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dilanwars 1972Dil, Anwar S. (ed.) 1972. The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Language ecology,
Sociolinguistics,

durantialessandro&goodwincharles 1992Duranti, Alessandro, and Charles Goodwin (eds.) 1992. Rethinking context: Language as an interactive phenomenon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

edwardsjohn 1994Edwards, John. 1994. Multilingualism. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

fillalwin 1996Fill, Alwin. 1996. Sprachökologie und Ökolinguistik. Tübingen: Stauffenburg.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

gileshoward&couplandnikolas 1991Giles, Howard, and Nikolas Coupland. 1991. Language: Contexts and consequences. Buckingham: Open University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

glausciuszjosie 1997Glausciusz, Josie. 1997. The ecology of language. Discover 18(8):30.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

haarmanharald 1980bHaarman, Harald. 1980b. Multilingualismus (2): Elemente einer Sprachökologie. Tübinger Beiträge zur Linguistik 116(2).

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

haarmanharald 1986Haarman, Harald. 1986. Language in ethnicity. A view of basic ecological relations. Contributions to the sociology of language 44. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

Selected quotes:

  • As language is involved in interethnic relations, it is only a language-oriented view of ecology which can provide the key for understanding ethnicity and its place in the network of ecological relations (2).
  • Language ecology is not specified as a special subject or area of language sociology. The ecology of language is not a field of research with a limited sphere of application or of objects investigated. Rather it is based on principles of sociolinguistic analysis. Thus language ecology is valuable as a methodology in the sociology of language dealing as it does with the principles underlying the sociological study of language (2).
  • One can view language ecology as an attempt to find ecological principles applicable to the social study of language, an attempt to construct models of ecological relations for the purpose of elaborating a general theory about such relations. With such a theory, language ecology could serve as an integrating research perspective, one which promises progress in reaching the general goal of sociolinguistic studies. If one shares the view of Grimshaw that this general goal is the examination of the interaction of language structure and social structure and of the interimplications of speech behavior and social behavior (1971:93) then the application of ecology related principles is likely to become a favoured methodology for sociologists (3).
  • Language ecology should cover the whole network of social relations which control the variability of languages and their modal speakers' behavior (3).

haarmanharald 1990Haarman, Harald. 1990. Language planning in the light of a general theory of language: A methodological framework. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 86:103-126.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Language ecology,
Sociolinguistics,

Outlines the functional ranges of language planning and the methodological implications necessary for theory making, etc. Three elementary ranges of language-planning activities have to be distinguished, (1) corpus planning (2) status planning and (3) prestige planning. Interesting article for a basic theory of language planning, especially concerning demographic factors (p.109). Excellent outlines.

Selected quotes:

  • As one of its subdivision, language planning is of great significance to sociolinguistics, but so far its theoretical foundation is only poorly developed (.) (103).
  • In language planning, all activities which are directed at the structure of a language (I.e. its corpus) and at its status appear in the light of prestige values which form a network of evaluations and attitudes (105).

haugeneinar 1972dHaugen, Einar. 1972d. Language and immigration. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 1-36, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

haugeneinar 1972hHaugen, Einar. 1972h. Linguistics and language planning. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 159-190, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Language ecology,
Sociolinguistics,

haugeneinar 1972pHaugen, Einar. 1972p. The ecology of language. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 325-339, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

haugeneinar 1987Haugen, Einar. 1987. Blessings of Babel: Bilingualism and language planning. Problems and pleasures. Contributions to the sociology of language 46. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

josephjohne&taylortalbotj 1990Joseph, John E., and Talbot J. Taylor (eds.) 1990. Ideologies of language. Routledge politics of language series. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Language ecology,
Sociolinguistics,

kaplanrobert 2002Kaplan, Robert. 2002. The Oxford handbook of applied linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Language ecology,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,

landryrodrigue&bourhisrichardyvon 1997Landry, Rodrigue, and Richard Yvon Bourhis. 1997. Linguistic landscape and ethnolinguistic vitality. Journal of language and social psychology 16(1):23-50.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

mufwenesalikoko 2000Mufwene, Salikoko. 2000. Language contact, evolution and death: How language ecology rolls the dice. In Assessing ethnolinguistic vitality: Theory and practice. Selected papers from the third International Language Assessment Conference, 1997. SIL International: Publications in sociolinguistics, 39-64, edited by Gloria E. Kindell, and M. Paul Lewis. Dallas, Texas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
History,

A very clear, very factual exposition of the ideas of language as a species and how that ties into a language ecological perspective. Mufwene shows that the life of a language is "closely tied to the distribution of (its) hosts, which provide many of the essential environmental conditions necessary to (its) survival and reproduction" (44). The ecological features that have an effect on language are not necessarily physical attributes of its speaker-hosts, but "features of other parasitic systems that are hosted by the same individuals, such as culture (which brings along notions such as status, gender and power) and other language varieties"(44).

