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Topics : Anthropology and ethnology

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Topics : Austronesian

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Topics : Indian Ocean region : Madagascar

Topics : Indian Ocean region : Comores, Comorien

Topics : Indian Ocean region : Comores, Comorien : Shingazidja (Grande Comore)

Topics : Indian Ocean region : Comores, Comorien : Shimaorais (Mayotte)

Topics : Indian Ocean region : Comores, Comorien : Shindzwani (Anjouan)

Topics : Indian Ocean region : Comores, Comorien : Shimwali (Moheli)

Topics : Indian Ocean region : Swahili

Topics : Linguistics

Topics : Linguistics : Applied linguistics

Topics : Linguistics : Austronesian linguistics

Topics : Linguistics : Diachronic linguistics

Topics : Linguistics : Language assessment

Topics : Linguistics : Sociolinguistics

Topics : Linguistics : Malagasy language

Topics : Linguistics : Dialectology

Topics : Linguistics : Language ecology

Topics : Linguistics : Language planning

Topics : Linguistics : Translation

Topics : Religion

Topics : Religion : Missiology

Topics : Religion : Theology

Topics : Religion : Church history

Topics : Research

Topics : Research : Research methodology

Topics : Research : Qualitative research

Topics : Research : Quantitative research

Topics : Social sciences - other

abashusen 1987Abas, Husen. 1987. Indonesian, a unifying language of wider communication: A historical and sociolinguistic perspective. Pacific linguistics. Series D. Special publications 73. Canberra: Australian National University, Dept of Linguistics: Research School of Pacific Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Austronesian,

abinalantoine&malzacvictorin 1970Abinal, Antoine, and Victorin Malzac. 1970. Dictionnaire Malgache-Français. Paris: Editions Maritimes et d'Outre-mer.

language(s):
Malagasy, French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

abrahamsrogerd 1989Abrahams, Roger D. 1989. Black talking on the streets. In Explorations in the ethnography of speaking, 240-262, edited by Richard Bauman, and Joel Sherzer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

abramovitchhenry 1974Abramovitch, Henry. 1974. Sainte-Marie. Taloha 6:187-188.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Saint Mariens,
Eastern,
Betsimisaraka,

A very brief account, based on observations during the author's stay at Ile Sainte Marie, July-October 1973, touching on the history of the island, its name, the customs of reburial, circumcision, mitrambo and tromba.

abramsdominic&hoggmichaela 1988Abrams, Dominic, and Michael A. Hogg. 1988. Language attitudes, frames of reference, and social identity: A Scottish dimension. In Language and ethnic identity, 45-57, edited by William B. Gudykunst. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Research methodology,
Research,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

A study using matched guise techniques.

abulughodlila 1986Abu-Lughod, Lila. 1986. Veiled sentiments: Honor and poetry in a Bedouin society. Berkeley: University of California Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

academiemalgache 1977Académie Malgache (ed.) 1977. Colloque international de linguistique malgache. 75eme anniversaire de l'Académie Malgache. Antananarivo, 5-12 septembre 1977. Antananarivo: Académie Malgache.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

achardpierre 1993Achard, Pierre. 1993. La sociologie du langage: Que sais-je? Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

adamskarenl&conklinnancyf 1973Adams, Karen L., and Nancy F. Conklin. 1973. Toward a theory of natural classification. In Papers from the Ninth Regional Meeting Chicago Linguistic Society, April 13-15, 1973, 1-10, edited by Claudia Corum, T. Cedric Smith-Stark, and Ann Weiser. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
History,

adegbijaefurosibina 1994Adegbija, Efurosibina. 1994. Language attitudes in sub-Saharan Africa. Multilingual matters. Clevedon, Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

adelaarkarlalexander 1989aAdelaar, Karl Alexander. 1989a. Les langues austronésiennes et la place du Malagasy dans leur ensemble. Archipel 38:25-52.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Linguistics,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

adelaarkarlalexander 1989bAdelaar, Karl Alexander. 1989b. Malay influence on Malagasy: Linguistic and culture-historical implications. Oceanic Linguistics 28(1):1-45.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Adelaar presents some evidence for lexical borrowing from Malay and Javanese into Malagasy. This, he then discusses in terms of the cultural, historical and linguistic aspects implied and deductible from such borrowing. He reinterprets evidence presented by Dahl and others, whence his conclusion that the migration to Madagascar dates from the seventh century and may have been after they learnt about the existence of Madagascar at Srivijaya, an ancient kingdom (between 7 and 13 AD), situated in South Sumatra. Also, it is a possibility that the Indian influence and authentic Indonesian aspects of Malagasy culture can be understood in terms of a socially stratified group that came to Madagascar, as mentioned by Paul Ottino (1986).

adelaarkarlalexander 1991aAdelaar, Karl Alexander. 1991a. New ideas on the early history of Malagasy. In Papers in Austronesian linguistics no. 1. Pacific linguistics. Series A: Occasional papers 81, 1-22, edited by H. Steinhauer. Canberra: Australian National University, Dept of Linguistics: Research School of Pacific Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Adelaar critically evaluates the work of Pierre Simon and Waruno Mahdi on the linguistic history of Malagasy. Both authors were published in 1988. He then presents a new hypothesis regarding the sociohistorical conditions under which the Malagasy language and people developed. The emphasis is once again on the Malay influence on Malagasy.

adelaarkarlalexander 1991bAdelaar, Karl Alexander. 1991b. Nouvelles découvertes sur les origines malgaches. Notes à propos d'une conférence faite à l'INALCO à l'initiative du CEROI. In Navigations. Etudes Océan Indien 13, 155-160, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
History,

adelaarkarlalexander 1994aAdelaar, Karl Alexander. 1994a. Asian roots of the Malagasy. Bijdragen Tot de Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde 150:325-356.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

adelaarkarlalexander 1994bAdelaar, Karl Alexander. 1994b. Malay and Javanese loanwords in Malagasy, Tagalog and Siraya (formosa). Bijdragen Tot de Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde 150:50-65.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

adelaarkarlalexander 1995aAdelaar, Karl Alexander. 1995a. L'importance du samihim (Bornéo du sud) pour l'étymologie malgache. In L'étranger intime. Mélanges offerts à Paul Ottino, 47-59, edited by Bernard Champion. St. Denis: Université de la Réunion, Océan Éditions.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

adelaarkarlalexander 1995bAdelaar, Karl Alexander. 1995b. Une perspective linguistique sur les origines asiatiques des malgaches. In Cultures of Madagascar: Ebb and flow of influences. Working papers series 2, 39-46, edited by Sandra Evers, and Marc Spindler. Leiden: International Institute for Asian Studies.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,

adelaarkarlalexander 1996Adelaar, Karl Alexander. 1996. Malagasy culture-history: some linguistic evidence. In The proceedings of the conference on The Indian Ocean in Antiquity, 487-500, edited by Julian E. Reade. London: Kegan Paul.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
History,
Austronesian,

adurizjoseantonio&urkiamaria 1997Aduriz, Jose Antonio, and Maria Urkia. 1997. La lexicographie assistée par ordinateur. L'expérience d'Uzei. Meta 42(2):257-263.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,

agarmichaelh 1973Agar, Michael H. 1973. Ripping and running: A formal ethnography of urban heroin addicts. New York: Seminar Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

agarmichaelh 1994Agar, Michael H. 1994. Language shock / understanding the culture of conversation. New York: William Morrow and Company.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

agheyisirebecca&fishmanjoshuaa 1970Agheyisi, Rebecca, and Joshua A. Fishman. 1970. Language attitude studies. Anthropological Linguistics 12(5):137-157.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

This article presents an overview of the problem of assessing attitudes and discusses different methodological approaches: questionnaires, case studies, the commitment measure, matched guise technique, mirror image technique, observation, role-playing, and interviewing.

Selected quotes:

  • The observational method by itself may not be the best for collecting data of an essentially introspective nature such as attitudinal data, but when combined with more direct methods, such as interviews and questionnaires, it can be very useful (150).
  • Methodology in attitude studies includes direct and indirect measures of all kinds, but language attitude studies have tended to make more use of questionnaires than of other methods. The matched guise technique has been extensively used for studies relating to the social significance of languages and language varieties. A special adaptation of this technique ('mirror image') proves promising for measuring consensual evaluations of language switching at the situational level. Situationally based self-report instruments, such as those used by Greenfield and Fishman (1968) also promise to be very effective instruments for studies pertaining to normative views concerning the situational use of languages and language varieties. The commitment measure has been found to be particularly suited for collecting data on behavioral tendencies.
    Data obtained through interviewing may be difficult to process and score, but the research interview can be particularly effective for attitude assessment, especially when used to complement the observational method (151).

ahmedchamangamohamed&lafonmichel&sibertinblancjeanluc 1988Ahmed-Chamanga, Mohamed, Michel Lafon, and Jean-Luc Sibertin-Blanc. 1988. Projet d'orthographie pratique du Comorien. In Linguistique de Madagascar et des Comores. Etudes Océan Indien 9, 7-33, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
Austronesian,

aissatiabderrahmanel 1997Aissati, Abderrahman El. 1997. Language shift and sentence processing in Moroccan Arabic. In Language choices: Conditions, constraints, and consequences. Impact: Studies in language and society 1, 77-90, edited by Martin Pütz. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

alatisjamese 1990Alatis, James E. (ed.) 1990. Language teaching, testing, and technology: Lessons from the past with a view toward the future. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 1989. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,

albrechtsendorte&faerchclaus&henriksenbirgit 1980Albrechtsen, Dorte, Claus Faerch, and Birgit Henriksen. 1980. Native speaker reactions to learners' spoken interlanguage. Language Learning 30(2):365-396.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

alexandrepierre 1968Alexandre, Pierre. 1968. Some linguistic problems of nation-building in Negro Africa. In Language problems of developing nations, 119-127, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

allardreal&landryrodrigue 1992Allard, Réal, and Rodrigue Landry. 1992. Ethnolinguistic vitality beliefs and language maintenance and loss. In Maintenance and loss of minority languages, 171-195, edited by Willem Fase, Koen Jaspaert, and Sjaak Kroon. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

allibertclaude&verinpierre 1993Allibert, Claude, and Pierre Vérin. 1993. Linguistique, archéologie et l'exploration du passé malgache. In Language. A doorway between human cultures, 29-38, edited by Øyvind Dahl. Oslo: Novus Forlag.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

allibertclaude 1992bAllibert, Claude. 1992b. L'île des femmes dans les récits Arabes. In Le scribe et la grande maison. Etudes Océan Indien 15, 261-267, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

allibertclaude 1993Allibert, Claude. 1993. Accouplements rituels ou fantasmes zoophiles? In Religions. Etudes Océan Indien 16, 171-179, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Wakwak,
Other,
Malagasy,

alvarezalbertroca 1995Alvarez, Albert Roca. 1995. Ethnicity and nation in Madagascar. In Cultures of Madagascar: Ebb and flow of influences. Working papers series 2, 67-83, edited by Sandra Evers, and Marc Spindler. Leiden: International Institute for Asian Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

This paper confirms what has been our experience with Malagasy ethnic identities, that while vague and difficult to define in some ways, they do exist and contradict the political ideology which holds that the Malagasy people all subscribe to a united national identity. While Malagasy group identities are not as clearly "developed" or as nicely (contrivedly) forced into moulds by outsiders as tribal-ethnic characteristics in Africa have been, Malagasy ethnic identities may have, as Alvarez suggests, remained vague because of the historical interference of colonialism at a time when Merina nationalism had just reached a peak, interrupting and confounding the natural development of different Malagasy identities in the context of a new threat from outside.
Alvarez discusses the differences between political choices and true group identity, which manifests itself in the "solidarity networks used by the population" (77).

Selected quotes:

  • Madagascar has often been seen as one of the few African countries without the ethnic problems that are now so much in evidence. It has one language, even if there is a wide variety of dialects; one culture, even if Malagasy societies have developed distinct ways of life; one people, even if the physical appearance and the origin of the populations are extremely diverse. All these factors, contained within the natural frontiers provided by an island, constitute the arguments for Madagascar's exceptional status (67).
  • (.)the unification and expansion of the Merina are inter-related processes. They are not, however, one and the same thing (72).
  • The fiercest opposition to the colonial conquest was located precisely in those regions which were out of Merina control, the west and south, that defended their own interests, not those of the Merina state or of a non-existent Malagasy nation (73).
  • The references for collective identities are multiple, heterogeneous and non-exclusive. Madagascar offers a number of examples of this pluri-identity and of the strategically different use that persons and groups can make of it. The different identities are inter-related and inserted in human relations. Hence, any survey of the current problems of Madagascar has to number ethnicity and/or nationality among them (82).

alversonhoyt 1991Alverson, Hoyt. 1991. Metaphor and experience: Looking over the notion of image schema. In Beyond metaphor: The theory of tropes in anthropology, 94-117, edited by James W. Fernandez. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,

ammonulrich&dittmarnorbert&mattheierklausj 1988aAmmon, Ulrich, Norbert Dittmar, and Klaus J. Mattheier (eds.) 1988a. An international handbook of the Science of language and society. Ein internationales handbuch zur wissenschaft von sprache und gesellschaft 1-2. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

ammonulrich&dittmarnorbert&mattheierklausj 1988bAmmon, Ulrich, Norbert Dittmar, and Klaus J. Mattheier. 1988b. History of sociolinguistics as a discipline. In An international handbook of the science of language and society 1-2, 379-469, edited by Ulrich Ammon, Norbert Dittmar, and Klaus J. Mattheier. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
History,

andersonbenedict 1991Anderson, Benedict. 1991. Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. London: Verso.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

andriamanantenageorgesrado 1994Andriamanantena, Georges (Rado). 1994. Ny teny Malagasy: Fanentanana ny fon'ny vahoaka amin'ny fampandrosoana. Akademia Malagasy: Roa andron'ny teny Malagasy. In Roa andron'ny teny Malagasy. Antananarivo.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

andriambohitra 1994Andriambohitra. 1994. Enseigner en français ou en malgache? Recherches et Documents 17:6-20.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

andrianaivoarivonyrafolo 1985Andrianaivoarivony, Rafolo. 1985. Reflections sur la présence Tsimihety dans la région de Mananara Avaratra et de Maroantsetra. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 21-22:61-78.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tsimihety,
Northern,

andrianirinarivofq&mandihitsycyprien&odona&paesc&paesmc&velonandro 1989Andrianirinarivo, F. Q., Cyprien Mandihitsy, A. Odon, C. Paes, M.-C. Paes, and Velonandro. 1989. Tsimamanga et autres contes malgaches en dialecte Masikoro. Angano Malagasy. Antananarivo: Centre Foi et Justice.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Masikoro,
South-western,

anonymous ndAnonymous. n.d. Des droits coutumiers oraux "Bara". Province et préfecture de Tuléar. Sous-préfecture de Tuléar. Arrondissement administratif de Sakaraha.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

anonymous 1934Anonymous. 1934. Soavololonapanga (conte Bara recueilli par l'instituteur de Ranohira). La Revue de Madagascar 7:61-64.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

anonymous 1984Anonymous. 1984. Tongotra aman-tanana. Lakroan'i Madagasikara 57:2371-2372.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

anonymous 1991Anonymous. 1991. Language assessment criteria. Notes on Literature in Use and Language Programs 28.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Research methodology,
Research,
Linguistics,

anonymous 1993aAnonymous. 1993a. Blissymbolics. Journal for technical and vocational education/ Tydskrif vir tegniese en beroepsonderwys December:16-17.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

anonymous 1993bAnonymous. 1993b. Teaching and using Bliss symbolics. Journal for technical and vocational education/ Tydskrif vir tegniese en beroepsonderwys December:14-16.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

antaldavid 1998Antal, David. 1998. A linguistic odyssey: One family's experience with language shift and cultural identity in Germany and France. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 133:143-168.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

appelrene&muyskenpieter 1987Appel, René, and Pieter Muysken. 1987. Language contact and bilingualism. London: Edward Arnold.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

arindorotheaneal ndArin, Dorothea Neal. n.d. Of medicine men, mediums and chiefs: Bantu noun classes.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

armstrongrobertg 1968Armstrong, Robert G. 1968. Language policies and language practices in west Africa. In Language problems of developing nations, 227-236, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

asantem&gudykunstwilliamb 1989Asante, M., and William B. Gudykunst (eds.) 1989. Handbook of international and intercultural communication. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

