insecurity of food supplies; the relationship between drought and migration; the importance of customs and beliefs; and infrastructures for water-distribution in the south.

luporaveloarimananamonique 1996bLupo-Raveloarimanana, Monique. 1996b. Tranoroa: Sur les bords de la Menarandra. Talily 3-4:127-129.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),

Tranoroa is a border town, between Mahafale and Androy on the route between Ampanihy and Tsihombe. In this article, the author briefly describes aspects of life in Tranoroa.

luzebernardde 1991aLuze, Bernard de. 1991a. La situation actuelle des différentes églises. Afrique Contemporaine 159:20-26.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Social sciences - other,
History,

lynchthomase 1997Lynch, Thomas E. 1997. Embracing modernity: The conservatism of Hayek and Polanyi. Modern Age 39(2):107-122.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Research,

macnamarajohn 1971Macnamara, John. 1971. Successes and failures in the movement for the restoration of Irish. In Can language be planned?, 65-94, edited by Joan Rubin, and Bjørn H. Jernudd. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

mangalazaeugeneregis 1998Mangalaza, Eugène-Régis. 1998. Vie et mort chez les Betsimisaraka de Madagascar. Essai d'anthropologie philosophique. Paris: L'Harmattan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Northern Betsimisaraka (Antavaratra, Tavaratra),
Betsimisaraka,
Eastern,

Selected quotes:

  • (.) cette forme de domination merina, mal acceptée est restée présente dans la conscience populaire jusqu'à l'époque actuelle. En témoignent ces signes idéologiques comme l'interdiction de mariage avec des Merina (fady manambady hova) ou encore l'interdiction d'utiliser le dialecte merina dans des espaces consacrés comme certaines vallées, certaines embouchures ou enfin certaines grottes (31-32).

marchaljeanyves 1974Marchal, Jean-Yves. 1974. La colonisation agricole au moyen-ouest malgache: La petite région d'Ambohimanambola (sous-préfecture de betafo). Atlas des structures agraires à Madagascar. Paris-La Haye: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vazimba,
Western,
Bara,
Southern,
Vakinankaratra,
Central,
Betsileo,

Some historical information on the people movements in the area of Betafo during the previous centuries.

maussmarcel 1934Mauss, Marcel. 1934. Fragment d'un plan de sociologie générale descriptive - classification et méthode d'observation des phénomènes généraux de la vie sociale dans les sociétés de types archaïques (phénomènes généraux spécifiques de la vie intérieure de la société). Annales Sociologiques A(1):1-56.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,

maytim 1997May, Tim. 1997. When theory fails? The history of American sociological research methods. Jennifer Platt, a history of sociological research methods in America 1920-1960. History of the human sciences 10(1):147-156.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Research methodology,
Research,
Social sciences - other,

mazruialia 1968Mazrui, Ali A. 1968. Some sociopolitical functions of English literature in Africa. In Language problems of developing nations, 183-197, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

middletonkaren 1999Middleton, Karen. 1999. Who killed 'Malagasy cactus'? science, environment and colonialism in southern Madagascar (1924-1930). Journal of Southern African Studies 25(2):215-249.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Karimbola (Karembola),

moizobernard 1997Moizo, Bernard. 1997. Des esprits, des tombeaux, du miel et des boufs: Perception et utilisation de la forêt en pays Bara Imamono. In Milieux et sociétés dans le sud-ouest de Madagascar. Iles et Archipels, 43-66, edited by Jean-Michel Lebigre. Bordeaux: CRET.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Manonga,
Bara,
Southern,
Imamono,

moletlouis 1953Molet, Louis. 1953. Le bouf dans l'Ankaizinana, son importance sociale et économique. Mémoires de l'Institut scientifique de Madagascar. Série C, Sciences humaines. 2. Mémoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. Série C, Sciences humaines 2. Tananarive: IRSM.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern,