Selected quotes:

  • (.) the agents of language are individual speakers (43).
  • (.) approaching language as species makes it possible to capitalize on variation within a population, to highlight factors that govern the competition and selection processes (.) in a speech community, to pay particular attention to the linguistic behaviors of individual speakers, on whom selection operates, and thereby to understand language evolution better as we can make more explanatory uses of notions such as accommodation, networks of communication, and focussing (61).
  • (.) individuals who interact with each other, setting their respective features in competition with each other, and having to accommodate each other by dropping some features, or accepting new ones, or even by modifying their respective individual systems. Little by little, thanks more to lateral than to vertical transmission, linguistic features spread in a community and affect a whole language, often leading to a minor or serious reorganization of its system. Speciation into different subspecies (identified as dialects or separate languages, depending on the speaker's ideological inclinations) obtains when networks of communication have little contact with each other and make different selections even out of the same pool of features (44).
  • (.) language is more of the parasitic, more specifically symbiotic, than of the autonomous kind of species (44).
  • Knowledge of more than one language by the same speaker makes one linguistic system part of the ecology for the other, just as much as knowledge of competing structural features of the same language used by other speakers makes them part of the ecology for the speaker's own features. (The competing features may be phonological, morphological, syntactic, semantic or pragmatic) (45).
  • (.) overall, answers to diverse questions about language evolution, such as why a particular language was restructuured and in which specific ways, or why a particular language was/is endangered, are to be found in its ecology, both internal and external, and both structural and nonstructural (.). Linguistic systems seem to be rather osmotic; and no differences in kind of structural processes may be clearly associated exclusively with external or internal ecological factors (61).

muehlhaeuslerpeter&peaceadrian 2001Mühlhäusler, Peter, and Adrian Peace. 2001. Discourses of ecotourism: The case of Fraser island, Queensland. Language and Communication 21:359-380.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1990aMühlhäusler, Peter. 1990a. 'Reducing' Pacific languages to writings. In Ideologies of language. Routledge politics of language series, 189-205, edited by John E. Joseph, and Talbot J. Taylor. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,

Mühlhäusler discusses what he terms "sociolinguistic problems that have resulted from the introduction of literacy into the Pacific area where, prior to the arrival of the Europeans, some 3000 languages were spoken" (189). He confesses to being radical, and to over-generalizing, but in so doing hopes to evoke productive reaction. His experience can be applied to the language situation in Madagascar, with some useful comparisons to be explored.

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1992aMühlhäusler, Peter. 1992a. Preserving languages or language ecologies? A top-down approach to language survival. Oceanic Linguistics 31(2):163-180.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Language ecology,
Sociolinguistics,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1994aMühlhäusler, Peter. 1994a. Babel revisited. Unesco Courier 47(2):16-22.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

In this paper the author deals with the historical trend to view linguistic diversity as a negative and shows how two central views of the relationship between language and the world have shaped language policies. The one view is that language serves to map and label the world in which we live, hence, all languages are fully inter-translatable. The second view holds that different languages represent different perceptions of the world we live in. Linguistic diversity should be viewed as "an invaluable resource rather than an obstacle to progress" (17).

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1994bMühlhäusler, Peter. 1994b. What is the use of language diversity? Inaugural lecture. In The public face of linguistics, 16-22, edited by Peter Mühlhäusler. Adelaide: Centre for Language Teaching and Research.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1995bMühlhäusler, Peter. 1995b. The interdependence of linguistic and biological diversity. In The politics of multiculturalism in the Asia/Pacific, 154-162, edited by David Myers. Darwin: Northern Territory University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1996aMühlhäusler, Peter. 1996a. Linguistic adaptation to changed environmental conditions: Some lessons from the past. In Sprachökologie und ökolinguistik, 105-130, edited by Alwin Fill. Tübingen: Stauffenburg.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1996bMühlhäusler, Peter. 1996b. Linguistic ecology: Language change and linguistic imperialism in the Pacific region. London and New York: Routledge.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Language ecology,
Sociolinguistics,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1997aMühlhäusler, Peter. 1997a. Language ecology. Contact without conflict. In Language choices: Conditions, constraints, and consequences. Impact: Studies in language and society 1, 3-15, edited by Martin Pütz. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1999bMühlhäusler, Peter. 1999b. Mind your language: Ecolinguistics as a resource for ecotourism. In Proceedings of the National Conference of the Ecotourism Association of Australia, Fraser Island, 1999.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 2001aMühlhäusler, Peter. 2001a. Typology and universals of pidginization. In Language typology and language universals 2, 1648-1656, edited by Martin Haspelmath, Ekkehard König, Wulf Oesterreicher, and Wolfgang Raible. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 2001bMühlhäusler, Peter. 2001b. Universals and typology of space. In Language typology and language universals 1, 568-574, edited by Martin Haspelmath, Ekkehard König, Wulf Oesterreicher, and Wolfgang Raible. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 2002aMühlhäusler, Peter. 2002a. Language as an ecological phenomenon. The Linacre Journal: a Review of Research in the Humanities 5:61-68.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 2002bMühlhäusler, Peter. 2002b. The ecology of languages. In The Oxford handbook of applied linguistics, 374-387, edited by Robert B. Kaplan. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,

myersdavida 1995Myers, David A. (ed.) 1995. The politics of multiculturalism in Asia/Pacific. Darwin: Northern Territory University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

nettledaniel&romainesuzanne 2000Nettle, Daniel, and Suzanne Romaine. 2000. Vanishing voices: The extinction of the world's languages. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

renschcalvinr 1988Rensch, Calvin R. 1988. The language environment of Hindko-speaking people (Pakistan).

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

robinsonclintondw 1997Robinson, Clinton D. W. 1997. Developing or destroying languages? What does intervention do to linguistic vitality? Notes on Sociolinguistics 2(3):109-126.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Language ecology,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,

seddongeorge 1999Seddon, George. 1999. Land and language. Meanjin 58(2):140-153.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

Selected quotes:

  • (.) if you lose the language, you lose the culture. Language is one of the prime carriers of culture (140).

skutnabbkangastove&phillipsonrobert 1998Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove, and Robert Phillipson. 1998. Language in human rights. Gazette: The. International Journal for Communication Studies 60(1):27-46.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,