astutirita 1995aAstuti, Rita. 1995a. People of the sea. Identity and descent among the Vezo of Madagascar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,

astutirita 1995bAstuti, Rita. 1995b. "The Vezo are not a kind of people": Identity, difference, and "ethnicity" among a fishing people of western Madagascar. American Ethnologist 22(3):464-482.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,

aungeredmunda 1993Aunger, Edmund A. 1993. The decline of a French-speaking enclave: A case study of social contact and language shift in Alberta. Canadian Ethnic Studies 25(2):65-84.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

autk 1983Au, T. K. 1983. Chinese and English counterfactuals: The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis revisited. Cognition 15:155-187.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
History,

ayachesimon 1979Ayache, Simon. 1979. Beyond oral tradition and into written history: The work of Raombana (1809-1855). In Madagascar in history. Essays from the 1970's, edited by Raymond Kent. Albany, California: Foundation for Malagasy Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

bachmanlylef&palmeradrians 1983Bachman, Lyle F., and Adrian S. Palmer. 1983. The construct validity of the FSI oral interview. In Issues in language testing research, 154-169, edited by John W. Oller Jr. Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House Publishers.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Research methodology,
Research,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

bagemihlbruce 1991Bagemihl, Bruce. 1991. Syllable structure in Bella Coola. Linguistic Inquiry 22:589-646.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

baileycharlesjames 1973Bailey, Charles-James. 1973. Variation and linguistic theory. Arlington, Virginia: Center for Applied Linguistics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

bakercolin 1992Baker, Colin. 1992. Attitudes and language. Multilingual matters 83. Clevedon, Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

bamgboseayo 1991Bamgbose, Ayo. 1991. Language and the nation: The language question in sub-Saharan Africa. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

banksm 1996Banks, M. 1996. Ethnicity:Anthropological constructions. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

banksstephenp 1988Banks, Stephen P. 1988. Achieving 'unmarkedness' in organisational discourse: A praxis perspective on ethnolinguistic identity. In Language and ethnic identity, 15-44, edited by William B. Gudykunst. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

baratzjoanc 1969Baratz, Joan C. 1969. A bi-dialectal task for determining language proficiency in economically disadvantaged Negro children. Child Development 40:889-901.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

barbiercle 1921Barbier, C. le. 1921. Contes et légendes du pays des Bara (sud-ouest de madagascar). Revue d'ethnographie et des traditions populaires 2(6):119-137.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

barraujacques 1972Barrau, Jacques (ed.) 1972. Approche linguistique. Langues et techniques, nature et société 1. Paris: Éditions Klincksieck.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Linguistics,

barreteaudaniel 1978Barreteau, Daniel (ed.) 1978. Inventaire des études linguistiques sur les pays d'Afrique noire d'expression française et sur Madagascar. Paris: CILF.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

barthf 1969Barth, F. 1969. Ethnic groups and boundaries. London: Allen & Unwin.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

bassoellenb 1992Basso, Ellen B. 1992. Contextualization in Kalapalo narratives. In Rethinking context: Language as an interactive phenomenon, 253-269, edited by Alessandro Duranti, and Charles Goodwin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

bassokeithh 1984Basso, Keith H. 1984. "Stalking with stories": Names, places, and moral narratives among the western Apache. In Text, play and story, 19-55, edited by Edward M. Bruner. Washington, DC: AES.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

bassokeithh 1990aBasso, Keith H. 1990a. "To give up on words": Silence in Apache culture. In Cultural communication and intercultural contact, 303-320, edited by Donal Carbaugh. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

bassokeithh 1990bBasso, Keith H. 1990b. Western Apache language and culture: Essays in linguistic anthropology. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

baumanrichard&sherzerjoel 1989Bauman, Richard, and Joel Sherzer (eds.) 1989. Explorations in the ethnography of speaking. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

beaugranderobertde&colbybenjaminn 1979Beaugrande, Robert de, and Benjamin N. Colby. 1979. Narrative models of action and interaction. Cognitive Science 3:43-66.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,
Linguistics,

beaugranderobertde&dresslerwolfgang 1981Beaugrande, Robert de, and Wolfgang Dressler. 1981. Introduction to text linguistics. London and New York: Longman.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,

beaujardphilippe 1988Beaujard, Philippe. 1988. Les manuscrits arabico-malgaches (sorabe) du pays antemoro. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 28:123-150.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,

bellwoodpeter&foxjamesj&tryondarrell 1995Bellwood, Peter, James J. Fox, and Darrell Tryon. 1995. The Austronesians: Historical and comparative perspectives. Canberra: Australian National University, Dept of Anthropology.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,

This is an excellent source for gaining an overview of Austronesian history, language and culture. The subtitle indicates that it deals with "Historical & Comparative Perspectives." On Madagascar, K.A. Adelaar's contribution deserves mention (77-82). Adelaar discusses Dahl's contribution to the understanding of the origins of the Malagasy language and then continues to mention some of his own findings. Tom Dutton (194-196) gives a good summary of the effects of language contact, in general.

Selected quotes:

  • Dahl (1951, 1977) showed that Malagasy, the Austronesian language spoken as a number of dialects by almost all inhabitants of Madagascar, belongs to the Southeast Barito subgroup, the other members of which (Maanyan, Samihim, Dusun Malang, Dusun Witu, Dusun Deyah and Paku) are spoken in the southeastern part of Borneo. Dahl observed that Malagasy has a relatively small number of Sanskrit loanwords in comparison to the large numbers in some Indonesian languages. According to him, this indicated that the East Barito migrants to Madagascar must have left their homeland only just after Indian influence had begun to affect the Indonesian languages and cultures. Considering the fact that Indian linguistic influence in Indonesia can be traced to a date as far back as the fifth century AD, Dahl concluded that the migration must have taken place at this time or slightly after. He does not explicitly consider the possibility of influence from other Austronesian languages.
    The first extensive studies of such influence (Adelaar 1989, 1991a and in press) show that there are many Malay loanwords in Malagasy, and that there are also a number of loanwords from Javanese. Malay and Javanese were also the vehicular languages for the Sanskrit vocabulary in Malagasy. Thus, none of the Sanskrit loanwords support the assumption of direct Indian influence on the Malagasy language. This has an important consequence for Dahl's date of the migration to Madagascar: as all Sanskrit influence in Malagasy was channelled through Malay and Javanese, we should postdate the migration to the first Malay and Javanese influence on Malagasy, although it is likely that it happened at least two centuries later than the fifth century AD. The borrowed material also gives us information on the nature of the influence of Malays and Javanese on the migrating East Barito speakers, influence that must have begun some time before the migration, and that must have lasted until a considerable time afterwards.
    Generally speaking, the Malay and Javanese loanwords belong to all sorts of semantic domains. But Malay loanwords are particularly well represented in the domain of maritime life and navigation (.). Loanwords are also often found in the domain of plant names and in metallurgic terminology (.).
    Higher numerals and calendrical terms are originally Malay and/or Javanese adaptations of Sanskrit terms. Sanskrit loanwords came into Malagasy via Malay or Javanese, as their shape or meaning often betray (.).
    That these terms were borrowed via Malay and Javanese is supported by the fact that, of all Sanskrit loanwords in Malagasy (at least 35 in total), there is only one word that is not also found in Malay or Javanese.
    A large part of the vocabulary for body-parts in Malagasy was originally Malay or Javanese (.).
    The Malagasy have a pre-colonial writing system, which is an adapted form of the Arabic script. The writing system is called Sorabe, which derives from soratra 'writing' and be 'big'. The name Sorabe and some of the adaptations in its system indicate that the concept of writing, and possibly also the the actual writing system of the Malagasy, were introduced by Southeast Asians, and probably Javanese (.).
    (If the Malagasy did learn the Arabic script from the Javanese) this probably happened during continued contacts after the period of migration. There is some lexical evidence that the Malagasy were still in contact with Malays or Javanese after the latter came under the influence of Islam (.).
    An important question now is how to interpret the linguistic data, and how to integrate them in a theory which also takes into account archeological, historical and anthropological findings. The problem is that the linguistic data do not seem to correlate with data from these other disciplines, and as a consequence some non-linguists are reluctant to accept the linguistic evidence. Quite apart from the fact that there is considerable regional diversity in the cultures of Madagascar themselves, many manifestations of Malagasy spiritual and material culture cannot unequivocally be linked up with the spiritual and material culture of the Dayaks of the Southeast Barito area. Some of the Malagasy are wet rice cultivators, while the Dayaks are as a rule dry rice cultivators. Some Malagasy use outrigger canoes, whereas Southeast Barito Dayaks never do. The Malagasy migration to East Africa presupposes navigational skills which are found with some Indonesian peoples, but which can hardly be attributed to Dayaks, who, as we know them today, are as a rule forest dwellers. Some of the Malagasy musical instruments are allegedly very similar to musical instruments found in Sulawesi, and Malagasy funeral cults are reminiscent of the Toraja funeral cults (.) (77-82).

bemananjarazefaniasyrafaralahy 1977Bemananjara, Zefaniasy Rafaralahy. 1977. Tatitra ankapobeny momba ny asam-pikarohana ao amin'ny ILA (Considérations d'ensemble sur les recherches effectuées à l'Institut de Linguistique Appliquée). Report, Institut de Linguistique Appliquée. Antananarivo.

language(s):
Malagasy, French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

bemananjarazefaniasyrafaralahy 1979aBemananjara, Zefaniasy Rafaralahy. 1979a. Contes malgaches. Fleuve et flamme. Paris: Conseil international de la langue francaise.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

bemananjarazefaniasyrafaralahy 1979bBemananjara, Zefaniasy Rafaralahy. 1979b. Situation de l'enseignement du français à Madagascar. In Le français hors de France, 527-542, edited by Albert Valdman. Paris: Champion.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

bendorsamuelmargaret 1987Bendor-Samuel, Margaret. 1987. Local citizen involvement and language programs. Notes on Literature in Use and Language Programs 13:3-10.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

benevent 1897Benevent. 1897. Etude sur le Bouéni, II. Colonie de Madagascar. Notes, Reconnaissances, Explorations 2:49-77.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

bennettmichaeleric 1988Bennett, Michael Eric. 1988. Alienable and inalienable possession in Malagasy. Word 39(1):109-116.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

bergerra 1999Berger, R. A. 1999. Identification of dialectal distinctions. Notes on Sociolinguistics 4(3):101-104.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

berghepierrelvanden 1968Berghe, Pierre L. van den. 1968. Language and "nationalism" in south Africa. In Language problems of developing nations, 215-224, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

bergmantedg 1990Bergman, Ted G. 1990. Survey reference manual. Dallas, Texas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

bergmantedg 1991Bergman, Ted G. 1991. Rapid appraisal of languages. Notes on Literature in Use and Language Programs 28:3-11.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Language assessment,
Research,

The ideas set out in this paper have been much developed since 1991, but the principal ideas have remained. The author's practical concern has been to do rapid surveys of language situations in order to obtain an overview of these and to assess the need for any longer-term assessment and other involvement in those language areas.

berlinbrent&breedlovedennise&ravenpeterh 1966Berlin, Brent, Dennis E. Breedlove, and Peter H. Raven. 1966. Folk taxonomies and biological classification. Science 154:273-275.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

berlinbrent&breedlovedennise&ravenpeterh 1973Berlin, Brent, Dennis E. Breedlove, and Peter H. Raven. 1973. General principles of classification and nomenclature in folk biology. American Anthropologist 75:214-242.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,

berlinbrent&breedlovedennise&ravenpeterh 1974Berlin, Brent, Dennis E. Breedlove, and Peter H. Raven. 1974. Principles of Tzeltal plant classification. New York: Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,

berlinbrent&kaypaul 1969Berlin, Brent, and Paul Kay. 1969. Basic color terms: Their universality and evolution. Berkeley: University of California Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,

berlinbrent 1970Berlin, Brent. 1970. A universalist-evolutionary approach in ethnographic semantics. In Current directions in anthropology, 3-18, edited by Ann Fischer. Washington, DC: American Anthropological Association.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

berlinbrent 1972Berlin, Brent. 1972. Speculations on the growth of ethnobotanical nomenclature. Language in Society 1:51-86.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,

berlinbrent 1992Berlin, Brent. 1992. Ethnobiological classification: Principles of categorization of plants and animals in traditional societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

berryj 1964Berry, J. 1964. The making of alphabets. In Readings in the sociology of language, 737-753, edited by Joshua A. Fishman. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

berthierh 1906Berthier, H. 1906. Fragments du folklore des Bara. La Revue de Madagascar 8(12):1062-1066.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

beukesannemarie 1991Beukes, Anne-Marie. 1991. Language teaching and politics of language. Journal for Language Teaching 25(4):89-100.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

In this article the author focuses on the relationship between language policy and language teaching in South Africa. She describes the linguistic situation in S.A. as well as the inequalities. The problem of "linguicism" is defined on p. 93 and is seen as of the same nature as racism, classism, sexism and ageism. Although it was given a fairly general title, the article focuses on Afrikaans and English in S.A.

bieselemegan 1986Biesele, Megan. 1986. How hunter-gatheres' stories "make sense": Semantics and adaptation. Cultural Anthropology 1:157-170.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

birkelye 1924Birkely, E. 1924. Folkore Sakalava recueilli dans la région de Morondava. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache 6:185-395.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

birkelye 1936Birkely, E. 1936. Les Vazimba de la côte ouest de Madagascar. Mémoires de l'Académie malgache 22. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vazimba,
Western,
Beosy,
Mikea,
South-western,

Interesting statements regarding the language of Vazimba, Behosy, Mikea.

Selected quotes:

  • je fus frappé du soin que mettaient les malgaches à se rappeler leurs groupes funitiaux et leurs clans. On le remarque surtout dans les taboos concernant les mariages qui tous, ou presque, étaient exogamiques. Mais le phénomène se présente aussi dans la vie courante. Mon attention fut attirée par l'importance de la forme des entailles, faites aux oreilles des boufs, et qui servent à distinguer les clans et les habitations. Cétait là un document de première ordre pour apporter un peu de clarté dans l'ethnologie de la Côte Ouest. On désignait alors tous les habitants sous le nom de "Sakalaves" et on se livrait aux hypothèses les plus fantaisistes sur l'origine de leur nom.
    (.)je tombai, en 1914, sur les Vazimba de la Tsiribihina(.) des mots et des sons complètement nouveaux, une langue tout à fait différente du malgache!
    En tout état de cause, et malgré l'insuffisance des matériaux, il était clair que l'on avait à faire à un groupe bien défini, nettement différent de ceux qui peuplent la côte ouest, tant au point de vue religieux, qu'ethnique et philologique (7).
  • dahalo (homme de forêt) (11).
  • Si l'on se fonde sur les marques faites aux oreilles des boufs, ces populations se répartissent en plusieurs groupes don't chacun a son histoire.
    Il y a eu une forte émigration, allant du nord au sud, et composée de pêcheurs et de marins. Ces nouveaux-venus se sont mélangés avec une autre population plus ancienne: les Mikea, les Antanandro et les Vazimba.
    En deux autres grandes invasions, une race plus puissante venant du Sud et de l'Est, sous la conduite des deux dynasties des Maroserana et des Andrivola, a conquis toute la côte ouest, de Tulear à Majunga. Ces conquérants étaient suivis de beaucoup d'autres tribus qui leur étaient soumises.
    Les Antanandro étaient des gens civilisés venant de l'intérieur. Ils ensevilissaient leurs morts dans des cavernes ou des caveaux de pierres, ils savaient tisser, ornaient leurs maisons, et cultivaient le riz. Ils ont tout à fait disparu, se mélangeant aux autres tribus (12).
  • Ces Mkea étaient stationnaires: il n'y a pas trace de migration de leur part, ni vers le nord, ni vers le sud. Ils sont sauvages, fuient la société, n'ont aucune organisation sociale. Ils étaient chasseurs et peuvent se rattacher au groupe désigné par les anglais comme "foodcollectors" (don't la seule raison de vivre est la recherche de leur nourriture.
    Les Vazimba de la région de lacs de la Tsiribihina, sont un peuple composite. Les uns viennent d'au-delà des mers, les autres de l'intérieur, d'autres sont issus du mélange avec les populations sédentaires, comme les Beosi. L'attention des savants devraient s'attacher, tant aux particularités ethnologiques qu'à la langue de ces populations primitives. Ces trois groupes-le fait est établi-ont parlé, et parlent encore une langue différente du malgache. Tous les Masikoro du sud, par exemple, voisins des Mikea, savent que ces derniers ont eu leur langue propre, qu'ils emploient encore, en partie, dans des circonstances spéciales.
    Drury rapporte lui-même que les Vazimba des bords de la Tsiribihina avaient une langue particulière. Quant aux Beosi, le vocabulaire, donné au chapitre III, fournit la preuve qu'ils ont une langue à eux.
    Ces débris de langues sont d'une importance capitale pour l'ethnologie primitive de Madagascar (13).