mondaingustave 1925Mondain, Gustave. 1925. Rôle religieux de la femme malgache. Paris: Société des Missions Evangéliques.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,
Merina,
Central,
Betsileo,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1996aMühlhäusler, Peter. 1996a. Linguistic adaptation to changed environmental conditions: Some lessons from the past. In Sprachökologie und ökolinguistik, 105-130, edited by Alwin Fill. Tübingen: Stauffenburg.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1999bMühlhäusler, Peter. 1999b. Mind your language: Ecolinguistics as a resource for ecotourism. In Proceedings of the National Conference of the Ecotourism Association of Australia, Fraser Island, 1999.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

muntheludvig 1985Munthe, Ludvig. 1985. La tradition Arabico-malgache et l'influence Indonesienne. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 21-22:57-59.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,

Selected quotes:

  • (.) je pense qu'il est important pour trouver l'identité malgache, de tourner maintenant le regard en direction de l'Est (59)
  • Le Sorabe étant une écriture phonétique, il permet de connaître la language malgache parlée autrefois. Si nous nous rappelons que le manuscrit sorabe le plus ancien connu a été enregistré en Europe au début du XVIIIè siècle, et qu'il peut être considérée comme une "bande magnétique" de la langue parlée à Madagascar au XVIIè siècle sinon au XVIè siècle, nous en comprenons l'importance (58).
  • Mes récentes études en Indonésie m'ont persuadé qu'on devrait s'y rendre pour trouver des réponses à certaines questions sur l'ancienne religion malgache (59).
  • A propos de l'Indonésie, on peut aussi poser la question de savoir si l'ancien nom donné à l'écriture arabico-malgache: sorabe, ne correspond pas à une soratra kely, plus ancienne, apportée d'Indonésie à Madagascar (59).

murdockgp 1959Murdock, G. P. 1959. Africa, its people and their culture history. New York: McGraw-Hill.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

nekitelotto 1992Nekitel, Otto. 1992. Culture change, language change: The case of Abu'Arapesh, Sandaun province, Papua new Guinea. In Culture change, language change. Case studies from Melanasia. Pacific linguistics. Series C: Books 120, 49-58, edited by Tom Dutton. Canberra: Australian National University, Dept of Linguistics: Research School of Pacific Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

nettledaniel&romainesuzanne 2000Nettle, Daniel, and Suzanne Romaine. 2000. Vanishing voices: The extinction of the world's languages. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

nettledaniel 2000Nettle, Daniel. 2000. Linguistic fragmentation and the wealth of nations: The Fishman-pool hypothesis reexamined. Economic Development and Cultural Change 48(2):335-348.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

Selected quotes:

  • The fact that two variables have co-evolved in no way implies that manipulating one will affect the other in the desired direction (345).
  • Furthermore, there is little evidence that the ethnolinguistic situation of a country can be effectively manipulated, even if this is thought desirable and ethical; the experience of language planning is that it often fails and only succeeds where it is concordant with the spontaneous sociolinguistic preferences of most of the people. Indeed, it is likely that the economic situation will ultimately determine the linguistic one, since people respond to economic incentives not just in narrow monetary terms, but with broad patterns of often unconscious social-cultural choices that involve shifting their patterns of language use (346).
  • I have argued elsewhere that linguistic groups should be seen as systems of generalized exchange, and that linguistic diversity arises precisely where the scope of such exchange is limited. Money is another system of exchange, analogous to language in many ways, and we should not be surprised to find that the scope of one system is related to that of another. GDP will tend to be low where the economy is very local, people are self-sufficient, and transactions are nonmonetized. These are precisely the conditions required for high linguistic diversity. Large linguistic groups arise where there is more intense exchange over longer distances; GDP will be higher under such circumstances because more of the goods produced will enter the monetized market, and they will tend to travel further and to pass through more intermediaries, with the corresponding additions of value (340-1).

njengaj 1983Njenga, J. 1983. Autour du mariage traditionnel ou coutumier. Telema 9(34):25-32.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

norbergmadlena 1994Norberg, Madlena. 1994. Small languages and small language communities, 16. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 107:149-158.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

The Sorbs are a linguistic minority of 67,000 speakers in Germany (South-East); They constitute the smallest West Slavic people. This article describes their history and present status.

