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abashusen 1987Abas, Husen. 1987. Indonesian, a unifying language of wider communication: A historical and sociolinguistic perspective. Pacific linguistics. Series D. Special publications 73. Canberra: Australian National University, Dept of Linguistics: Research School of Pacific Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Austronesian,

adelaarkarlalexander 1989bAdelaar, Karl Alexander. 1989b. Malay influence on Malagasy: Linguistic and culture-historical implications. Oceanic Linguistics 28(1):1-45.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Adelaar presents some evidence for lexical borrowing from Malay and Javanese into Malagasy. This, he then discusses in terms of the cultural, historical and linguistic aspects implied and deductible from such borrowing. He reinterprets evidence presented by Dahl and others, whence his conclusion that the migration to Madagascar dates from the seventh century and may have been after they learnt about the existence of Madagascar at Srivijaya, an ancient kingdom (between 7 and 13 AD), situated in South Sumatra. Also, it is a possibility that the Indian influence and authentic Indonesian aspects of Malagasy culture can be understood in terms of a socially stratified group that came to Madagascar, as mentioned by Paul Ottino (1986).

adelaarkarlalexander 1991aAdelaar, Karl Alexander. 1991a. New ideas on the early history of Malagasy. In Papers in Austronesian linguistics no. 1. Pacific linguistics. Series A: Occasional papers 81, 1-22, edited by H. Steinhauer. Canberra: Australian National University, Dept of Linguistics: Research School of Pacific Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Adelaar critically evaluates the work of Pierre Simon and Waruno Mahdi on the linguistic history of Malagasy. Both authors were published in 1988. He then presents a new hypothesis regarding the sociohistorical conditions under which the Malagasy language and people developed. The emphasis is once again on the Malay influence on Malagasy.

adelaarkarlalexander 1994aAdelaar, Karl Alexander. 1994a. Asian roots of the Malagasy. Bijdragen Tot de Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde 150:325-356.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

adelaarkarlalexander 1994bAdelaar, Karl Alexander. 1994b. Malay and Javanese loanwords in Malagasy, Tagalog and Siraya (formosa). Bijdragen Tot de Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde 150:50-65.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

adelaarkarlalexander 1995aAdelaar, Karl Alexander. 1995a. L'importance du samihim (Bornéo du sud) pour l'étymologie malgache. In L'étranger intime. Mélanges offerts à Paul Ottino, 47-59, edited by Bernard Champion. St. Denis: Université de la Réunion, Océan Éditions.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

adelaarkarlalexander 1995bAdelaar, Karl Alexander. 1995b. Une perspective linguistique sur les origines asiatiques des malgaches. In Cultures of Madagascar: Ebb and flow of influences. Working papers series 2, 39-46, edited by Sandra Evers, and Marc Spindler. Leiden: International Institute for Asian Studies.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,

adelaarkarlalexander 1996Adelaar, Karl Alexander. 1996. Malagasy culture-history: some linguistic evidence. In The proceedings of the conference on The Indian Ocean in Antiquity, 487-500, edited by Julian E. Reade. London: Kegan Paul.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
History,
Austronesian,

bellwoodpeter&foxjamesj&tryondarrell 1995Bellwood, Peter, James J. Fox, and Darrell Tryon. 1995. The Austronesians: Historical and comparative perspectives. Canberra: Australian National University, Dept of Anthropology.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,

This is an excellent source for gaining an overview of Austronesian history, language and culture. The subtitle indicates that it deals with "Historical & Comparative Perspectives." On Madagascar, K.A. Adelaar's contribution deserves mention (77-82). Adelaar discusses Dahl's contribution to the understanding of the origins of the Malagasy language and then continues to mention some of his own findings. Tom Dutton (194-196) gives a good summary of the effects of language contact, in general.

Selected quotes:

  • Dahl (1951, 1977) showed that Malagasy, the Austronesian language spoken as a number of dialects by almost all inhabitants of Madagascar, belongs to the Southeast Barito subgroup, the other members of which (Maanyan, Samihim, Dusun Malang, Dusun Witu, Dusun Deyah and Paku) are spoken in the southeastern part of Borneo. Dahl observed that Malagasy has a relatively small number of Sanskrit loanwords in comparison to the large numbers in some Indonesian languages. According to him, this indicated that the East Barito migrants to Madagascar must have left their homeland only just after Indian influence had begun to affect the Indonesian languages and cultures. Considering the fact that Indian linguistic influence in Indonesia can be traced to a date as far back as the fifth century AD, Dahl concluded that the migration must have taken place at this time or slightly after. He does not explicitly consider the possibility of influence from other Austronesian languages.
    The first extensive studies of such influence (Adelaar 1989, 1991a and in press) show that there are many Malay loanwords in Malagasy, and that there are also a number of loanwords from Javanese. Malay and Javanese were also the vehicular languages for the Sanskrit vocabulary in Malagasy. Thus, none of the Sanskrit loanwords support the assumption of direct Indian influence on the Malagasy language. This has an important consequence for Dahl's date of the migration to Madagascar: as all Sanskrit influence in Malagasy was channelled through Malay and Javanese, we should postdate the migration to the first Malay and Javanese influence on Malagasy, although it is likely that it happened at least two centuries later than the fifth century AD. The borrowed material also gives us information on the nature of the influence of Malays and Javanese on the migrating East Barito speakers, influence that must have begun some time before the migration, and that must have lasted until a considerable time afterwards.
    Generally speaking, the Malay and Javanese loanwords belong to all sorts of semantic domains. But Malay loanwords are particularly well represented in the domain of maritime life and navigation (.). Loanwords are also often found in the domain of plant names and in metallurgic terminology (.).
    Higher numerals and calendrical terms are originally Malay and/or Javanese adaptations of Sanskrit terms. Sanskrit loanwords came into Malagasy via Malay or Javanese, as their shape or meaning often betray (.).
    That these terms were borrowed via Malay and Javanese is supported by the fact that, of all Sanskrit loanwords in Malagasy (at least 35 in total), there is only one word that is not also found in Malay or Javanese.
    A large part of the vocabulary for body-parts in Malagasy was originally Malay or Javanese (.).
    The Malagasy have a pre-colonial writing system, which is an adapted form of the Arabic script. The writing system is called Sorabe, which derives from soratra 'writing' and be 'big'. The name Sorabe and some of the adaptations in its system indicate that the concept of writing, and possibly also the the actual writing system of the Malagasy, were introduced by Southeast Asians, and probably Javanese (.).
    (If the Malagasy did learn the Arabic script from the Javanese) this probably happened during continued contacts after the period of migration. There is some lexical evidence that the Malagasy were still in contact with Malays or Javanese after the latter came under the influence of Islam (.).
    An important question now is how to interpret the linguistic data, and how to integrate them in a theory which also takes into account archeological, historical and anthropological findings. The problem is that the linguistic data do not seem to correlate with data from these other disciplines, and as a consequence some non-linguists are reluctant to accept the linguistic evidence. Quite apart from the fact that there is considerable regional diversity in the cultures of Madagascar themselves, many manifestations of Malagasy spiritual and material culture cannot unequivocally be linked up with the spiritual and material culture of the Dayaks of the Southeast Barito area. Some of the Malagasy are wet rice cultivators, while the Dayaks are as a rule dry rice cultivators. Some Malagasy use outrigger canoes, whereas Southeast Barito Dayaks never do. The Malagasy migration to East Africa presupposes navigational skills which are found with some Indonesian peoples, but which can hardly be attributed to Dayaks, who, as we know them today, are as a rule forest dwellers. Some of the Malagasy musical instruments are allegedly very similar to musical instruments found in Sulawesi, and Malagasy funeral cults are reminiscent of the Toraja funeral cults (.) (77-82).

brandstetterrenward 1893Brandstetter, Renward. 1893. Die Beziehungen des Malagasy zum Malaiischen. The Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine 18:155.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

chungsandra 1990Chung, Sandra. 1990. VP'S and verb movement in Chamorro. Natural Language and LinguisticTheory 8:559-619.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Austronesian linguistics,
Linguistics,
Austronesian,

A discussion of VP's and verb movement in Chamorro, a Western Austronesian Language, spoken in the Mariana Islands.

dahlottochr 1951Dahl, Otto Chr. 1951. Malgache et Maanjan. Une comparaison linguistique. Oslo: Egede Instituttet.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlottochr 1977Dahl, Otto Chr. 1977. La subdivision de la famille Barito et la place du malgache. Acta Orientalia 38:77-134.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlottochr 1981Dahl, Otto Chr. 1981. Early phonetic and phonemic changes in Austronesian. Instituttet For sammenlignende kulturforskning. Serie B: Skrifter. Oslo: Norwegian University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
History,
Austronesian,

dahlottochr 1991Dahl, Otto Chr. 1991. Migration from Kalimantan to Madagascar. Instituttet For sammenlignende kulturforskning. Serie B: Skrifter 82. Oslo: Norwegian University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlottochr 1995Dahl, Otto Chr. 1995. L'importance de la langue malgache dans la linguistique austronésienne et dans la linguistique gnérale. In Cultures of Madagascar: Ebb and flow of influences. Working papers series 2, 39-46, edited by Sandra Evers, and Marc Spindler. Leiden: International Institute for Asian Studies.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dempwolffo 1938Dempwolff, O. 1938. Verleichende Lautlehre des austronesischen Wortschatzes. 3 Vols. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Austronesian linguistics,
Linguistics,
Austronesian,

dezjacques 1978bDez, Jacques. 1978b. Les sources Européennes anciennes de la linguistique malgache. Paris: Université de Paris 7.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Merina,
Central,
Saint Mariens,
Eastern,
Betsimisaraka,

Dez gives an insightful overview and appreciation of older European sources on the Malagasy language, sorted under nationality of author; He situates each author in historical context.