birkelyottoemil 1926Birkely, Otto Emil. 1926. Marques de boufs et traditions de race : Document sur l'ethnologie de la côte occidentale de Madagascar. Bulletin: Etnografisk Museum 2.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Western,
South-western,

blackjohnb&wilenskyrobert 1979Black, John B., and Robert Wilensky. 1979. An evaluation of story grammars. Cognitive Science 3:213-230.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,

blackmaryb&metzgerduane 1969Black, Mary B., and Duane Metzger. 1969. Ethnographic description and the study of law. In Cognitive anthroplogy, 137-165, edited by Stephen A. Tyler. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

blairfrank 1990Blair, Frank. 1990. Survey on a shoestring. A Manual for small-scale language survey. Summer institute of linguistics & the university of Texas at Arlington: Publications in linguistics 96. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

blanchaim 1968Blanc, Haim. 1968. The Israeli koine as an emergent national standard. In Language problems of developing nations, 237-251, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

blanchysophie 1992bBlanchy, Sophie. 1992b. Les langues de Mayotte. In Mayotte: Actes du Colloque Universitaire tenu à Mamoudzou les 23 et 24 avril 1991, 75-85, edited by Olivier Gohin, and Pierre Maurice. St Denis: Université de la Réunion: Fac de Droit et des Sciences Economiques et Politiques.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,

blanchysophie 1993Blanchy, Sophie. 1993. Philippe Beaujard: Mythe et société à Madagascar (Tañala de l'ikongo). Préface de Georges Condominas. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1991. 606p. In Religions. Etudes Océan Indien 16, 181-185, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

blochmauriceef 1975aBloch, Maurice E. F. 1975a. Introduction. In Political language and oratory in traditional society, 1-28, edited by Maurice E. F. Bloch. London: Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

blochmauriceef 1975bBloch, Maurice E. F. (ed.) 1975b. Political language and oratory in traditional society. London: Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

blochmauriceef 1985Bloch, Maurice E. F. 1985. Questions historiques concernant la parenté sur la côte est. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 21-22:49-56.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern Betsimisaraka (Antatsimo, Tatsimo),
Betsimisaraka,
Eastern,
Northern Betsimisaraka (Antavaratra, Tavaratra),

Selected quotes:

  • Le peu que nous savons suffit en effet pour montrer clairement que la région dite Betsimisaraka est extrèmement diverse et que certaines populations betsimisaraka sont plus proches des populations non-betsimisaraka que d'autres égalements dénommées Betsimisaraka. Il ne peut en être autrement si nous nous rappelons que le terme Betsimisaraka se réfère non à une unité culturelle mais à une ligue politique temporaire du 18e siècle (50-1).

blochmauriceef 1986bBloch, Maurice E. F. 1986b. Hierarchy and equality in Merina kinship. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 217-228, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

blochmauriceef 1989Bloch, Maurice E. F. 1989. Ritual, history and power: Selected papers in anthropology. London school of economics. Monographs on social anthropology 58. London: Athlone Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

bloomalfredh 1981Bloom, Alfred H. 1981. The linguistic shaping of thought: A study in the impact of language on thinking in China and the west. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,

bloomalfredh 1984Bloom, Alfred H. 1984. Caution - the words you use may affect what you say: A response to Au. Cognition 17:275-287.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

bloomfieldleonard 1933Bloomfield, Leonard. 1933. Language. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

boasfranz 1939Boas, Franz. 1939. Geographical names of the Kwakiutl Indians. Contributions to anthropology 20. New York: Columbia University.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

boasfranz 1966Boas, Franz. 1966. Introduction to handbook of American Indian languages. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

bobaljikjonathandavid&pensalfinirob&stortoluciana 1996Bobaljik, Jonathan David, Rob Pensalfini, and Luciana Storto (eds.) 1996. Papers on language endangerment and the maintenance of linguistic diversity. The MIT working papers in linguistics 28. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

boin&mouveaux 1897Boin, and Mouveaux. 1897. Les Bara et les Tanalas des districts d'Ivohibe et d'Ihosy. Colonie de Madagascar. Notes, Reconnaissances, Explorations 1897:446-456.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

boisdelavillerabeladu 1900Bois De La Villerabel, A. du. 1900. La tradition chez les Baras. Colonie de Madagascar. Notes, Reconnaissances, Explorations 6(29):263-273.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

Captain du Bois De La Villerabel transcribes here a history of the Bara, according to Impoinimerina, mpanjaka (king of the) Bara Imamono. Impoinimerina's account explains the settlements of different Bara groups, the wars they were involved in, and culminates in some self-glorification, probably overrating his role, position, and history. De La Villerabel ends his transcription with a significant statement, namely that in spite of it being the account of senseless and endless intestinal fighting among the Bara people, it is worth recording, "if only to better show up the work of civilisation that they (the French) had undertaken."

Selected quotes:

  • Comme on le voit par ce rapide exposé, sa tradition ne nous révèle guère qu'une longue suite de guerres intestines sans but élevé, et dont le butin est toute la gloire; telle qu'elle est, elle mérite toutefois d'être enregistrée, ne serait-ce que pour mieux faire ressortir l'ouvre de civilisation que nous avons entreprise (273).

bolingerdwight 1992Bolinger, Dwight. 1992. About furniture and birds. Cognitive Linguistics 3:111-117.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,

boothwaynec 1979Booth, Wayne C. 1979. Metaphor as rhetoric: The problem of evaluation. In On metaphor, 47-70, edited by Sheldon Sacks. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,

boulangerjeanclaude 1989Boulanger, Jean-Claude. 1989. Développement, aménagement linguistique et terminologie: Un mythe? L'exemple de la malgachisation. Language Problems and Language Planning 13(3):233-263.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

This article stresses the importance of terminology when language policies are applied and draws a subtle comparison between Québec and Madagascar. In the case of Québec, it was possible to draw on a language that already had the necessary technological terminology in place, whereas in Madagascar, there is still a need to develop such terminology. He refers to malgachophonisation that is a prerequisite for malgachisation. Having waded several times through the sticky, somewhat obscurifying vocabulary of this article, I can't say that I disagree with as much as I've understood.

bourdieupierre&boltanskiluc 1975Bourdieu, Pierre, and Luc Boltanski. 1975. Le fétichisme de la langue. Actes de la Recherche en Sciences Sociales 4:2-32.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

bourdieupierre 1982Bourdieu, Pierre. 1982. Ce que parler veut dire: L'économie des échanges linguistiques. Paris: Fayard.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

bourhisrichardyvon&gileshoward&rosenthaldoreen 1981Bourhis, Richard Yvon, Howard Giles, and Doreen Rosenthal. 1981. Notes on the construction of a "subjective vitality questionnaire" for ethnolinguistic groups. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 2:145-150.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Research methodology,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

bowersjohn 1968Bowers, John. 1968. Language problems and literacy. In Language problems of developing nations, 381-401, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,

brandstetterrenward 1893Brandstetter, Renward. 1893. Die Beziehungen des Malagasy zum Malaiischen. The Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine 18:155.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

bransonjan&millerdon 1998Branson, Jan, and Don Miller. 1998. Nationalism and the linguistic rights of deaf communities: Linguistic imperialism and the recognition and development of sign languages. Journal of Sociolinguistics 2(1):3-34.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

Selected quotes:

  • The nation is an 'imagined community' to use Anderson's term. It assumes the status of a community, encompassing and transforming traditional communities, claiming the loyalties and orientations that were formerly afforded the village, the lineage, the clan, the tribe, the neighbourhood.The modern concept of the nation is of a world defined by boundaries which contain a tangible and finite population. It is a world of maps and territories, a world of private, and by extension, national real esate. 'In the older imagining, . states were defined by centres, borders were porous and indistinct, and sovereignties faded imperceptibly into one another' (Anderson 1991:19) (6).
  • It is the nation with its tangible bounded territory, a space to be occupied by individuals, that supports the modern capitalist state in which people are of economic necessity, equal and individuated before the law, the community an epiphenomenon, territory a resource to be traded. Identity is likewise individuated, divorced in all public purpose from community, bestowed not through communal membership, but through the driver's licence, the credit card, and the passport(6).
  • In such an environment(.) language no longer part of identity anchoring a person to communal roots. Language is also defined by boundaries, not by its users. The national language is the language of the nation-state, not necessarily of its citizens. It is probably the first language of those who wield power and authority in that public realm-of law, economics, politics and education.
    The orientation towards languages as national and/or official languages also involves the standardisation of language, the development of coified acceptable language-of grammars and dictionaries. The communal and idiosyncratic aspects of language, the development of codified acceptable language use give way to depersonalised, decentered language dominated by the written form.
    The dominance of the national language within the borders of the state as well as beyond, throughout its spheres of influence, creates minority status for other languages within the nation-state. These minority languages are not necessarily used by a statistical minority but are culturally devalued, and frequently operate as community languages. Their use signals community membership, in contrast to the individuated identity created by the national language (6-7).
  • It is only a few hundred of the world's 6-7000 languages that have any kind of official status, and it is only speakers of official languages who enjoy all linguistic human rights (Phillipson, Rannut, and Skutnab-Kangas 1994:2) (7).
  • No country has a dictionary for more than one sign language (7).

bregmanalberts 1990Bregman, Albert S. 1990. Auditory scene analysis: The perceptual organization of sound. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

brewsterethomas&brewsterelizabeths 1993Brewster, E. Thomas, and Elizabeth S. Brewster. 1993. Language acquisition made practical. Pasadena, CA: Lingua House.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

brightjaneo&brightwilliam 1969Bright, Jane O., and William Bright. 1969. Semantic structures in northwestern California and the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. American Anthropologist 67:249-258.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

brightwilliam 1990Bright, William. 1990. "With one lip, with two lips": Parallelism in Nahuatl. Language 66:437-452.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

brittonbrucek&pellegriniad 1990Britton, Bruce K., and A. D. Pellegrini (eds.) 1990. Narrative thought and narrative language. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,
Linguistics,
History,

brodyjill 1991Brody, Jill. 1991. Indirection in the negotiation of self in everyday Tojolabál women's conversation. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 1:78-96.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

brookesheather&heathshirleybrice 1997Brookes, Heather, and Shirley Brice Heath. 1997. Tove Skutnabb-Kangas and Robert Phillipson, editors: Linguistic human rights: Overcoming linguistic discrimination. Berlin and new York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1994. 478pp. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 127:197-216.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

browncecilh&witkowskistanleyr 1981Brown, Cecil H., and Stanley R. Witkowski. 1981. Figurative language in universalist perspective. American Ethnologist 8:596-615.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

browncecilh&witkowskistanleyr 1983Brown, Cecil H., and Stanley R. Witkowski. 1983. Polysemy, lexical change and cultural importance. Man 18:72-89.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

browncecilh 1976Brown, Cecil H. 1976. General principles of human anatomical partonomy and speculations on the growth of partonomic nomenclature. American Ethnologist 3:400-424.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

browncecilh 1977Brown, Cecil H. 1977. Folk botanical life-forms: Their universality and growth. American Anthropologist 79:317-342.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

browncecilh 1979Brown, Cecil H. 1979. Folk zoological life-forms: Their universality and growth. American Anthropologist 81:791-817.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

browncecilh 1984aBrown, Cecil H. 1984a. Language and living things: Uniformities in folk classification and naming. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

browncecilh 1984bBrown, Cecil H. 1984b. The growth of ethnobiological nomenclature. Current Anthropology 27:1-19.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

browncecilh 1996Brown, Cecil H. 1996. Lexical acculturation, areal diffusion, lingua francas, and bilingualism. Language in Society 25(2):261-279.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

brownduncan 1995Brown, Duncan. 1995. The society of the texrt: The oral literature of the /Xam bushmen. Critical Arts 9(2):76-109.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Linguistics,
History,

brownmervyn 1978Brown, Mervyn. 1978. Madagascar rediscovered. A History from early times to independence. London: Damien Tunnacliffe.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

The author succeeds in producing an attractive account of Malagasy history; touching on geography, fauna and flora, describing different theories on the population of Madagascar and then treating the different phases in historical development until independence in 1960.

brownmervyn 1995Brown, Mervyn. 1995. A history of Madagascar. London: Tunnacliffe.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

brownrick 1998Brown, Rick. 1998. Some parameters of language assessment and their possible values. Notes on Sociolinguistics 3(1):43-58.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Language assessment,
Research,

brugmanclaudia 1983Brugman, Claudia. 1983. The use of body-part terms as locatives in Chalcatongo Mixtec. In Studies in mesoamerican linguistics. Reports from the Survey of California and Other Indian Languages 4, 235-290, edited by Alice Schlichter, Wallace L. Chafe, and Leanne Hinton. Berkeley: University of California, Dept. of Linguistics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

brugmanclaudia 1988Brugman, Claudia. 1988. The story of over: Polysemy, semantics, and structure of the lexicon. New York: Garland Publishing.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

bruhntheac 1990Bruhn, Thea C. 1990. 'Passages': Life, the universe, and language proficiency assessment. In Language teaching, testing, and technology: Lessons from the past with a view toward the future. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 1989, 244-254, edited by James E. Alatis. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

bruneredwardm 1984Bruner, Edward M. (ed.) 1984. Text, play and story. Washington, DC: AES.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,

bruneredwardm 1986aBruner, Edward M. 1986a. Ethnography as narrative. In The anthropology of experience, 139-155, edited by Victor W. Turner, and Edward M. Bruner. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

brunerjerome 1986Bruner, Jerome. 1986. Actual minds, possible worlds. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

brunerjerome 1990Bruner, Jerome. 1990. Acts of meaning. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

brunotf 1930Brunot, F. 1930. Histoire de langue française des origines à nos jours. Paris: Armand Colin.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
History,

bryeannelizabeth 1992Brye, Ann Elizabeth. 1992. Promoting language standardization on the local level in Cameroon. Notes on Scripture in Use and Language Programs 32:19-41.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

buchheitroberth 1988Buchheit, Robert H. 1988. Language shift in the concentrated Mennonite district of Kansas. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 69:5-18.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

buillesjeanmichel 1988Builles, Jean-Michel. 1988. La voix agento-stative en malgache. In Linguistique de Madagascar et des Comores. Etudes Océan Indien 9, 185-196, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

burlingrobbins 1964Burling, Robbins. 1964. Cognition and componential analysis: God's truth or hocus-pocus? American Anthropologist 66:20.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

burlingrobbins 1970Burling, Robbins. 1970. Man's many voices: Language in its cultural context. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

burnsdonaldh 1968Burns, Donald H. 1968. Bilingual education in the Andes of Peru. In Language problems of developing nations, 403-413, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

bybeejoanl 1985Bybee, Joan L. 1985. Morphology: A study of the relation between meaning and form. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,

calamegriaulegenevieve 1977Calame-Griaule, Geneviève. 1977. Langage et cultures Africaines. Essais d'ethnolinguistique. Etudes réunies et présentées par G. Calame-Griaule. Paris: François Maspero.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

This work has interesting sections on oral literature and even though already thirty-odd years old, is very useful for understanding various ethnolinguistic issues.