Selected quotes:

  • I can only imagine the world with my ethnicity in place. Its disappearance signifies loss. Slowly but surely the impoverishment would be perceptible across the country's breadth. Perhaps even continentally and planetarily. One color less. Increase of greyness. One sound less, one language less. Increase of silence (156: quoted from Jurij Koch, 1992:42, Lower Sorbian Author).

normandonalda 1976Norman, Donald A. 1976. Memory and attention. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,

oberlep 1976Oberlé, P. 1976. Tananarive et l'Imerina. Paris: Présence Africaine.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

oberlep 1979Oberlé, P. 1979. Provinces malgaches. Paris: Editions Kintana.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

oberlep 1981Oberlé, P. 1981. Madagascar: Un sanctuaire de la nature. Paris: Editions Kintana.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

olsonsherryh 1984Olson, Sherry H. 1984. The robe of the ancestors: Forests in the history of Madagascar. Journal of Forest History 28:174-186.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

one 1994ONE. 1994. Rapport sur l'etat de l'environnement à Madagascar. Report, Office National de l'Environnement. Antananarivo.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Quantitative research,
Research,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

pagerobertble 1968Page, Robert B. le. 1968. Problems to be faced in the use of English as the medium of education in four west Indian territories. In Language problems of developing nations, 431-442, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

paillardyvangeorges 1979Paillard, Yvan-Georges. 1979. The first and second Malagasy republics: The difficult road of independence. In Madagascar in history. Essays from the 1970's, edited by Raymond Kent. Albany, California: Foundation for Malagasy Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

paillardyvangeorges 1987Paillard, Yvan-Georges. 1987. Les recherches démographiques sur Madagascar au début de l'époque coloniale et les documents de "l'AMI". Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines 27:17-42.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Historical demographics of Madagascar, giving some interesting historical insights.

palmergaryb 1996Palmer, Gary B. 1996. Toward a theory of cultural linguistics. Austin: University of Texas Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

paulstonchristinabratt 1994Paulston, Christina Bratt. 1994. Linguistic minorities in multilingual settings: Implications for language policies. Studies in bilingualism 4. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

pavageauj 1981Pavageau, J. 1981. Jeunes paysans sans terre. L'exemple malgache. Paris: L'Harmattan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

perrierdelabathiehenri 1931Perrier De La Bathie, Henri. 1931. Le salariat indigène à Madagascar. In Congrès international et intercolonial de la société indigène (5-10 octobre 1931), edited by Exposition coloniale internationale de Paris. Paris: Exposition Coloniale Internationale.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

peslenicolas 1986Pesle, Nicolas. 1986. Belamoty: Village Tanôsy de l'Onilahy (madagascar). Tulear: CEDRATOM.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,

plattjennifer 1981bPlatt, Jennifer. 1981b. Evidence and proof in documentary research: 2. Some shared problems of documentary research. Sociological Review 29(1):53-66.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Social sciences - other,

plattjennifer 1983Platt, Jennifer. 1983. The development of the 'participant observation' method in sociology: Origin, myth, and history. Journal of the history of the behavioral sciences 19(4):379-393.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Social sciences - other,

plattjennifer 1986Platt, Jennifer. 1986. Functionalism and the survey: The relation of theory and method. Sociological Review 34(3):501-536.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Research methodology,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

plattjennifer 1988Platt, Jennifer. 1988. A comment on: The relation of theory and method: Causal relatedness, historical contingency and beyond. Sociological Review 36(3):464-469.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Research methodology,
Social sciences - other,

plattjennifer 1992Platt, Jennifer. 1992. "Case study" in American methodological thought. Current Sociology 40(1):17-48.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Social sciences - other,