Selected quotes:

  • A ce jour, l'intérêt offert par l'étude des sources anciennes n'est nullement épuis. Il demeure, au contraire, d'une extrême actualité. (27)

dyenisidore 1953Dyen, Isidore. 1953. Review of Otto Dahl, Malgache et Manjaan. Language 29(4):577-590.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dyenisidore 1971Dyen, Isidore. 1971. The Austronesian languages and proto-Austronesian. Trends in linguistics. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
History,
Austronesian,

erringtonjjoseph 1992Errington, J. Joseph. 1992. On the ideology of Indonesian language development: The state of a language of state. Pragmatics 2(3):417-426.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Austronesian,

Indonesian has become the language of 190 million people, since its beginnings 50 years ago as a "colonial intelligentsia's project." 400 or so distinct ethnic languages are spoken there as well. "As questions about Indonesian's viability fade anew, official rhetoric is arising about threats which the dynamic of national development now poses to Indonesia's ethnic languages and cultures" (417). This article considers the Javanese Language Congress "as a kind of diagnostic event which both embodied and also framed contemporary problems in the political culture of language in Indonesia" (417). Interesting parallels with Madagascar, e.g. "The motto formulated by that young group of intellectuals-one island, one race, one language-hardly rings hollow sixty-three years later" (418).

herfurthhans 1972Herfurth, Hans. 1972. Zur Lexicostatistique in Anwendung auf malaiopolenesische Sprachen. Orbis: bulletin international de documentation linguistique 21(1):479-519.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Research,
History,
Austronesian,

manasterrameralexis 1992Manaster-Ramer, Alexis. 1992. Malagasy and the topic/subject issue. Oceanic Linguistics 31(2):267-279.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

This study presents Malagasy as a type of language between English and Tagalog on the issue of topic/subject and the author proposes a modification(s) to the typology developed by Schachter, namely that "(a) languages can either have topics or not (.), (b) in English there is no topic, (c) in Malagasy the subject is also the topic, (d) the Malagasy subject cannot be identified with the actor (.), (e) hence, in Tagalog the nominal that possesses role prominence (.) must be analyzed as subject (.). Thus, English has subjects and no topics, Malagasy has subjects that are also topics, and Tagalog distinguishes topics and subjects (that are also actors).

muehlhaeuslerpeter&duttontom&hovdhaugeneven&williamsjeff 1996Mühlhäusler, Peter, Tom Dutton, Even Hovdhaugen, and Jeff Williams. 1996. Precolonial patterns of intercultural communication in the Pacific islands. In Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia and the Americas, 205-238, edited by Stephen A. Wurm, Peter Mühlhäusler, and Darrell Tryon. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
History,
Austronesian,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1978Mühlhäusler, Peter. 1978. Papuan pidgin English rediscovered. In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics, edited by Stephen A. Wurm, and Lois Carrington. Canberra: Australian National University, Dept of Linguistics: Research School of Pacific Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Austronesian,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1981Mühlhäusler, Peter. 1981. The development of the category of number in Tok Pisin. In Generative studies on Creole languages, 35-84, edited by Pieter Muysken. Dordrecht: Foris.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Austronesian,

ramamonjyfetra 1988Ramamonjy, Fetra. 1988. Correspondances consonnantiques entre le malgache et l'Indonesien. In Linguistique de Madagascar et des Comores. Etudes Océan Indien 9, 133-141, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

reidlawrencea 1992Reid, Lawrence A. 1992. Squib. Comments on abbreviation conventions for Austronesian language names. Oceanic Linguistics 31(1):131-134.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Austronesian linguistics,
Linguistics,
Austronesian,

Reid lists the abbreviations for Philippine language names.

steinhauerhein 1991Steinhauer, Hein (ed.) 1991. Papers in Austronesian linguistics no. 1. Pacific linguistics. Series A: Occasional papers 81. Canberra: Australian National University, Dept of Linguistics: Research School of Pacific Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Austronesian linguistics,
Linguistics,
Austronesian,

tabermark 1993Taber, Mark. 1993. Toward a better understanding of the indigenous languages of southwestern Maluku. Oceanic Linguistics 32(2):389-441.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Research,
History,
Austronesian,

wurmstephena&muehlhaeuslerpeter&tryondarrell 1996Wurm, Stephen A., Peter Mühlhäusler, and Darrell Tryon (eds.) 1996. Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia and the Americas. Trends in linguistics: Documentation 13. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Austronesian,