callawaydonnr 1980Callaway, Donn R. 1980. Accent and the evaluation of ESL oral proficiency. In Research in language testing, 102-115, edited by John W. Oller Jr., and K. Perkins. Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House Publishers.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

calletfrancois 18711883Callet, François. 1871-1883. Tantaran'ny andriana eto Madagascar. 5 vols. Antananarivo: Presy Katolika.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

calletfrancois 19531978Callet, François. 1953-1978. Histoire des rois. 5 vols. Traduction de "Tantaran'ny andriana eto Madagascar" par G.S. Chapus et E. Ratsimba. Antananarivo: Académie Malgache.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

calvetlouisjean 1974Calvet, Louis-Jean. 1974. Linguistique et colonialisme: Petit trait de glottophagie. Paris: Payot.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
History,

calvetlouisjean 1975Calvet, Louis-Jean. 1975. Pour et contre Saussure: Vers une linguistique sociale. Paris: Payot.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

calvetlouisjean 1977Calvet, Louis-Jean. 1977. Marxisme et linguistique. Paris: Payot.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

calvetlouisjean 1987Calvet, Louis-Jean. 1987. La guerre des langues et les politiques linguistiques. Paris: Payot.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

calvetlouisjean 1989Calvet, Louis-Jean. 1989. Etat des lieux, état des langues. Afrique : cohabitations. Le Français dans le monde. Diagonales 10:26-28.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

calvetlouisjean 1993Calvet, Louis-Jean. 1993. La sociolinguistique: Que sais-je? Que sais-je? Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

calvetlouisjean 1994Calvet, Louis-Jean. 1994. Les politiques de diffusion des langues en Afrique francophone. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 107:67-76.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

Gives the history of "francophonie" as a concept and describes the "Plan d'aménagement linguistique de la Francophonie." Madagascar was absent from the 1989 meeting in Dakar, where leaders of francophone states met. The FIDELCA was given a budget of 3,000,000 FF in 1990 to develop African Language Studies, help research and work towards a dialogue of cultures.

camerondeborah&frazerelizabeth&harveypenelope&ramptonmbh 1992Cameron, Deborah, Elizabeth Frazer, Penelope Harvey, and M. B. H. Rampton. 1992. Researching language: Issues of power and method. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

camerondeborah 1998Cameron, Deborah. 1998. Representing sociolinguistics? Journal of Sociolinguistics 2(3):421-431.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

carbaughdonal 1990aCarbaugh, Donal (ed.) 1990a. Cultural communication and intercultural contact. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

carbaughdonal 1990bCarbaugh, Donal. 1990b. Culture talking about itself. In Cultural communication and intercultural contact, 1-9, edited by Donal Carbaugh. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

carrollbrendanj&hallpatrickj 1985Carroll, Brendan J., and Patrick J. Hall. 1985. Make your own language tests. Oxford: Pergamom Institute of English.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

carrowe 1974Carrow, E. 1974. A test using elicited imitations in assessing grammatical structure in children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders 39:437-444.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

cartierfrancisa 1980Cartier, Francis A. 1980. Alternative methods of oral proficiency assessment. In Measuring spoken language proficiency, 7-14, edited by James R. Frith. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

cartwrightdon 1987Cartwright, Don. 1987. Accommodation among the anglophone minority in Quebec to official language policy: A shift in traditional patterns of language contact. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 8(1-2):187-212.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

carusov 1971Caruso, V. 1971. Brève esquisse d'analyse du 'hazomanga' dans la société bara. Bulletin de Madagascar 298:264.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

casadeugeneh&langackerronald 1985Casad, Eugene H., and Ronald Langacker. 1985. "Inside" and "outside" in Cora grammar. International Journal of American Linguistics 51:247-281.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

casadeugeneh 1974Casad, Eugene H. 1974. Dialect intelligibility testing. Publications in linguistics and related fields 38. Norman: Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Oklahoma.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Quantitative research,
Research,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

casadeugeneh 1992Casad, Eugene H. (ed.) 1992. Windows on bilingualism. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

casadeugeneh 1993Casad, Eugene H. 1993. "Locations", "paths" and the Cora verb. In Conceptualizations and mental processing in language, 593-645, edited by Richard A. Geiger, and Brygida Rudzka-Ostyn. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

casadeugeneh 1997Casad, Eugene H. 1997. Language assessment tools: Uses and limitations. In Language choices: Conditions, constraints, and consequences. Impact: Studies in language and society 1, 253-273, edited by Martin Pütz. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

casagrandejb&halekennethl 1967Casagrande, J. B., and Kenneth L. Hale. 1967. Semantic relations in Papago folk definitions. In Studies in southwestern ethnolinguistics, 165-196, edited by Dell H. Hymes, and W. E. Bittle. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

cassonronaldw 1981Casson, Ronald W. 1981. Language, culture, and cognition: Anthropological perspectives. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

centredeslanguesdelacademiemalgache 2000Centre des Langues de l'Académie Malgache. 2000. Voambolana, ny riaka sy ny morony/ vocabulaire mer et littoral. Antananarivo: Tsipika.

language(s):
Malagasy, French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

chafewallace 1990Chafe, Wallace. 1990. Some things that narratives tell us about the mind. In Narrative thought and narrative language, 79-98, edited by Bruce K. Britton, and A. D. Pellegrini. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,

chafewallace 1991Chafe, Wallace. 1991. Grammatical subjects in speaking and writing. Text 11:45-72.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,

chambersjackk&trudgillpeter 1998Chambers, Jack K., and Peter Trudgill. 1998. Dialectology. Cambridge textbooks in linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

chamlamarieclaude 1958Chamla, Marie-Claude. 1958. Recherches anthropologiques sur l'origine des malgaches. Mémoires du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle. Paris: Editions du Muséum.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

charlesclementseverin 1985Charles, Clément Séverin. 1985. Les Mahafale de l'Onilahy: Des clans au royaume, du xvie siècle à la conquête coloniale. Thèse. Paris: Université de Paris 1.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

chazangilligsuzanne 1991Chazan-Gillig, Suzanne. 1991. La société sakalave. Le Menabe dans la construction nationale malgache. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Menabe,

chengpw 1985Cheng, P. W. 1985. Pictures of ghosts: A critique of Aflred Bloom's 'the linguistic shaping of thought'. American Anthropologist 87:917-922.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

chungsandra 1990Chung, Sandra. 1990. VP'S and verb movement in Chamorro. Natural Language and LinguisticTheory 8:559-619.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Austronesian linguistics,
Linguistics,
Austronesian,

A discussion of VP's and verb movement in Chamorro, a Western Austronesian Language, spoken in the Mariana Islands.

clarkherberth&havilandsusane 1977Clark, Herbert H., and Susan E. Haviland. 1977. Comprehension and the given-new contract. In Discourse production and comprehension, 1-40, edited by Roy O. Freedle. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Research,
Anthropology and ethnology,

clarkjohnld&yallopcolin 1990Clark, John L. D., and Colin Yallop. 1990. An introduction to phonetics and phonology. Oxford: Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

clarkjohnld 1980Clark, John L. D. 1980. Toward a common measure of speaking proficiency. In Measuring spoken language proficiency, 15-25, edited by James R. Frith. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

clastrespierre 1974Clastres, Pierre. 1974. De l'ethnocide. L'homme 14(3-4):101-110.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

cliffordjames 1986aClifford, James. 1986a. Introduction: Partial truths. In Writing culture: The poetics and politics of ethnography, 1-26, edited by James Clifford. Berkeley: University of California Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

cliffordjames 1986bClifford, James (ed.) 1986b. Writing culture: The poetics and politics of ethnography. Berkeley: University of California Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

clignetremi&ernstbernard 1995Clignet, Rémi, and Bernard Ernst. 1995. L'école à Madagascar: Evaluation de la qualité de l'enseignement primaire public. Paris: Editions Karthala.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Dialectology,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Excellent study which contains a discussion of language in Malagasy education that is very relevant to our study.

cloonanjeannedenise&strinejamesmichael 1991Cloonan, Jeanne Denise, and James Michael Strine. 1991. Federalism and the development of language policy: Preliminary investigations. Language Problems and Language Planning 15(3):268-281.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

cluveraugustddev 1991Cluver, August D. de V. 1991. A systems approach to language planning: The case of Namibia. Language Problems and Language Planning 15(1):43-64.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

This article examines the Namibian experience of language planning: after independence, English was to become the new national language, while spoken by only 5% of the population, with Afrikaans being the main lingua franca and German, plus 18 indigenous languages being used. Professor Cluver sets some guidelines for the language plan of the new government, so that previous mistakes would not be repeated.

clynemichael 1988Clyne, Michael. 1988. The German-Australian speech community: Ethnic core values and language maintenance. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 72:67-83.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

This article is a study of the status of the German-Australian speech community in terms of their ethnic identity and the importance of their language.

colbybenjaminn 1973Colby, Benjamin N. 1973. A partial grammar of Eskimo folktales. American Anthropologist 75:645-662.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

colejennifer 1997Cole, Jennifer. 1997. Sacrifice, narratives and experience in east Madagascar. Journal of Religion in Africa 27(4):401-425.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Eastern,

colemanlinda&kaypaul 1981Coleman, Linda, and Paul Kay. 1981. Prototype semantics. Language 57:26-44.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,

colesfeliceann 1996Coles, Felice Ann. 1996. Suzanne Romaine, language in society: An introduction to sociolinguistics. Oxford & new York: Oxford university press, 1994. Language in Society 25(2):283.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

collinsjamest 1989Collins, James T. 1989. Malay dialect research in Malaysia: The issue of perspective. Bijdragen Tot de Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde 145:235-264.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,

The situation described here reveals striking similarities with the dialectal situation and policies in Madagascar. On most points a fruitful comparison could be drawn.

comriebernard 1989Comrie, Bernard. 1989. Language universals and linguistic typology: Syntax and morphology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

condominasgeorges 1992Condominas, Georges (ed.) 1992. Disciplines croisées. Paris: Editions de l'Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

conklinharoldc 1964Conklin, Harold C. 1964. Hanunóo color categories. In Language in culture and society: A reader in linguistics and anthropology, 189-192, edited by Dell H. Hymes. New York: Harper and Row.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

connellpj&myleszitzerc 1982Connell, P. J., and C. Myles-Zitzer. 1982. An analysis of elicited imitation as a language evaluation procedure. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders 47:390-396.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

cookharukominegishi 1991Cook, Haruko Minegishi. 1991. The Japanese sentence-final particle 'yo' as a non-referential indexical. Paper presented at the 2nd international cognitive linguistics conference, university of California at Santa Cruz, July 29-August 2, 1991. In Second International Cognitive Linguistics Conference. Santa Cruz.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

coppallea 1911Coppalle, A. 1911. Les Kimos de Madagascar. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache 8:65-67.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Kimosy,
Southern,

coulauddaniel 1973Coulaud, Daniel. 1973. Les Zafimaniry. Un groupe ethnique de Madagascar à la poursuite de la forêt. Antananarivo: Fanotamboky Malagasy.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Zafimaniry,
Eastern,

coulauddaniel 1974Coulaud, Daniel. 1974. Reflexion sur la notion d'ethnie à Madagascar: L'exemple du nord des pays Tanala et Betsileo. Taloha 6:89-116.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,
Zafimaniry,
Eastern,
Tanala (Antanala),

This excellent article on the problem of ethnicity in Madagascar is done in three parts. Coulaud first describes the identities of the following groups, (often misunderstood by the colonial mindset and by a too facile application of the "19 peoples" of Madagascar), namely the groups of Northern Betsileo (Fandriana, Mahazoarivo, Imady); the groups of the forest escarpment (Arivoanala, Zafimaniry); and the groups below the eastern escarpment (Zafindiamanana, Mahasila, Manandriana, Antaiva).
Having briefly differentiated among these different groups, he discusses in part two different aspects concerning the formation of the ethnic group, the life of the ethnic group, and the idea of an ethnic identity. He ends his conclusion with a quotation of the oath of the VVS (= Vy, Vato, Sakélika-Nationalist movement) in 1913, which goals would be achieved for the benefit of Madagascar, "Je jure d'aimer tous les malgaches.Je ne tiendrai compte ni des diverses races ni des tribus: les Malgaches sont un indivisible et inséparable. Un Malgache, c'est un Malgache et c'est tout ce qui compte."

coulmasflorian 1998aCoulmas, Florian. 1998a. Introduction. In The handbook of sociolinguistics. Blackwell handbooks in linguistics 4, 1-11, edited by Florian Coulmas. Oxford: Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

Selected quotes:

  • In 1952, the late Haver C. Currie published a paper, first drafted in 1949, entitled 'Projection of sociolinguistics: the relationship of speech to social status' (reprinted in 1971). It took some time for the term 'sociolinguistics', for which Currie claims priority, to take root, but by the early 1960's the first sociolinguistic conferences were being held and anthologies of articles dealing with properties of language calling for the inclusion of social factors in their analysis had started to appear (1).
  • Stated in very general terms, micro-linguistics investigates how social structure influences the way people talk and how language varieties and patterns of use correlate with social attributes such as class, sex, and age. Macro-sociolinguistics, on the other hand, studies what societies do with their languages, that is, attitudes and attachments that account for the functional distribution of speech forms in society, language shift, maintenance, and replacement, the delimitation and interaction of speech communities (2).

coulmasflorian 1998bCoulmas, Florian (ed.) 1998b. The handbook of sociolinguistics. Blackwell handbooks in linguistics 4. Oxford: Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

In four parts, namely "Foundations, Social Dimensions of Language, Linguistic Dimension of Society, and Applied Issues," the authors deal with the theme of Sociolinguistics in twenty-seven different chapters. In Part II, micro-issues are dealt with and in Part III, macro-issues. See individual papers for annotations. The volume, as a whole, gives a fresh overview of sociolinguistics.

coulonalain 1995Coulon, Alain. 1995. Ethnomethodology. Qualitative research methods series 36. London: Sage Publications.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

couplandnikolas&jaworskiadam 1997Coupland, Nikolas, and Adam Jaworski. 1997. Sociolinguistics: A reader and coursebook. Modern linguistics series. London: Macmillan Press Ltd.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

cousinswe&parrettj 1871Cousins, W. E., and J. Parrett. 1871. Ny ohabolan'ny Ntaolo. Antananarivo: London Missionary Society Press.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

cousinswe 1963 1931Cousins, W. E. 1963 (1931). Fomba Malagasy. Antananarivo: Trano Printy Imarivolanitra.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Originally written to teach foreigners about Malagasy customs.

craigcolettegrinevald 1986aCraig, Colette Grinevald. 1986a. Introduction. In Noun classes and categorization, 1-10, edited by Colette Grinevald Craig. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

craigcolettegrinevald 1986bCraig, Colette Grinevald (ed.) 1986b. Noun classes and categorization. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

craigcolettegrinevald 1998Craig, Colette Grinevald. 1998. Language contact and language degeneration. In The handbook of sociolinguistics. Blackwell handbooks in linguistics 4, 257-270, edited by Florian Coulmas. Oxford: Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

creidercheta 1975Creider, Chet A. 1975. The semantic system of noun classes in proto-Bantu. Anthropological Linguistics 17:127-138.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
History,

crossephraim 1962Cross, Ephraim. 1962. Lexicostatistics has not yet attained the status of a science. In Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Linguistics, 480-489, edited by Horace G. Lunt. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,
History,

crystaldavid 1985Crystal, David. 1985. A dictionary of linguistics and phonetics. Cambridge, Mass.: Basil Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

crystaldavid 1987Crystal, David. 1987. The Cambridge encyclopedia of language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

dahlelars 1877Dahle, Lars. 1877. Specimens of Malagasy folklore. Antananarivo: A. Kingdom.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlelars 1984 1877Dahle, Lars. 1984 (1877). Anganon'ny Ntaolo. Antananarivo: Trano Printy Loterana.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlottochr 1951Dahl, Otto Chr. 1951. Malgache et Maanjan. Une comparaison linguistique. Oslo: Egede Instituttet.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlottochr 1954Dahl, Otto Chr. 1954. Le substrat bantou en malgache. Norsk tidsskrift for sprogvidenskap 17:325-362.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlottochr 1966Dahl, Otto Chr. 1966. Les débuts de l'orthographe malgache. Oslo-Bergen-Tromsö: Universitetsforlaget.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Merina,
Central,

Excellent paper for understanding the development of Malagasy orthography and related matters.
In this paper, Professor Dahl touches on issues like "one language is spoken all over Madagascar," saying that "les autochtones de Madagascar parlent tous la même langue, bien que divisée en un grand nombre de dialectes. C'est le parler de Tananarive, depuis un siècle et demi la capitale de l'Ile, qui est le malgache littéraire et, grâce à la littérature et à la circulation, on arrive partout à se faire comprendre en employant ce parler (le Merina)." It would be interesting to know how that conclusion was arrived at and how much weight Professor Dahl would himself assign to it now, forty years later. At the time of publication, in 1966, the Malagasy population counted just over 5 million people. In 2002, that number had more than tripled and infrastructures and education had deteriorated in most parts of the island over the almost four decades, perhaps felt least in the capital. Successive language policies and other government intervention, as well as misadministration over the last decades have further increased the deprivation of the Malagasy people, in terms of accessibility to education and general development.