plattjennifer 1996Platt, Jennifer. 1996. The history of sociological research methods in America, 1920-1960. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Research methodology,
Research,
Social sciences - other,

poirierjean 1965Poirier, Jean (ed.) 1965. Etudes de droit africain et de droit malgache. Etudes malgaches 16. Paris: Cujas.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

pratorcliffordh 1968Prator, Clifford H. 1968. The British heresy in TESL. In Language problems of developing nations, 459-476, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

profitappietro 1972Profita, P. Piétro. 1972. La fonction transculturelle des coutumes malgaches. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 48(1-2):33-40.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rabenorocesaire 1986Rabenoro, Césaire. 1986. Les relations extérieures de Madagascar de 1960 à 1972. Paris: L'Harmattan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rahamefyramarolahyadolphe 1995Rahamefy-Ramarolahy, Adolphe. 1995. Une thérapeutique ambiguë: Apprivoiser les ancêtres ou exorcer les démons? In Diagnostiquer et guérir à Madagascar. Etudes Océan Indien 19, 71-76, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rajaonarimanananarivelo 1986Rajaonarimanana, Narivelo. 1986. Quelques traits de l'organisation sociale des Betsileo du Manandriana. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 245-262, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,

rajaonasimeon 1959Rajaona, Siméon. 1959. Essai d'analyse de la structure de la pensée malgache. Examen de quelques notions. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 37:75-79.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rajaonasimeon 1963Rajaona, Siméon. 1963. Aspects de la psychologie malgache vus à travers certains traits des "kabary" et quelques faits de langue. Annales de l'Université de Madagascar, Série Lettres et Sciences Humaines 1:23-37.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rakotoarimananamarcelle 1995Rakotoarimanana, Marcelle. 1995. Maladies, pratiques thérapeutiques et sorcellerie à Vinaninkarena (centre de madagascar). In Diagnostiquer et guérir à Madagascar. Etudes Océan Indien 19, 53-69, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Central,

rakotomalalamalanjaonamanoelina&razafimbelocelestin 1985Rakotomalala, Malanjaona Manoelina, and Célestin Razafimbelo. 1985. Le problème d'intégration sociale chez les Makoa de l'Antsihanaka. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 21-22:93-113.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Makoa,
Western,
Sihanaka,
Central,

Insightful article of the Makoa community in Antsihanaka. A short wordlist elicited in 1982 is given in annexe.

rakotomalalamalanjaonamanoelina 1995Rakotomalala, Malanjaona Manoelina. 1995. La lèpre vue à travers une esquisse comparative de trois jeux d'enfants malgaches. In Diagnostiquer et guérir à Madagascar. Etudes Océan Indien 19, 77-105, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rakotomalalayolandejv 1995Rakotomalala, Yolande J. V. 1995. Les pathologies prédominantes à Madagascar au dernier quart du xixe siècle, d'après les rapports des missionnaires britanniques. In Diagnostiquer et guérir à Madagascar. Etudes Océan Indien 19, 111-114, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rakotonaivofrancois 1997Rakotonaivo, François. 1997. Ny riba Malagasy eran'ny Nosy. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rakotondrabemodeste 1993Rakotondrabe, Modeste. 1993. Malgachisation de l'enseignement et francophonie. Recherches et Documents 16:28-71.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

ramamonjisoanirhylanto 1995Ramamonjisoa, Nirhy-Lanto. 1995. Une thèse de médecine sur le tanghin, soutenue en 1891 par Joseph Rasamimanana. In Diagnostiquer et guérir à Madagascar. Etudes Océan Indien 19, 105-110, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

ramamonjisoasuzyandree 1976Ramamonjisoa, Suzy Andrée. 1976. La femme malgache avant la colonisation. Antananarivo: Direction de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

Much information to be found on ancestral worship, the names of God, the sampy and ody, and social customs.