Selected quotes:

  • Les autochtones de Madagascar parlent tous la même langue, bien que divisée en un grand nombre de dialectes. C'est le parler de Tananarive, depuis un siècle et demi la capitale de l'Ile, qui est le malgache littéraire et, grâce à la littérature et à la circulation, on arrive partout à se faire comprendre en employant ce parler (le Merina) (5).

dahlottochr 1968Dahl, Otto Chr. 1968. Contes malgaches en dialecte Sakalava. Texte, traduction, grammaire et lexique. Oslo-Bergen-Tromsö: Universitetsforlaget.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

dahlottochr 1972Dahl, Otto Chr. 1972. Les noms de parenté en malgache. In Approche linguistique. Langues et techniques, nature et société 1, 353-358, edited by Jacques Barrau. Paris: Éditions Klincksieck.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlottochr 1977Dahl, Otto Chr. 1977. La subdivision de la famille Barito et la place du malgache. Acta Orientalia 38:77-134.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlottochr 1981Dahl, Otto Chr. 1981. Early phonetic and phonemic changes in Austronesian. Instituttet For sammenlignende kulturforskning. Serie B: Skrifter. Oslo: Norwegian University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
History,
Austronesian,

dahlottochr 1983Dahl, Otto Chr. 1983. Sorabe révélant l'évolution du dialecte Antemoro. Antananarivo: Trano Printy Loterana.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,

dahlottochr 1984Dahl, Otto Chr. 1984. Mahomet dans le panthéon malgache. Bulletin des études africaines 4(7):21-30.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlottochr 1988Dahl, Otto Chr. 1988. Bantu substratum in Malagasy. In Linguistique de Madagascar et des Comores. Etudes Océan Indien 9, 91-132, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Selected quotes:

  • Although Madagascar is situated only 400 kilometres from the East African coast, Malagasy, the language of the island, is not an African language (91).
  • It has now been established that Malagasy is a member of the South East Barito subgroup of Austronesian in Kalimantan (Borneo), (Dahl 1951 and 1977) and a hypothesis of migration from Kalimantan to Madagascar about AD 400 (Dahl 1951: 366-369) has received general acceptance among Austronesianists. Besides Malagasy, the best known language of this subgroup is Ma'anyan (91).
  • However, although the bulk of the Malagasy language is Austronesian, there are also Bantu elements in it. Local tradition has it that non-Malagasy (sic) peoples lived in certain parts of Madagascar before the latter (Malagasy) arrived there. They are called Vazimba, which sounds like a Bantu tribes-name. An English witness from the beginning of the 1_th century testifies that they spoke among themselves a language that was not understood by their neighbours (Drury, 1729:279). There are still some clans called Vazimba in Western Madagascar, but now they speak the Malagasy dialect of their neighbours (91).
  • Dahle's hypothesis: wherever a Malagasy word of common occurrence and referring to objects of common life is found, not in Swahili, but also in other African languages, it is almost certain that it has not been introduced into Malagasy through Swahili, but belongs to the original African element in Malagasy (92).
  • Is it possible to determine the phonetic structure of the two languages which met in Madagascar about AD 400? If so it will also be possible to follow the phonetic development which has taken place after that time (109).
  • Malagasy is undoubtedly a member of the south-east Barito subgroup of Austronesian in Kalimantan, and it has been compared with the best known of the other members of that subgroup, Ma'anyan, with great precision (Dahl 1951 & 1977). We therefore know that the immigrants spoke a language with a structure rather similar to that of Ma'anyan (Dahl, 1938) (109).
  • The language of the substratum seems so similar to Comorian forms of Bantu "that we may consider it as a Comorian dialect." This is not difficult to understand as the easiest way from the African continent to Madagascar is to pass through the Comoro islands, especially in the small crafts of those olden times (110).
  • There is thus a great parallelism in the development of voiceless stops in Comorian and Malagasy, and in Malagasy this is the case not only in Bantu words, but also in the words inherited from Austronesian. A substratum nearly related to Comoro, or even being a Comoro dialect, seems to be the only possible explanation (113).
  • (.) Malagasy has eliminated consonantic finals, and this has taken place after the immigration into Madagascar. However, all the final consonants were not eliminated or changed into intervocalic position at the same time. Final nasals reamained in this position longer than other consonants. Still the influence from the substratum is evident. Anyone who has taught French to Malagasy children will have observed how difficult the pronunciation of final consonants is to speakers of a language with only vocalic finals (119).
  • All these changes after the immigration into Madagascar find their simplest explanation in the influence of a Bantu substratum. And both the phonetic development of the Bantu vocabulary in general and the special development of the voiceless stops in AN words show the near affinity of the substratum to the Comoro isolects. Most of the Bantu words in Malagasy have also cognates in Comoro and Swahili. If Comoro had been better known, we should probably have found more of them there (120).

dahlottochr 1991Dahl, Otto Chr. 1991. Migration from Kalimantan to Madagascar. Instituttet For sammenlignende kulturforskning. Serie B: Skrifter 82. Oslo: Norwegian University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlottochr 1992Dahl, Otto Chr. 1992. Zanahary, Andrianahary, Andriamanitra. Désignation des êtres divins en malgache. In Disciplines croisées, edited by G. Condominas. Paris: Editions de l'Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlottochr 1993Dahl, Otto Chr. 1993. Language conflict in Madagascar around AD 700. In Language conflict and language planning, 59-68, edited by Ernst Håkon Jahr. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlottochr 1995Dahl, Otto Chr. 1995. L'importance de la langue malgache dans la linguistique austronésienne et dans la linguistique gnérale. In Cultures of Madagascar: Ebb and flow of influences. Working papers series 2, 39-46, edited by Sandra Evers, and Marc Spindler. Leiden: International Institute for Asian Studies.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahloeyvind 1992Dahl, Øyvind. 1992. Quand le futur vient de derrière: Le concept malgache de temps et d'ordre du monde et conséquences pour le transfert de technologie. In Colloque pour chercheurs en sciences sociales et opérateurs économiques sur "Les changements sociaux dans la région du Vakinankaratra." Antsirabe 6-9 avril 1992. Antananarivo: Trano Printy Loterana.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahloeyvind 1993aDahl, Øyvind (ed.) 1993a. Language. A doorway between human cultures. Tributes to Dr. Otto Chr. Dahl on his ninetieth birthday. Oslo: Novus Forlag.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

This collection of papers contains some pertinent information on the work of Otto Chr Dahl, as well as on aspects of Malagasy archaeology, history and linguistics (nine out of the total of sixteen). Particularly of interest to us in the context of this survey are the articles by Claude Allibert, and Pierre Vérin (Linguistique, archéologie et l'exploration du passé malgache), by Dina Jeanne (Les débuts de l'évangélisation du Fihereña par les Luthériens Norvégiens 1874-1897), as well the paper by Roger-Bruno Rabenilaina (L'Intégration des différents parlers, signes manifestes de l'unicité de la langue malgache).

dahloeyvind 1993bDahl, Øyvind. 1993b. Malagasy meanings. PhD dissertation. Center for Intercultural Communication, School of Mission and Theology, Misjonshogskolens forlag.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vakinankaratra,
Central,
Merina,

This study has been the one of the greatest treasures found since we started learning about Malagasy history, culture, and language and should be read by everyone involved in cross-cultural work and particularly by those who endeavour to communicate with the Malagasy people. Working through this practical handbook took us on a journey of discovering ourselves and our own worldviews in relation to that of the Malagasy people; and in identifying with the many practical situations described, we could relate and learn to empathise and were alerted to the fact that we need to let go of our own cultural assumptions, if we wish to truly relate to our friends in Madagascar and not be yet another costly, but passing, irrelevance in the long history of cross-cultural interaction.

dahloeyvind 1999Dahl, Øyvind. 1999. Meanings in Madagascar. Cases of intercultural communication. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vakinankaratra,
Central,
Merina,

daileyk&boxxjr 1979Dailey, K., and J. R. Boxx. 1979. A comparison of three imitative tests of expressive language and a spontaneous language sample. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools 10:6-13.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

dalmondpierre 1987Dalmond, Pierre. 1987. Exercices en langue Sakalava et Betsimisaraka (1841-1844). Recherches et Documents 3.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Betsimisaraka,
Eastern,

dandouauandrejean 1911Dandouau, André-Jean. 1911. Catalogue alphabétique des noms malgaches de végetaux. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dandouauandrejean 1924Dandouau, André-Jean. 1924. Dialogues français-Sakalava (dialecte de Nossi-Be et du sambirano). Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache 6:91-157.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Northern Sakalava,
Sakalava,
Western,

dandraderoygoodwin 1981D'Andrade, Roy Goodwin. 1981. The cultural part of cognition. Cognitive Science 5:179-195.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

dandraderoygoodwin 1984D'Andrade, Roy Goodwin. 1984. Cultural meaning systems. In Culture theory: Essays on mind, self, and emotion, 88-119, edited by Richard A. Shweder, and Robert A. LeVine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

dandraderoygoodwin 1995D'Andrade, Roy Goodwin. 1995. The development of cognitive anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

dasguptajyotirindra&gumperzjohnj 1968Das Gupta, Jyotirindra, and John J. Gumperz. 1968. Language, communication and control in north India. In Language problems of developing nations, 151-166, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

dasguptajyotirindra 1968Das Gupta, Jyotirindra. 1968. Language diversity and national development. In Language problems of developing nations, 17-26, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

dasguptajyotirindra 1971Das Gupta, Jyotirindra. 1971. Religion, language, and political mobilization. In Can language be planned?, 53-61, edited by Joan Rubin, and Bjørn H. Jernudd. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

deanepaul 1992Deane, Paul. 1992. Grammar in mind and brain: Explorations in cognitive syntax. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,

decaryraymond&castelremy 1941Decary, Raymond, and Rémy Castel. 1941. Modalités et conséquences des migrations intérieures récentes des populations malgaches. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond&faubleejacques 1960Decary, Raymond, and Jacques Faublée. 1960. Contribution au folklore des populations côtières. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 36:273-300.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1928Decary, Raymond. 1928. Lexique français-antandroy. Mémoires de l'Académie malgache 8. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French, Tandroy Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

decaryraymond 1935Decary, Raymond. 1935. Les tatouages chez les indigènes de Madagascar. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 5:1-39.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1940Decary, Raymond. 1940. Carte ethnographique et démographique de Madagascar à l'échelle du 1000000. Note explicative. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1950bDecary, Raymond. 1950b. La population de Madagascar. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 28:1-19.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1951Decary, Raymond. 1951. Mours et coutumes des malgaches. Collection de documents et de témoignages pour servir à l'histoire de notre temps. Paris: Payot.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1953Decary, Raymond. 1953. La bouche et les dents dans les coutumes malgaches. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 23(1-2):35-42.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1964Decary, Raymond. 1964. Contes et légendes du sud-ouest de Madagascar. Les littératures populaires de toutes les nations n.s. 11. Paris: G.-P. Maisonneuve et Larose.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
South-western,

delcroixfrancoise&faurouxemmanuel 1992Delcroix, Françoise, and Emmanuel Fauroux. 1992. Les racines cérémonielles du clientélisme et du pouvoir local dans les villages Sakalava du Menabe. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:213-222.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Menabe,

delivrealain 1974Delivre, Alain. 1974. Interprétation d'une tradition orale. L'Histoire des rois d'Imerina. Paris: Klincksieck.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

demosvasilikie 1988Demos, Vasilikie. 1988. Ethnic mother-tongue maintenance among Greek-orthodox Americans. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 69:59-71.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

dempwolffo 1938Dempwolff, O. 1938. Verleichende Lautlehre des austronesischen Wortschatzes. 3 Vols. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Austronesian linguistics,
Linguistics,
Austronesian,

dennyjpeter&creidercheta 1986Denny, J. Peter, and Chet A. Creider. 1986. The semantics of noun classes in proto-Bantu. In Noun classes and categorization, 217-239, edited by Colette Grinevald Craig. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

dennyjpeter 1979Denny, J. Peter. 1979. The 'extendedness' variable in classifier semantics: Universal features and cultural variation. In Ethnolinguistics: Boas, Sapir, and Whorf revisited, 97-119, edited by Madeleine Mathiot. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

dennyjpeter 1986Denny, J. Peter. 1986. The semantic role of noun classifiers. In Noun classes and categorization, 297-308, edited by Colette Grinevald Craig. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

deschampshubert&vianess 1959Deschamps, Hubert, and S. Vianes. 1959. Les malgaches du sud-est. Monographies ethnologiques. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Zafisoro,
Tefasy (Antefasy, Antaifasy),
Eastern,
Tesaka (Antesaka, Antaisaka),
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Antambahoaka (Tambahoaka),
Sahavoay,
Sahafatra,
South-eastern,

Very pertinent and detailed information concerning people groups of the South East of Madagascar, not indifferent to the struggles of missionaries in the area.

deschampshubert 1934Deschamps, Hubert. 1934. Les Antaisaka. La Revue de Madagascar 8:25-39.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tesaka (Antesaka, Antaisaka),
Eastern,

Undemanding description of the Tesaka people, not very detailed, but with some important information on the social unit which is the clan, as well as on traditional dancing, the "national art form" of the Tesaka.

deschampshubert 1936Deschamps, Hubert. 1936. Les Antaisaka. Géographie Humaine, coutumes et histoire d'une population malgache. Antananarivo: Pitot de la Beaujardière.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tesaka (Antesaka, Antaisaka),
Eastern,

deschampshubert 1959Deschamps, Hubert. 1959. Les migrations intérieures passées et présentes à Madagascar. L'homme d'outre-mer 1. Paris: Editions Berger-Levrault.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dezjacques 1956Dez, Jacques. 1956. Quelques réflexions sur les problèmes actuels de la linguistique malgache. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 34:81-103.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dezjacques 1961Dez, Jacques. 1961. Le dialecte Betsimisaraka du sud. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 38:102-103.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern Betsimisaraka (Antatsimo, Tatsimo),
Betsimisaraka,
Eastern,

dezjacques 1963aDez, Jacques. 1963a. Aperçus pour une dialectologie de la langue malgache. Bulletin de Madagascar 204:441-451.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Professor Dez was aiming to give an overview of the Malagasy dialects and this was published over three articles in the Bulletin de Madagascar.

Selected quotes:

  • Certains se demanderont peut-être si cette vue d'ensemble était bien nécessaire. Parmi eux, il y a ceux qui croient qu'il n'y a pas de langue malgache, mais que les diverses populations de l'Ile usent de langages qui leur sont propres et incompréhensibles pour les autres. Parmi eux, il y a également ceux qui estiment que, parce qu'il a une langue malgache officielle, tout ce qui n'est pas elle, n'est que jargon sans intérêt et condamné par son inutilité à disparaître tôt ou tard (441).

dezjacques 1963bDez, Jacques. 1963b. Aperçus pour une dialectologie de la langue malgache II. Bulletin de Madagascar 205:507-520.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dezjacques 1963cDez, Jacques. 1963c. Aperçus pour une dialectologie de la langue malgache III. Bulletin de Madagascar 206:581-607.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dezjacques 1971Dez, Jacques. 1971. Au pays Betsimisaraka: Habitat et communications. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 47(1-2):115-145.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsimisaraka,
Eastern,

Selected quotes:

  • Les populations betsimisaraka vivent dans la forêt et de la forêt. (115)

dezjacques 1978aDez, Jacques. 1978a. Le malgache. In Inventaire des études linguistiques sur les pays d'Afrique noire d'expression française et sur Madagascar, 331-349, edited by Daniel Barreteau. Paris: CILF.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

In this article Jacques Dez gives an overview of the history of Malagasy linguistics, dividing it into four periods, namely 16th-18th century; the 19th century; the colonial period; since 1960. He then gives a bibliographic complement, as of 1970. In a later article (1991), Dez takes up the same issues, updating them and adding some new insights.

Selected quotes:

  • Les parlers en usage à Madagascar (exception faite, évidemment, de ceux des groupes reconnus commes allogènes) ne constitue pas un groupe de langues, mais sont des modalités de manifestation d'une langue unique (131).
  • Tous ces parlers présentent donc les mêmes caractéristiques fondamentale de structure grammaticale et lexicale et ne diffèrent guère entre eux que par des varientes localisées de vocabulaire et par 'l'accent', comme l'écrivait déjà E. de Flacourt en introduction à son "Dictionnaire de la langue de Madagascar" (1658) (132).
  • (.) à la fin du 19ème siècle, il y avait un malgache protestant et un malgache catholique, nettement distinguables, le premier meilleur connaisseur des usages traditionnels, le second, plus influencé par celui du français de Madagascar. Depuis,l'évolution s'est faite dans un rapprochement des deux vers une sorte de malgache-standard (137).

dezjacques 1978bDez, Jacques. 1978b. Les sources Européennes anciennes de la linguistique malgache. Paris: Université de Paris 7.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Merina,
Central,
Saint Mariens,
Eastern,
Betsimisaraka,

Dez gives an insightful overview and appreciation of older European sources on the Malagasy language, sorted under nationality of author; He situates each author in historical context.

Selected quotes:

  • A ce jour, l'intérêt offert par l'étude des sources anciennes n'est nullement épuis. Il demeure, au contraire, d'une extrême actualité. (27)

dezjacques 1981Dez, Jacques. 1981. Vocabulaire pour servir au déchiffrement des documents Arabico-malgaches. Paris: Département de Recherches Linguistiques, Université de Paris VII.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,

dezjacques 1983bDez, Jacques. 1983b. Les sora-Be. Sources documentaires. Paris: Département de Recherches Linguistiques, Université de Paris VII.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,

dezjacques 1988Dez, Jacques. 1988. La linguistique malgache: Situation actuelle. In Linguistique de Madagascar et des Comores. Etudes Océan Indien 9, 81-90, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dezjacques 1989Dez, Jacques. 1989. La langue malgache: Approche d'une bibliographie linguistique.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Professor Jacques Dez offers here a bibliography of Malagasy linguistics, which could go a long way to guide researchers in their need of references. His inventory mentions 1700 works, representing 700 different authors, over the different time periods of interest, starting with the seventeenth century until the time of publication in 1989. The bibliography contains three bibliographies: namely a bibliography of linguistics relating to the official language, a bibliography of Malagasy dialectology, and a bibliography of arabico-malagasy. The difference between the first two bibliographies lies in the imbalance in information between the official language and the dialects, the former having received much more attention from researchers, the latter consisting of rare and scattered bits, difficult to access, and generally few in number.
Professor Dez has organised the information according to themes so as to facilitate the search and accompanies a few of the more complicated entries with short notes of explanation.

dezjacques 1991Dez, Jacques. 1991. La linguistique malgache. Bref aperçu historique. Archives et documents: Société d'histoire et d'épistémologie des sciences du langage (SHESL) 2(5). Paris: Université de Paris 7.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Professor Dez introduces his historical overview with a short but excellent description of the Malagasy language. He then traces the development of Malagasy linguistics from the beginning of European contact with Madagascar in the 1600's until today, distinguishing in its development four different periods, namely:
First: from 1500's till 1820: the discovery;
Second: 1820-1900: forming years of traditional grammar; beginning of the first Malagasy linguistics;
Third: 1900-1970: traditional grammar rules;
Fourth: since 1970, the period of the second Malagasy linguistics; traditional grammar rejected.
Dez describes each of these four periods, supported with a brief mention of authors and their contributions during each. This brief analysis of the state of Malagasy linguistics until 1991 provides the reader with clear insights and a good overview of the situation.

dezjacques 1993Dez, Jacques. 1993. Une contribution anglaise à la connaissance de la langue malgache: L'enquête dialectale du révérend J. Richardson (1893). Atlas linguistique et ethnographique de Madagascar. Travaux préliminaires 2. Strasbourg: Université des Sciences Humaines.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sambirano,
Sakalava,
Western,
Zafisoro,
Tefasy (Antefasy, Antaifasy),
Eastern,
Hova,
Merina,
Central,
Tanala (Antanala),
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana),
Northern,
Betsileo,
Bezanozano,
Sihanaka,
Vakinankaratra,
Betsimisaraka,
Masikoro,
South-western,
Vezo,
Bara,
Southern,

dilanwars 1972Dil, Anwar S. (ed.) 1972. The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Language ecology,
Sociolinguistics,

dinajeanne&hoernerjeanmichel 1976Dina, Jeanne, and Jean-Michel Hoerner. 1976. Etude sur les populations Mikea du sud-ouest de Madagascar. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 3-4.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mikea,
South-western,
Masikoro,

Very concise article explaining the problem of the Mikea. No bibliography attached to this copy.

dinneenfrancisp 1967Dinneen, Francis P. 1967. An introduction to general linguistics. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

dirvenrene 1993Dirven, René. 1993. Metonymy and metaphor: Different mental strategies of conceptualization. Leuvense Bijdragen 82:1-28.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,

dixonrmw 1982Dixon, R. M. W. 1982. Where have all the adjectives gone? Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

dixonrmw 1986Dixon, R. M. W. 1986. Noun classes and noun classification in typological perspective. In Noun classes and categorization, 105-112, edited by Colette Grinevald Craig. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,

djitepauling 1990aDjité, Paulin G. 1990a. Les langues Africaines dans la nouvelle francophonie. Language Problems and Language Planning 14(1):20-32.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

Discusses the problems of the idea of "francophonie" in the context of multilingual developing countries in Africa. French seems to be in regression everywhere and the way to address this problem would be according to Djité, by addressing the problem of the prestige of French and the credibility of the "francophonie" movement.

Selected quotes:

  • Il n'est pas absolument requis pour les besoins de l'unité et de la démocratie que les citoyens d'un pays parlent tous une seule et même langue, et qu'en plus, cette langue leur soit étrangère.

djitepauling 1990bDjité, Paulin G. 1990b. The place of African languages in the revival of the francophonie movement. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 86:87-102.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

In this article, the author looks at the conflicting issues of the revival of Francophonie and the development of indigenous languages in Africa. He quotes many examples of the opposing interests of political elites and the ordinary people of a country. Full of irony, his article draws a realistic picture, with the benefit of hind-sight and of having escaped birth in the previous century.

djitepauling 1993Djité, Paulin G. 1993. Francophonie: Gain d'humanité ou perte d'identité? Language problems and language planning 17(3):254-264.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

While the habit to talk of Francophonie in terms of "gain d'humanité" or "perte d'identité" exists, Djité rejects this dichotomy and discusses four different definitions of Francophonie, namely:
1) la francophonie en tant qu'un rassemblement de pays unis par un héritage linguistique commun;
2) la francophonie en tant qu'une entreprise de coopération et de solidarité;
3) la francophonie en tant que mouvement linguistique ou culturel et,
4) la francophonie en tant que mouvement en défense des valeurs humanistes.
A remark that is worth noting here is that languages are not like religions of a mutually-exclusive nature. They can co-exist without threatening someone's mother tongue.

doejohn 1988Doe, John. 1988. Speak into the mirror: A story of linguistic anthropology. Landham, Md.: University Press of America.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

domenichinijeanpierre 1971Domenichini, Jean-Pierre. 1971. Histoire des Palladium d'Imerina d'après des manuscrits anciens. Texte bilingue. Antananarivo: Musée d'Art et d'Archéologie de l'Université de Madagasar.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

domenichinijeanpierre 1981Domenichini, Jean-Pierre. 1981. "La plus belle enigme du monde" ou L'historiographie coloniale en question. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 13-14:57-76.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Jean-Pierre Domenichini refutes some of the assumptions and theories of colonial historians and anthropologists concerning Madagascar. He situates colonialism in the subjective frame it belongs to, in the face of the opposing nationalism, but of which both currents proclaim the profound unity of the Malagasy people. He says that "la colonisation, qui s'attribue le mérite d'avoir mis fin aux guerres tribales et d'unifier politiquement - avec la conquête et la pacification de l'époque de Gallieni - et socialement les populations de la Grande Ile, s'oppose au nationalisme et tout à la fois le rejoint, lorsque celui-ci insiste sur l'unité profonde et ancienne de Madagascar et construit l'unité de l'avenir sur celle du passé." (61). According to Domenichini there has been a Malagasy culture on the great island since at the latest 5AD, when according to a glotttochronological study by Vérin et al the divergence commenced.

Selected quotes:

  • "Pour coloniser, il faut connaître les peuples, leur langue, leurs coutumes, leurs mours, savoir quelles sont leurs origines dans le passé, les affinités qu'ils présentent avec d'autres groupes humains" Gallieni in 1902, cité par Henri Poisson (57).

domenichinijeanpierre 1986Domenichini, Jean-Pierre. 1986. Les dieux au service des rois. Histoire orale des Sampin'Andriana ou Palladiums royaux de Madagascar. Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

domenichiniramiaramananabakoly&domenichinijeanpierre 1979Domenichini-Ramiaramanana, Bakoly, and Jean-Pierre Domenichini. 1979. La tradition malgache, une source pour l'histoire de l'océan Indien. Taloha 8:57-81.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

domenichiniramiaramananabakoly 1968Domenichini-Ramiaramanana, Bakoly. 1968. Hainteny d'autrefois, poèmes traditionnels malgaches receuillis au début du règne de Ranavalona I (1828-1861). Haintenin'ny fahiny, voaangona tamin'ny voalohandohan'ny nanjakan-dranavalona I. Antananarivo: Librairie Mixte.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

domenichiniramiaramananabakoly 1977Domenichini-Ramiaramanana, Bakoly. 1977. Le malgache. Essai de description sommaire 1. Paris: SELAF.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

This description of the Malagasy language may be "sommaire," but is for that very reason useful as a reference work. Mme. Domenichini gives an overview of the Malagasy language, which clarifies some important structural and functional matters to the student of the Malagasy language. At the time of writing, I am a beginner-student of the language and have gained many helpful insights from her work. I will certainly return to it many times.
The introduction to this work provides interesting historical and sociolinguistic information and is then followed by four chapters describing the phonic, syntactic, grammatical and lexical elements of the Merina language, which the author says was chosen as topic because of its official status and history.

Selected quotes:

  • La langue officielle, 'malagasy' ou 'gasy', est fondée sur le dialecte 'merina' et l'ensemble des dialectes malgaches appartient au rameau hespéronésien de la branche malayo-polynésienne des langues austronésiennes. Le malgache classique a été transcrit pour la première fois au XVIIIIe siècle dans un alphabet arabico-malgache appelé 'sorabé'. Des trois groupes de dialectes, le groupe central compte le plus de locuteurs, environ la moitié des malgachophones, et à l'intérieur de ce groupe la position la plus centrale est occupée par le betsileo mais l'auteur a choisi de décrire le merina du même groupe, en raison de son statut officiel et de son histoire (9).
  • [En 1974] le malgache (était) (.) l'une des deux langues officielles (la secone étant le français) de l'île de Madagascar et des petites îles qui en dépendent territorialement. Mais son domaine s'étend également à certaines parties des Comores (population parlant soit un patois malgache, soit un sabir swahilo-malgache) et son influence est perceptible dans les créoles français des Mascareignes (15).
  • Plus de 50% des Malgaches sont des adeptes des religions "traditionnelles" (cultes dynastiques, culte des ancêtres, rites de possession, rites agraires, rites de guérison, etc); un peu plus de 40% sont chrétiens ou christianisés; quant aux musulmans, malgré l'importance de l'influence passée de l'Islam-influence encore bien perceptible, de nos jours, en certaines régions-, ce sont essentiellement des immigrants et ils ne constituent que 1,5% de la population.
    Les phénomènes de 'glossolalie' dans les rites de possession étant des phénomènes sans régularité et se limitant de surcroît au français et aux dialectes malgaches, les catholiques abandonnant de plus en plus l'usage du latin, et les anglicans n'"archaïsant" plus (en malgache) que dans les psaumes, sauf à dire que le malgache officiel, là ou il n'est pas langue maternelle, peut apparaître parfois comme une langue liée au christianisme et notamment au protestantisme, on peut affirmer que, des malgachophones, seules quelques minorités utilisent réellement une langue religieuse différente de la langue de relation:-certains groupes vazimba qui utilisent dans les rituels un langage ésotérique 'non-malgache'?, d'une part, et-d'autre part, les musulmans et certains islamisés (16).
  • De fait, le malgache classique que la France coloniale s'efforça d'éliminer chez ses locuteurs d'origine à partir de 1896, était une langue déjà dotée d'une littérature abondante et dont on saisit plus exactement l'importance au fur et à mesure de la découverte de nouveaux manuscrits. Il s'agissait par ailleurs d'une langue qui servait depuis près d'un siècle de langue d'enseignement et de langue d'administration dans les provinces de la monarchie, qui s'étendaient à peu près aux deux tiers de l'île (20).
  • Dans l'état actuel des connaissances, l'on s'entend à reconnaître l'existence à Madagascar de deux ou de trois groupes dialectaux se différenciant essentiellement par la prononciation ( b-v, f-v, f-h, l-r, k-g, k-h, li-di, ti-ci,etc) et le vocabulaire o- la divergence est notamment favorisée par le jeu des interdits. L'intercompréhension est néanmoins assurée dans toute l'île puisque les vocabulaires de base des deux dialectes les plus divergents (sakalava et tambahoaka) présentent encore 60% de mots communs. Ces groupes dialectaux reconnus sont, par ordre d'importance numérique des locuteurs d'origine:
    A. le groupe formé par les dialectes du Centre, de l'Est et du Sud-Est,
    B. le groupe formé par les dialectes de l'Ouest et du Sud,
    C. le groupe formé par les dialectes du Nord, qui est parfois considéré comme un simple sous-groupe de l'un ou de l'autre.
    Cela dit, il n'est pas sans intérêt de noter que, soit que l'on se fonde sur la phonologie, soit que l'on se se fonde sur la lexicostatistique, le dialecte qui occupe la position la plus centrale est le betsilio de Fianarantsoa qui appartient en principe au groupe A (.).
    A l'intérieur du groupe A, le merina appartient au sous-groupe du Centre (merina, betsileo d'Ambositra, betsileo de Fianarantsoa, sihanaka, bezanozano) dont le nombre de locuteurs d'origine représente près de la moitié des malgachophones, les autres sous-groupes étant le sous-groupe de l'Est et le sous-groupe du Sud-Est. Ce qu'on appelle merina comporte lui-même divers parlers correspondant grosso modo aux anciennes principautés qui furent réunies en un seul royaume à la fin du XVIIIe siècle ( Imerina traditionnel, Imamo, Vakinankaratra, etc.) (.) (20-21).
  • La langue classique vieillie est celle qui repose sur le corpus de textes transcrits au XIXe siècle (littérature et tradition orale), tandis que la 'langue classique actuelle' est celle qui est reconnue par l'Académie Malgache (séance du 16 avril 1964) et qui se fonde sur 'l'usage adopté par la majeure partie de nos bons écrivains'. En ce sens, la 'langue classique actuelle' recouvre à peu près les niveaux couramment dénommés 'langue cultivée' et 'langue soignée' (.). C'est une langue qu'on trouve en usage, seule ou concurremment avec le français, dans les églises, dans les prétoires, dans les académies, à l'Université (o- il existe aussi des cours de malgache dialectal) et dans les écoles secondaires (l'enseignement primaire se faisant, selon les directives ministérielles, 'dans la langue que comprennent les enfants', ce qui est normalement interprété comme une invitation à recourir, selon la région, au dialecte qui s'y trouve majoritaire), ainsi que dans la plupart des discours publics (.) (22).
  • Enfin, en ce qui est de l'argot, seul semble être un véritable argot constitué celui des Zoam (.) (23).
  • Dans le domaine de l'écrit, seul le malgache classique est actuellement d'un usage courant dans l'ensemble du pays, à côté du français (.).
    Concernant la transcription des textes dialectaux, des groupes d'études s'attachent actuellement à la recherche d'un système de transcription acceptable par tous (.) (23).
  • Sans conteste au niveau des individus, mais dans une certaine mesure également au niveau de la masse, bilinguisme et plurilinguisme sont à Madagascar des situations courantes, qu'il s'agisse de dialectes ou qu'il s'agisse de langues. Dans un cas comme dans l'autre, le nombre de ceux qui comprennent sans pouvoir s'exprimer est évidemment plus grand que celui de ceux qui possèdent réellement deux ou plusieurs codes (23).
  • Néanmoins, abstraction faite des phénomènes liés à la lutte pour le pouvoir, il résulte de la très proche parenté entre les dialectes que la situation apparaît comme "normale" à l'intérieur du domaine malgache, alors qu'elle apparaît comme "critique" dans le domaine du bilinguisme franco-malgache (.) (24).
  • (.) la rapide malgachisation des Makoa d'origine africaine arrivés à la fin du XIXe siècle et au début du XXe siècle (seuls quelques vieillards parlent encore une langue non-malgache) (.) (18).