ramasindraibep 1975Ramasindraibe, P. 1975. Fokonolona, fototry ny firenena. Antananarivo: Nouvelle Imprimerie des Arts Graphiques.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

ramisiraygershon 1901Ramisiray, Gershon. 1901. Pratiques et croyances médicales des malgaches. Paris: A. Maloine.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

randriamamonjyfrederic 2001Randriamamonjy, Frédéric. 2001. Tantaran'i Madagasikara isam-paritra. Antananarivo: Trano Printy Loterana.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Good record of generally accepted ideas on the different "sociétés" of Madagascar: clearly written with maps and interesting facts. Documents the usual views, without substantiating any: written with a Merina academic bias. Does not primarily take into account the people's own views of themselves and their history.

randriamarolazalouispaul 1986Randriamarolaza, Louis Paul. 1986. Elevage et vol de boufs en pays Bara: La dimension socio-culturelle. Recherches pour le Développement. Série Science de l'Homme et de la Société 1:87-104.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

This paper summarises the findings of a survey the author conducted in Bara-be, the Horombe plateau, and provides valuable insight into Bara culture, in general, particularly into the phenomenon of cattle-rustling. It is clear that the cattle-rustling in the traditional Bara context has an economic and traditional meaning that this author analyses in the light of other work done on the subject in the past century or so. He divides the latter into two categories: a first category of literature with views which he terms between ethnocentrism (e.g. "this blemish of the Malagasy nation, which the civilising France will remove by educating the barbarians") and reductionism (national authors who view the phenomenon as an illness or as a danger for cattle-breeding which they want to eradicate by law and by force). The second category tends towards a more globalising explanation of the phenomenon. Here he perceives a negative view of the problem (where the phenomenon is seen as social pathology) and a positive view (where the cattle-rustling is seen as an element of production). This author reveals important information concerning this controversial phenomenon and is in no way party to condescension. He mentions a proverb (p.94) that he has often heard during his fieldwork: "Ny halatsy tsindrokiny ny mahery", which means that the stealing of cattle is the only form of gathering worthy of the strong ("le vol de boufs est la seule forme de cueillette digne des forts"), which explains the view of cattle-rustling as an extension of a lifestyle of hunter-gathering.

randrianarisonj 1976Randrianarison, J. 1976. Le bouf dans l'économie rurale de Madagascar. Madagascar. Revue de Géographie 28-29:9-122, 9-81.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rasoamiaramananamicheline 1983Rasoamiaramanana, Micheline. 1983. Aspects économiques et sociaux de la vie à Majunga entre 1862 et 1881. Antananarivo: Université de Madagascar.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
North-western,

ratrimoharinosyhelene 1986Ratrimoharinosy, Hélène. 1986. La société malgache vers 1800. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 193-211, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

ratsirakadidier 1975Ratsiraka, Didier. 1975. Charte de la révolution socialiste Malagasy. Antananarivo: Imprimerie d'Ouvrages Educatifs.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rauhwerner 1956Rauh, Werner. 1956. Morphologische, entwicklungsgeschichtliche, histogenetische und anatomische Untersuchungen an den Sprossen der Didieraceen. Abhandlungen der mathematisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse 6:342-444.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rauhwerner 1965Rauh, Werner. 1965. Weitere Untersuchungen an Didieraceen. Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akadademie der Wissenschaft, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse 3:218-443.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rauhwerner 1973Rauh, Werner. 1973. Über Die Zonierung und Differenzierung der Vegetation Madagaskars. Mainz: Akademie der Wissenschaft und der Literatur.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

ravalosonj 1994Ravaloson, J. 1994. Transition démocratique à Madagascar. Paris: L'Harmattan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

ravololomangabodo 1992Ravololomanga, Bodo. 1992. Etre femme et mère à Madagascar (Tanala d'ifanadiana). Connaissance des hommes. Paris: L'Harmattan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

reasonpeter 1996Reason, Peter. 1996. Reflections on the purposes of human inquiry. Qualitative Inquiry 2(1):15-28.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Social sciences - other,

This paper words my personal philosophy about research and scientific enquiry.