domenichiniramiaramananabakoly 1983Domenichini-Ramiaramanana, Bakoly. 1983. Du ohabolana au hainteny. Langue, littérature et politique à Madagascar. Paris: Editions Karthala.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

domenichiniramiaramananabakoly 1985Domenichini-Ramiaramanana, Bakoly. 1985. De quelques aspects du fanjakana Antambahoaka. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 21-22:9-17.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Antambahoaka (Tambahoaka),
Eastern,

doriannancyc 1980Dorian, Nancy C. 1980. Linguistic lag as an ethnic marker. Language in Society 9:33-41.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

Language is seen as an important marker of ethnic identity. Dorian shows that in East Sutherland (Scotland) where the East Sutherland Gaelic mother-tongue is almost the sole marker of fisher folk ethnic identity today, the long-standing component of this ethnicity is a lag in linguistic behaviour in comparison with the rest of the population.

doriannancyc 1987Dorian, Nancy C. 1987. The value of language-maintenance efforts which are unlikely to succeed. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 68:57-67.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

A study of the dying Scottish Gaelic dialect of East Sutherland-north-east Scottish mainland, to determine whether language death can be reversed or stopped.

doriannancyc 1990Dorian, Nancy C. 1990. Small languages and small language communities: News, notes and comments, 5. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 86:157-159.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

Short report on some work done by the Alaska Native Language Center (ANLC) on the indigenous languages of the Eskimo-Aleut family, e.g. in the Yupik branch. The outlook is poor for the Indian languages of Alaska, e.g. Athabaskan. Some salvage work is being done and some recording of texts. The ANLC publishes collections of texts for these severely threatened languages.

doriannancyc 1991aDorian, Nancy C. 1991a. Small languages and small language communities: News, notes and comments. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 88:121-128.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

Reports on an international symposium, held in Germany, from 8-12 January, 1990, on "Language Death in East Africa."

doriannancyc 1991bDorian, Nancy C. 1991b. Small languages and small language communities: News, notes and comments, 6. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 87:121-123.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

This segment focuses on information sources re small language communities, e.g. the organisation "Cultural Survival" and the "Revue Diogène."

doughertyjanetwd 1985Dougherty, Janet W. D. (ed.) 1985. Directions in cognitive anthropology. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

downingpamela 1977Downing, Pamela. 1977. On the creation and use of English compound nouns. Language 53:810-842.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

duboishenrimarie 1938Dubois, Henri-Marie. 1938. Monographie des Betsileo (Madagascar). Travaux et mémoires de l'institut d'ethnologie 34. Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,

duboishenrimarie 1950Dubois, Henri-Marie. 1950. La religion malgache. Cahiers Charles de Foucauld 21:70-100.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

duboisjean&giacomomathee&guespinlouis&marcellesichristiane&marcellesijeanbaptiste&meveljeanpierre 1982Dubois, Jean, Mathée Giacomo, Louis Guespin, Christiane Marcellesi, Jean-Baptiste Marcellesi, and Jean-Pierre Mével. 1982. Dictionnaire de linguistique. Paris VI: Librairie Larousse.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Linguistics,

dulayheidi&burtm&krashens 1982Dulay, Heidi, M. Burt, and S. Krashen. 1982. Language two. New York: Oxford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

dundesalan 1964Dundes, Alan. 1964. The morphology of American Indian folktales. Folklore fellows communications 195. Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

dundesalan 1965aDundes, Alan. 1965a. Structural typology in north American Indian folktales. In The study of folklore, 206-215, edited by Alan Dundes. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

dundesalan 1965bDundes, Alan (ed.) 1965b. The study of folklore. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

dundesalan 1972Dundes, Alan. 1972. Untitled letter. Current Anthropology 13:92-93.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

durantialessandro&goodwincharles 1992Duranti, Alessandro, and Charles Goodwin (eds.) 1992. Rethinking context: Language as an interactive phenomenon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

durantialessandro 1988Duranti, Alessandro. 1988. Ethnography of speaking: Toward a linguistics of the praxis. In Language: The sociocultural context. Linguistics: The Cambridge survey 4, 210-228, edited by J. Newmeyer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

duttontom 1992Dutton, Tom (ed.) 1992. Culture change, language change. Case studies from Melanasia. Pacific linguistics. Series C: Books 120. Canberra: Australian National University, Dept of Linguistics: Research School of Pacific Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,

dyenisidore 1953Dyen, Isidore. 1953. Review of Otto Dahl, Malgache et Manjaan. Language 29(4):577-590.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dyenisidore 1965Dyen, Isidore. 1965. A lexicostatistical classification of the Austronesian languages (International Journal of Linguistics Memoir 19). Baltimore: Waverly Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Research,
History,
Austronesian,

dyenisidore 1966Dyen, Isidore. 1966. Comment. Oceanic Linguistics 5(1):32-49.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
History,

dyenisidore 1971Dyen, Isidore. 1971. The Austronesian languages and proto-Austronesian. Trends in linguistics. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
History,
Austronesian,

eastmancarolm 1990aEastman, Carol M. 1990a. Dissociation: A unified language-policy outcome for Kenya. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 86:69-85.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

"It is the purpose of this paper to explore one possibility for reconciling the outcomes of each approach in a way that would make sense for public language policy" (69). The two approaches are macro (game-theoretic) and micro (transaction-analytical). "Linguistic dissociation" is proposed, namely that which "decreases the domains in which non-indigenous languages have official sanction." A shift in state policy is suggested, namely a de-emphasis of the two non-indigenous official languages (Standard Swahili from Tanzania and English from Britain and the USA).

Selected quotes:

  • An official language is one used in the business of government. A national language is of a political, social and cultural entity (71).

eastmancarolm 1990bEastman, Carol M. 1990b. What is the role of language planning in post-apartheid south Africa? TESOL Quarterly 24(1):9-21.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

Some good definitions on language planning are given is this article. Eastman discusses the role of language planning in post-apartheid South Africa. She draws a distinction between sociolinguistics and political linguistics and shows the effect these two views have on language planning.

ebobissecarl 1989Ebobissé, Carl. 1989. Dialectometrie lexicale des parlers sawabantu. The Journal of West African Languages 19(2):57-65.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
History,

edmondsonjerolda&feagincrawford&muehlhaeuslerpeter 1990Edmondson, Jerold A., Crawford Feagin, and Peter Mühlhäusler. 1990. Development and diversity. Language variation across time and space. Summer institute of linguistics & the university of Texas at Arlington: Publications in linguistics 93. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

educationaltestingservice 1970Educational Testing Service. 1970. Manual for peace Corps language testers. Princeton, New Jersey: Educational Testing Service.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Research,

edwardsjohn 1994Edwards, John. 1994. Multilingualism. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

edwardsjohn 1999Edwards, John. 1999. Refining our understanding of language attitudes (N1). Journal of language and social psychology 18(1):101-111.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

edwardsjohnr 1985Edwards, John R. 1985. Language, society and identity. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

Selected quotes:

  • Environments change, people move, and needs and demands alter; and it is much more natural for language-use to change, or for linguistic contact to emerge and recede, than to have linguistic stasis. The evidence suggests that it is more reasonable to consider group and individual identity altering, in the face of changing social (and linguistic) environments, than it is to see the abandonment of original or static positions as decay or loss (86).

eggertkarl 1979Eggert, Karl. 1979. Mahafaly as misnomer. Paper prepared in advance for participants in Burg Wartenstein symposium, no 83: human adjustment in time and space in Madagascar, August 18-27, 1979.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

In this paper Karl Eggert discusses eight kinds of social groups that the people living in the Mahafaly region identify with, namely traño, foko, tariha, karazana, ziva, then what he calls cultural groups: local and intra-regional, and gasy. He then discusses the name Mahafale in terms of the meaning and the value of the concept where the people themselves do not relate to it in the way "outsiders" view it. The following quotation sums up his thinking:
"The literature classifies the Mahafaly Region's predominant population as Mahafaly. However, the region's contemporary residents neither call themselves Mahafaly nor claim to be members of an all-encompassing Mahafaly group. They describe themselves, instead, as many different people with membership in many different groups." (20).
His paper provides interesting insights, but some of the main points, such as a group being given a name by outsiders, while the internal consciousness of the group is totally different, could be applied to many other populations of Madagascar.

eggertkarl 1981Eggert, Karl. 1981. Who are the Mahafaly? Cultural and social misidentifications in southwestern Madagascar. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 13-14:149-176.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

This is certainly the best of the three papers by Eggert available on the subject of the cultural identity of the people who live in the Mahafaly region. He enlarged the bibliography and organised the contents of his paper in a more logical way. He restated the "Gasy" identity that he found to exist in the region, by situating it within the larger Malagasy context. This paper comes across as less sectarian than the other two.
On page 166, he says in a footnote by the phrase "Gasy, by their own definition, speak a different language than the rest of Madagascar's people."
"The people's claim stands in contrast to the common assumption that is made in the literature that all of Madagascar's people speak the same language, or at least regional dialects of it (e.g. Deschamps 1965:19, and Rajemsa-Raolison 1966:184). Yet, in an objective, linguistic sense there may be more to what the people say than at first meets the eye. Vérin, Kottak, and Gorlin (1969), using a one hundred item basic word list, found that four major Malagasy "dialects" spoken in the section of Madagascar that Gasy believe to be their homeland, have a shared cognate rate of only 60 to 70% with the Merina dialect of Malagasy, the island's official dialect. Since many linguists draw the line at which different dialects diverge enough to become different languages at a 70% rate of shared cognates (Dyen 1965:18), the language that Gasy speak may indeed be another language." (166).
This quote reflects on the purpose of our study, namely to try and assess degrees of intelligibility among Malagasy "ways of speaking."
However, Eggert's paper does seem a bit naïve in some ways and in particular concerning the issue of "Gasy" as a "cultural group." It is as though his study grant was used up before he could get to the bottom of things and then he was perhaps too quick to document his unverified findings.

eggertkarl 1986Eggert, Karl. 1986. Mahafaly as misnomer. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 321-335, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

This paper is the exact replica of the 1979 unpublished paper by the same author and has been slightly altered since the version published in "Omaly sy Anio" (1981).

ehretrebekka 1997Ehret, Rebekka. 1997. Language attitude and the linguistic construction of ethnic identity: The case of the Krio in Sierra Leone. In Language choices: Conditions, constraints, and consequences. Impact: Studies in language and society 1, 327-337, edited by Martin Pütz. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

elderkinedwardd 1988Elderkin, Edward D. 1988. Patterns of sound in northern Khoisan. African Languages and Cultures 1(2):123-148.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

elleb 1928Elle, B. 1928. Notes sur les tribus de la province de Farafangana. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache 4:126-123.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Zafisoro,
Tefasy (Antefasy, Antaifasy),
Eastern,
Betsileo,
Central,
Tanala (Antanala),

ellenr 1993Ellen, R. 1993. The cultural relations of classification: An analysis of Nuaulu animal categories from central Seram. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

elliluigi 1988Elli, Luigi. 1988. Dizionario Bara-Italiano. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
Bara Malagasy, Italian
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

The most recent dictionary of the Bara language. A comparison with that of Jensenius (1908) and Peressutti (1969) might reveal some interesting language development.

elliluigi 1993Elli, Luigi. 1993. Une civilisation du bouf: Les Bara de Madagascar. Difficultés et perspectives d'une évangélisation. Collection "Gasikarako". Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

This publication of Luigi Elli's Mémoire de Maîtrise, June 1991, Institut Catholique de Paris, covers many aspects of the Bara civilisation in detail and then discusses, in a second part, certain issues relating to the evangelisation of the Bara.
This work provides an excellent insight into Bara culture, especially as far as culture involves the Zébu. And as the Zébu is involved in every aspect of Bara life, this book covers a large part of it. A quick scanning of the bibliography reveals that most writing concerning the Bara was done in and before the first half of the twentieth century.
Elli introduces his manuscript with an account of "La mort de Rebozaky: un phénomène social total" which is an excellent rencontre with the realities of Bara life and custom. He gives other such accounts, such as "le bilo."
For the purposes of our study, the author's remarks on the importance of the Bara dialect are essential. He mentions that although the people are mostly illiterate, they are deep thinkers. He says that official Malagasy is nothing else but the Merina dialect that was enriched by words from dialects "of the coast" and that although many Bara know it, they don't speak it and consider their own way of speaking to be "real Malagasy." Like French, the Merina way of speaking is that of a stranger.
It is clear that the author knows the Bara people and can be seen as an authority on their way of life.

Selected quotes:

  • Nous avons vu qu'une des raisons qui montrent la religion chrétienne sous un jour défavorable aux yeux des Bara, c'est le fait qu'elle est la religion de ceux qui détenaient et qui détiennent le pouvoir, le 'fanjakana' (.). Les missionnaires, même aujourd'hui, (.) sont souvent pris par les Bara pour des fonctionnaires: 'Hanareo fanjaka' (Vous, du Gouvernement), dit-on à l'adresse du missionnaire, et cela s'entend encore très souvent. Mais les gens du 'fanjakana' ont une mauvaise renommée chez les Bara, à cause de leur corruption (163).
  • Parmi les attitudes qui frappent le plus positivement les Bara il faut compter le respect. Nous avons vu comment ils sont méprisés par les 'civilisés' et par les chrétiens (.). Ce respect, cette sympathie et amitié doivent s'exprimer surtout par un effort de connaissance approfondie et scientifique de leur langue et de leurs us et coutumes (164).
  • Une des tfches les plus importantes pour un missionnaire sera l'étude approfondie et scientifique du dialecte bara (.). Le missionnaire arrivé à Madagascar apprend le malgache officiel (malagasy iombonana), qui n'est pas autre chose que le dialecte merina enrichi de mots provenants des dialectes dits 'côtiers' (165).
  • Le malgache officiel est assez aisément compris par tout le monde dans la Grande Ile, donc aussi par les Bara. Mais très peu parmi eux le parlent. La langue de tous les jours c'est bien le dialecte. Qui parle le 'malagasy iombonana' se présente comme un étranger, et est perçu comme tel par les gens (.). Pour les Bara, comme pour les autres ethnies du sud, c'est leur dialecte qui est la vraie langue malgache (165).
  • (.) mais dès mes premières tournées parmi les Bara je me suis nettement aperçu que la langue officiel que je parlais était un obstacle de plus à la communication (165).
  • (.) un étranger parlant ou s'efforçant de parler leur dialecte les rendait heureux; les portes des maisons, et les cours des personnes, s'ouvrent plus facilement au missionnaire qui parle comme eux, et ils perçoivent cette attention comme une marque d'estime et de respect (165).
  • Ce qu'il faut savoir sur les Bara:
    -le'tatara raza' du clan ou du lignage: l'origine, les noms des chefs les plus représentatifs, les migrations;
    -la structure socio-politique, la place du patriarche;
    -la signification de l'hazomanga;
    -les fomban-draza (naissance, circoncision, mariage, socialisation des enfants, bilo, les rites funéraires); le système religieux;
    -les proverbes et les contes;
    -le bouf et sa place dans la culture bara (166).
  • le lien indissoluble entre le religieux et le social (167).
  • ce serait demander le suicide social que d'exiger d'un chrétien de s'abstenir de la participation à ces rites (168).
  • Sur plus de onze millions d'habitants, la Grande Ile compte aujourd'hui à peu près six millions de chrétiens, toutes confessions confondues, dont plus de la moitié sont catholiques. Les chrétiens sont assez inégalement répartis: si les Merina et les Betsileos des Hauts-Plateaux sont chrétiens presque à 100%, les tribus du sud (Bara, Tandroy, Mahafaly), au contraire, le sont peut-être à 10%, et les Bara le sont moins que les Tandroy (133).
  • Il n'y a pas à proprement parler, un peuple Bara ou une tribu Bara. Ceux qui s'appellent aujourd'hui Bara sont les membres de clans qui ont des origines très disparates, dans l'espace comme dans le temps. Les Bara, avec raison, ne se reconnaissent pas une origine commune. Les Bara actuels sont en grande partie les descendants des sujets des rois de famille Zafimanely. Un autre élément de cohésion d'un peuple c'est la langue. Malgré des différences locales inévitables, la langue bara, avec ses variations régionales, par rapport au malgache officiel, surtout au niveau du lexique et de la prononciation, se distingue assez nettement de la langue parlée par les autres ethnies de la région. Avec un peu de pratique on distingue aisément, à la façon de parler, un Bara d'un Tandroy, d'un Mahafaly, d'un Sakalava, d'un Betsileo, d'un Tesaka ou d'un Tanôsy. Les Bara ont aussi en commun un patrimoine de coutumes (.) (136).
  • Les Tandroy montent vers le nord, qui est mieux arrosé que leur pays. A l'est les Tesaka, les Tanala, les Tanôsy progressent. Les riziculteurs Betsileo ont envahi le nord du pays bara et aujourd'hui on les trouve partout, là o- les conditions géographiques permettent d'avoir de belles rizières. Si plus aucune frontière géographique ne sépare les Bara des autres ethnies, des frontières, assez nettes, d'une autre espèce, existent quand même toujours. Ces frontières sont moins précises dans l'unité de tout le sud de Madagascar (seules la langue, l'histoire et certaines coutumes distinguent les Bara des autres ethnies du sud); elles sont beaucoup plus marquées entre les Bara et les Betsileo (137).
  • L'attachement farouche que les Bara ont pour la tradition ancestrale les fait se méfier de toute nouveauté(.) méfiance envers l'Etat moderne et ses représentants les fonctionnaires et les gendarmes, appellés 'vazaha', c'est-à-dire Blancs, Européens, donc étrangers; mais l'enseignement se heurte également à la méfiance des gens, surtout parce qu'il enlève les jeunes au travail des champs et les empêche d'aller aux pfturages avec les boufs. Même pour ce qui a trait à l'agriculture ou à l'élevage, ils restent attachés à la tradition (.) aussi, (.) la religion chrétienne (.) La vie, et donc la survie du groupe sont liées indissolublement à la fidélité aux 'fomban-draza' (les coutumes ancestrales). Toute atteinte à ces coutumes est une atteinte à la vie du groupe (.) (138).
  • Cinquante ans après (Faublée: la cohésion.) je peux dire que si un affaiblissement de la tradition s'est produit, il est minime et les fomban-draza continuent à régler la vie des Bara (139).
  • Les Bara pensent avoir une responsabilité morale vis-à-vis des générations passées et des générations à venir. Les générations actuellement vivantes ne considèrent pas les fomban-draza comme une propriété dont elles pourraient disposer à leur guise, mais comme un héritage reçu des ancêtres et à transmettre aux générations à venir (139).