rejelamichel 1986Rejela, Michel. 1986. Quelques aspects des stratégies des grands éleveurs dans l'ibara Imamono. Recherches pour le Développement. Série Science de l'Homme et de la Société 1:107-112.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Imamono,
Bara,
Southern,

The author describes clearly and very briefly the main elements of cattle-rearing in Ibara, taking as an example for a case-study the Fivondronana of Ankazoabo-Sud, i.e. the Bara Imamono. He focuses on methods of acquisition and management of herds. This article provides some understanding of the strong relationship between the Bara and their cattle.

rengokyzafitompo 1997Rengoky, Zafitompo. 1997. La relation à l'étranger. Essai sur les jeux des enfants Masikoro. Master's thesis. Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mikea,
South-western,
Masikoro,

rexjohn 1995Rex, John. 1995. Ethnic identity and the nation state: The political sociology of multi-cultural societies. Social identities 1(1):21-34.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Research,
Anthropology and ethnology,

reyalberto 1977Rey, Alberto. 1977. Accent and employability. Language Sciences 47:7-12.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

robinsonclintondw 1992Robinson, Clinton D. W. 1992. Language use in rural development. International museum of cultures publication 26. Dallas: International Museum of Cultures.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

robinsonwp 1995Robinson, W. P. (ed.) 1995. Social groups and identities. Oxford: Butterworth-Heineman.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

romainesuzanne 1996Romaine, Suzanne. 1996. The status of sociological models and categories in explaining language variation. In Towards a critical sociolinguistics. Amsterdam studies in the theory and history of linguistic science, 99-114, edited by Rajendra Singh. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

rubinjoan 1968Rubin, Joan. 1968. Language and education in Paraguay. In Language problems of developing nations, 477-488, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

salomonjn 1978Salomon, J. N. 1978. Fourres et forêts sêches du sud-ouest malgache. Madagascar. Revue de Géographie 32:19-39.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,

sauttergilles&bourdiecfle&dandoyg&faurouxemmanuel&raisonjeanpierre&schlemmerbernard&waastroland 1980Sautter, Gilles, F. le Bourdiec, G. Dandoy, Emmanuel Fauroux, Jean-Pierre Raison, Bernard Schlemmer, and Roland Waast. 1980. Changements sociaux dans l'ouest malgache. Mémoires 90. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

sauttergilles 1966Sautter, Gilles. 1966. De l'Atlantique au fleuve Congo. Une géographie du sous-peuplement. Paris-La Haye: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,

sayerssean 1999Sayers, Sean. 1999. Identity and community. Journal of Social Philosophy 30(1):147-160.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

schlegloffemanuela 1999Schlegloff, Emanuel A. 1999. What next? Language and social interaction study at the century's turn. Research on Language and Social Interaction 32(1-2):141-148.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Research,

schomerusgernboecklotte 1971aSchomerus-Gernböck, Lotte. 1971a. Enquête socio-économique en pays Mahafaly. Report, Mission d'Aide et de Cooperation. Antananarivo.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

secretariattechniquedelajustement 1996Secrétariat Technique de l'Ajustement. 1996. Document cadre de politique economique 1996-1999. Report, Secrétariat Technique de l'Ajustement. Antananarivo.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

seligmanc&lambertwallace&tuckergrichard 1972Seligman, C., Wallace Lambert, and G. Richard Tucker. 1972. The effects of speech style and other attributes on teacher's attitudes towards pupils. Language in Society 1:131-142.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

sharplesley 2000Sharp, Lesley. 2000. Royal affairs and the power of (fictive) kin: Mediumship, maternity, and the contemporary politics of Belazava identity. Taloha 13:111-134.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Northern Sakalava,
Sakalava,
Western,
Bemazava (Sakalava),

Clearly written, valuable insights into Sakalava Bemazava life and identity.

shwederricharda&levineroberta 1984Shweder, Richard A., and Robert A. LeVine (eds.) 1984. Culture theory: Essays on mind, self, and emotion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

sickwolfdieter 1979Sick, Wolf-Dieter. 1979. Madagaskar, Tropisches Entwicklungsland zwischen den Kontinenten. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

siegeljeff 1992Siegel, Jeff. 1992. Language change and culture change among Fiji Indians. In Culture change, language change. Case studies from Melanasia. Pacific linguistics. Series C: Books 120, 91-113, edited by Tom Dutton. Canberra: Australian National University, Dept of Linguistics: Research School of Pacific Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

skeatwalterwilliam 1900Skeat, Walter William. 1900. Malay magic. Being an introduction to the folklore and popular religion of the Malay peninsula. London: Seminar Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,

skeiekh 1994Skeie, K. H. 1994. Religious and cultural identity in times of change. Beliefs and rituals around death among the Merina of Madagascar 1866-1895. Oslo: University of Oslo. Dept of History of Religions.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

spolskybernard&cooperrobertl 1977Spolsky, Bernard, and Robert L. Cooper (eds.) 1977. Frontiers of bilingual education. Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

spolskybernard 1977Spolsky, Bernard. 1977. The establishment of language education policy in multilingual societies. In Frontiers of bilingual education, 1-21, edited by Bernard Spolsky, and Robert L. Cooper. Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House Publishers.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

spurrettdavidj 1998Spurrett, David J. 1998. Transcendental realism defended: A response to Allan. South African Journal of Philosophy 17(3):198-211.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Research,

stevickew 1976Stevick, E. W. 1976. Memory, meaning and method. Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House Publishers.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

strakah 1962Straka, H. 1962. Das Pflanzenkleid Madagaskars. Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau 5:178-185.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

strattonarthur 1965Stratton, Arthur. 1965. The great red island. London: Macmillan Press Ltd.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

tajfelhenri&turnerjc 1979Tajfel, Henri, and J. C. Turner. 1979. An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In The social psychology in intergroup relations, 33-47, edited by W. C. Austin, and S. Worchel. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,

toquenne 1899Toquenne. 1899. Etude historique, géographique et ethnologique sur la province de Tuléar. Colonie de Madagascar. Notes, Reconnaissances, Explorations 1899:101-116.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
South-western,

toquenne 1900Toquenne. 1900. Pourparlers avec Tsiamponde. Colonie de Madagascar. Notes, Reconnaissances, Explorations 6(3).

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
South-western,

tronchonjacques 1995Tronchon, Jacques. 1995. Madagascar: Eglise et non-violence. Recherches et Documents 19:1-48.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

trousselle 1899Trousselle. 1899. Renseignements généraux sur le secteur de Mahafaly. Colonie de Madagascar. Notes, Reconnaissances, Explorations 3(5):507-518.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

tsangandahyhonorevincentdepaul 1995Tsangandahy, Honoré Vincent de Paul. 1995. Le havoria Bara: De l'ancestralisation à la Pâques Chrétienne. Master's thesis. Institut Supérieur de Théologie et de Philosophie de Madagascar.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

In his mémoire de maîtrise en Théologie, Père Tsangandahy introduces the reader to Bara funeral rites by giving as example a step-by-step description of the death of a certain Ambonilahy of the village Andranomanesiky. He further describes in wide strokes the history of the Bara people and his work is extremely interesting as he participates in his subject matter as a Bara himself. Particularly of interest are his personal insights into the Bara people. This work is packed with facts and is worthy of careful study, a great help in bringing perspective as an "insider" to "outsiders."

turnerjc&gileshoward 1981Turner, J. C., and Howard Giles (eds.) 1981. Intergroup behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

tylerstephena 1969Tyler, Stephen A. (ed.) 1969. Cognitive anthroplogy. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

undp 1996UNDP. 1996. Human development report. Report, United Nations Development Program. New York.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Research,

unesco 1953UNESCO. 1953. The use of vernacular languages in education. Monographs on Fundamental Education. Paris: UNESCO.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

unesco 1968UNESCO. 1968. The use of vernacular languages in education: The report of the UNESCO meeting of specialists, 1951. In Readings in the sociology of language, 688-716, edited by Joshua A. Fishman. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

unicef 1993UNICEF. 1993. Analyse de la situation des enfants et des femmes à Madagascar. Document de travail. Report, UNICEF.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Quantitative research,
Research,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Pertinent statistical and demographical facts.

urfersylvain 1992Urfer, Sylvain. 1992. La décentralisation, comprenez-la bien. Recherches et Documents 12:20-37.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

valeriv 1995Valeri, V. 1995. Review of Ellen, R. , The cultural relations of classification. Ethnos 60:123-126.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,

veaj 1991Vea, J. 1991. The development of milk production in Vakinankaratra, the Malagasy highlands. Stavanger: School of Mission and Theology.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vakinankaratra,
Central,

verinpierre 1969Vérin, Pierre. 1969. Aspects du peuplement de la région de Malaimbandy. Annales de l'Université de Madagascar, Série Lettres et Sciences Humaines 10:91-105.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

verinpierre 1990Vérin, Pierre. 1990. Madagascar. Peuples et pays du monde (méridiens). Paris: Editions Karthala.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Pierre Vérin knows Madagascar well and is qualified to write this "overview," introducing the reader to cultural, historical, archaeological, economical and political aspects of the Malagasy reality. Much has happened in the last seven years, which ages this work slightly and calls for a new updated edition.

verinpierre 1991Vérin, Pierre (ed.) 1991. Navigations. Etudes Océan Indien 13. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

verinpierre 1992aVérin, Pierre. 1992a. A chaque temps sa vision du développement. In Le scribe et la grande maison. Etudes Océan Indien 15, 115-120, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Interesting facts, e.g. that Madagascar is still 70% rural, as well as an overview of development policies and research done by civil servants and missionaries.

watkinsdavid&akandea&flemingj&ismailm&lefnerk®mim&watsons&yuj&adairj&chengc&geronga&mcinerneyd&mpofue&singhsenguptas&wondimuh 1998Watkins, David, A. Akande, J. Fleming, M. Ismail, K. Lefner, M. Regmi, S. Watson, J. Yu, J. Adair, C. Cheng, A. Gerong, D. Mcinerney, E. Mpofu, S. Singh-Sengupta, and H. Wondimu. 1998. Cultural dimensions, gender, and the nature of self-concept: A fourteen-country study. International Journal of Psychology 33(1):17-31.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

whytewilliamf 1979Whyte, William F. 1979. On making the most of participant observation. American Sociologist 14:56-66.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Research methodology,
Social sciences - other,

woolardkathryna 1985bWoolard, Kathryn A. 1985b. Language variation and cultural hegemony: Toward an integration of sociolinguistic and social theory. American Ethnologist 12(4):738-748.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

wurmstephena 1992Wurm, Stephen A. 1992. Change of language structure and typology in a Pacific language as a result of culture change. In Culture change, language change. Case studies from Melanasia. Pacific linguistics. Series C: Books 120, 141-157, edited by Tom Dutton. Canberra: Australian National University, Dept of Linguistics: Research School of Pacific Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

wuestefeldmarzella 2001Wüstefeld, Marzella. 2001. Quelques aspects de sécurité alimentaire dans le sud de Madagascar. Antananarivo: Tsipika.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Fareze (Tefareze, Antanosy Tefareze, "Tambolo"),
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Zafimarozaha,
Bara,
Southern,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),

This report of a survey on food security contains much useful information concerning the social realities of the Bekily region. It has been written with compassion and the research yielded, judging by the care taken with design and method, a reliable synchronic picture of the situation in 1997 in the south.

zimmermandonh 1999Zimmerman, Don H. 1999. Horizontal and vertical comparative research in language and social interaction. Research on Language and Social Interaction 32(1-2):195-203.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

zoungranap 1983Zoungrana, P. 1983. A propos de la polygamie en Afrique. Telema 9(34):33-46.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,