elliluigi 1999Elli, Luigi. 1999. Fomba Bara. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

elliluigi 2001Elli, Luigi. 2001. Dictionnaire Bara-Français.

language(s):
Bara Malagasy, French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

ellisstephen 1985Ellis, Stephen. 1985. The rising of the red shawls. A revolt in Madagascar 1895-1899. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

elmendorfwilliamw 1951Elmendorf, William W. 1951. Word taboos and lexical change in coast Salish. International Journal of American Linguistics 17:205-208.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,

ennajimoha 1991Ennaji, Moha. 1991. Aspects of multilingualism in the Maghreb. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 87:7-25.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

Very interesting article on the linguistic situation in the Maghreb - i.e. Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, where classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic, Dialectal Arabic, Berber, French, Spanish and English are used.

erringtonjjoseph 1992Errington, J. Joseph. 1992. On the ideology of Indonesian language development: The state of a language of state. Pragmatics 2(3):417-426.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Austronesian,

Indonesian has become the language of 190 million people, since its beginnings 50 years ago as a "colonial intelligentsia's project." 400 or so distinct ethnic languages are spoken there as well. "As questions about Indonesian's viability fade anew, official rhetoric is arising about threats which the dynamic of national development now poses to Indonesia's ethnic languages and cultures" (417). This article considers the Javanese Language Congress "as a kind of diagnostic event which both embodied and also framed contemporary problems in the political culture of language in Indonesia" (417). Interesting parallels with Madagascar, e.g. "The motto formulated by that young group of intellectuals-one island, one race, one language-hardly rings hollow sixty-three years later" (418).

esoavelomandrosofaranirinav 1976Esoavelomandroso, Faranirina V. 1976. Langue, culture et civilisation à Madagascar: Malgache et français dans l'enseignement officiel (1916-1940). Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 3-4:105-155.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1986cEsoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1986c. Milieux naturel et peuplement de l'Androy. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 121-131, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

Esoavelomandroso discusses the relationship between the natural milieu of the arid Androy region and the people who live there. He points out that there is no agreement on the name "Androy" and its derivatives, most authors being convinced that the name "roy" refers to the "thorns" that abound there, another seeing no other meaning in the name Androy than that of it being the homeland of the Tandroy people. The name has only been used since end of the seventeenth century. Northern Androy is a humid region, an area of vast pasturelands and little populated, whereas the area south of the Tsihombe-Ambovombe road is much dryer and suffers from a lack of good water, but contains a relatively larger population than the northern area, because of a more fertile soil. This is the area rich in chalky soil and limestone. The Karimbola and Mahandrovato, who live south of the Ambovombe-Tsihombe-Beloha line claim to be the first inhabitants of the area. Different clans were added to these groups, among which the Zafimanara, who subdued the Mahandrovato, obtained control of the Karimbola and then favoured the immigration of different groups from the east, west and north: Sakalava, Bara and others. The author, who is of Tañalaña origin, ends his discussion on the different immigrations with the following statement: "L'étude de ce peuplement montre aussi que les Antandroy qui tirent leur spécificité de leur histoire et du milieu naturel dans lequel ils vivent, proviennent d'une série de métissages ou de mélanges pluri-séculaires. Est-il encore besoin de préciser la profonde unité du sud qui a contribué au peuplement de l'androy, et par-delà ce sud, l'unité de la culture malgache?" (130).

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1989aEsoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1989a. Notes sur les espaces economiques du Mahafale occidental à la fin du XIXe siècle. Cahiers du Centre de Recherches Africaines 7:147-152.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

Manassé Esoavelomandroso is convinced of the homogeneity of the Tokobeitelo, a confederation of three clans in Western Mahafale, the Tevondrone, Temitongoa and Temilahehe, which he describes in this paper in terms of their mainly agrico-pastoral activities at the end of the nineteenth century. He also describes other resources tapped by these people, such as the sea and the forest and their interaction with slave traders which also shows their community spirit.
The author clarifies terminology which is important for understanding Tokobeitelo society:
raza: this term indicates the grand parents, the ancestors, the group that descends from a common ancestor which is the clan, the hazomanga (post for religious ceremonies) the vilo (earmark of the group's cattle).
famosora: different lineages within a raza or clan.

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1989bEsoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1989b. Territoires et troupeaux des Temitongoa. In Histoire et organisation de l' espace à Madagascar. Cahiers du Centre de Recherches Africaines 7, 47-56, edited by Jean Fremigacci. Paris: CRA.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

A very instructive paper on aspects of Mahafale culture, not referred to as such, but referred to as "Temitongoa," a traditional clannic subgroup among the inhabitants of the Mahafale region. The author gives insightful definitions of terminology used in clear footnotes. Even though the main focus here is on habitat and cattle herding traditions, one acquires a better understanding of human relations in the South.

Selected quotes:

  • Mais depuis quelques décennies, des communautés importantes de Mahafale, dont des Temitongoa, sont implantées hors de l'aire historique: le long de la nationale 7 entre Ankororoke et Andranovory, dans la région d'Ankazoabo, et sur la route de Morombe, entre Manja et Ankililoake. Dans ces enclaves, où elles se trouvent au contact des Tanôsy, des Bara et des Masikoro, elles ont réussi et réussissent encore à assurer la sécurité à leurs troupeaux. Elles ont résisté victorieusement aux voleurs et, dans les zones où les malaso (=cattle rustlers) font ou faisaient la loi, leurs troupeaux étaient préservés. Faut-il voir là un réflexe d'éleveurs ou le résultat d'une cohésion sociale vivante? J'opterai, pour ma part, pour la deuxième possibilité. En effet, les Bara et les Masikoro sont aussi des éleveurs et pourtant, ils n'ont pas eu la même réaction que ces Mahafale émigrés ou les Tandroy.
    Mahafale et Tandroy se sont pris en charge pour défendre leurs troupeaux. Pour cela ils ont puisé dans leur histoire, dans leur culture, les éléments pour renforcer leur cohésion, gage de leur réussite. Sauront-ils ou pourront-ils préserver, sauvegarder et utiliser cette cohésion pour en faire des fondements de leur stratégie, afin d'affronter le monde moderne qui ne semble pas vouloir les prendre comme des partenaires à part entière mais paraît les voir comme obstacles au développement? (56).

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1992Esoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1992. Les souverains du Menarandra dans la deuxième moitié du xixe siècle. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:287-298.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

Manassé Esoavelomandroso has cleared up many an assumption regarding the Mahafaly, and in this paper he discusses the history of the southern part of this territory and in particular the fact that European sources have often represented southern Mahafale as the kingdom of the Menarandra, submitting to the authority of one man. The author shows how there was one dominant raza, the Befira, whose cohesion is represented by the mpisoro, who played both a ritual and political role. This dominance did not signify a united kingdom, but rather a loose confederation of interrelated but autonomous entities.

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1995Esoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1995. Les formations politiques dans le Mahafale au xixe siècle. Talily 2:19-27.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

The author discusses the political structures that existed in Mahafale country in the nineteenth century, where there coexisted three or four different kingdoms with a number of autonomous lineage communities (clans), who had their own territories and related independently with these kingdoms, never submitting to any of them. Some alliances existed, but there was no central political cohesion among the inhabitants of Mahafale, perhaps as the author suggests, due to the strong cohesion of each separate lineage. Instead of a more or less harmonious cohabitation among different powers operating in equilibrium for the common good, one finds the affirmation of powers and counter-powers in conflict. This was then easily exploited by the French colonial power, who found the political structures of Mahafale weakened through division.

fagerengedvin 1971Fagereng, Edvin. 1971. Une famille de dynasties malgaches. Zafindravola, Maroseraña, Zafimbolamena, Andrevola, Zafimañely. Instituttet For sammenlignende kulturforskning. Serie B: Skrifter 56. Oslo-Bergen-Tromsö: Universitetsforlaget.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Andrevola,
Masikoro,
South-western,
Zafindravola,
Bara,
Southern,

fagerengemile 1947Fagereng, Emile. 1947. Contribution à l'histoire de Madagascar. Histoire de la dynastie Zafindravola. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 26:49-54.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Andrevola,
Masikoro,
South-western,
Zafindravola,
Bara,
Southern,
Zafimanely,
Tsienimbalala,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),

Selected quotes:

  • On n'est pas au clair sur lequel de ces chefs conduisit une partie des Zafindravola, suivis de leurs sujets, les Tsienimbalala, vers leurs nouvelles habitations, mais il semble que les deux frères se soient d'abord établis à Lamatihy, au bord du Fiherena, à environ 120km de Tulear. Andrianomby est enterré à Bevato, au sud de Manera, dans cette même région. Tsimizetse poursuivit l'exode en remontant la rivière Manandone pour se fixer définitivement dans le Mikoboke, à l'ouest de la chaîne d'Analavelona. Il rencontra, à Trokomby, le chef Andrevola Faony. Un autre chef, Redrakake, était déjà partie pour Andakato, près de Manera, Tsimizetse occupa sa résidence vacante, près de Soatana.
    Tsimialo sétait d'abord tabli aux bords de Sakondry, non loin de Tongobory, et il y est enterré. Son fils, Manananto (ou Renanto) partit ensuite pour Mikoboke, il est reconnu comme roi des zafindravola émigrés(par qui-my question). Il occupe en même temps le poste de chef de canton.
    Les zqfindravola émigrés dans le Mikoboke ont toujours vécu en bons termes avec leurs voisins dans l'Ouest, les andrevola, et s'alliaient fréquemment avec eux pour se défendre contre les zafimanely, lorsque ces derniers envahirent le Bara-Imamono.
    Ils ont gardé leur indépendence jusqu'à l'arrivée des troupes françaises d'occupation. A ce moment, ils ont pris le parti de se sauver dans l'Analavelona, mais n'ont pas tardé à faire leur soumission.

fagerengemile 1950aFagereng, Emile. 1950a. Dynastie Andrevola. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 28:136-159.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Masikoro,
South-western,
Bara,
Southern,

Fagereng combines different sources to compile a very insightful history of the Andrevola, complete with a genealogy of the Andrevola chiefs until the turn of the last century. In the process, he draws links with other relevant groups of the time and fills in an essential chronology in the development of the population of Southwest Madagascar. He ends this article with a paragraph that might have suited the audiences of his time, but which sounds grotesque now: "Ainsi se termine le règne, peu glorieux; de la dynastie Andrevola (.). Il était donc temps qu'une grande nation civilisée se substituât à cette dynastie décadente, permettant aux forces civilisatrices et morales de la vieille Europe de réparer les dommages causés jusqu'alors par des trafiquants sans scrupules, et ouvrant à cette contrée une ère nouvelle de prospérité et de progrès" (158).
Sadly, the Southwest of Madagascar is still waiting for this new era of prosperity and progress.

fagerengemile 1950bFagereng, Emile. 1950b. Histoire des Maroseranana du Menabe. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s 28.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Menabe,
Western,

fagerengemile 1981Fagereng, Emile. 1981. Origine des dynasties ayant régné dans le sud et l'ouest de Madagascar. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 13-14:125-140.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Bara,
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

A very sketchy paper, difficult to follow, recounting the traditional origins of four Southern dynasties, all of whom claim "vazaha" ancestry.

fanonyfulgence 1986Fanony, Fulgence. 1986. A propos des Mikea. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 133-142, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mikea,
South-western,
Masikoro,

faridanonana 1977Faridanonana. 1977. Rantimbolana. Diksionera Tsimihety. Antananarivo: Académie Malgache.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tsimihety,
Northern,

faridanonana 1978Faridanonana. 1978. Traits caractéristiques du dialecte Tsimihety. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 54(1-2):23-26.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tsimihety,
Northern,

fasewillem&jaspaertkoen&kroonsjaak 1992Fase, Willem, Koen Jaspaert, and Sjaak Kroon (eds.) 1992. Maintenance and loss of minority languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

fasoldralphw 1984Fasold, Ralph W. 1984. The sociolinguistics of society: Introduction to sociolinguistics, volume I. Language in society 5. Oxford: Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

Ralph Fasold covers the full range of academic activity in the discipline of sociolinguistics. His two volumes of introduction are foundational to any study of linguistics.

fasoldralphw 1990Fasold, Ralph W. 1990. The sociolinguistics of language: Introduction to sociolinguistics, volume II. Language in society 6. Oxford: Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

faubleejacques 1941aFaublée, Jacques. 1941a. Dans le sud de Madagascar. Deux ans chez les Bara. In Compte rendu des séances de l'Académie des sciences coloniales, 344-354, edited by Académie des Sciences coloniales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1942bFaublée, Jacques. 1942b. La prière sacrificielle chez les Bara. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 12:259.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1946Faublée, Jacques. 1946. Ethnographie de Madagascar. Paris: Ed. de France et d'Outre-Mer - La Nouvelle Edition.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

faubleejacques 1947aFaublée, Jacques. 1947a. L'évolution des sociétés malgaches. La Revue de Madagascar 1947:73-81.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

faubleejacques 1947bFaublée, Jacques. 1947b. Récits Bara. Travaux et mémoires de l'institut d'ethnologie 48. Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1948bFaublée, Jacques. 1948b. Villages Bara. Revue de géographie humaine et d'ethnographie 1:36-53.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1950Faublée, Jacques. 1950. La cohésion des sociétés Bara. PhD dissertation. Université de Paris.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1950Faublée, Jacques. 1950. Les esprits helu et leur rôle dans les religions malgaches. Les esprits de la vie à Madagascar. PhD dissertation. Université de Paris.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1951aFaublée, Jacques. 1951a. L'équilibre d'une société malgache traditionnelle: Les Bara. Cahiers Charles de Foucauld 6(21):165-175.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1952Faublée, Jacques. 1952. Sources de la littérature malgache. La Revue Française de l'Elite Européenne 36:81-83.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

faubleejacques 1954bFaublée, Jacques. 1954b. Les esprits de la vie à Madagascar. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Vazimba,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Bara,
Merina,
Central,
Betsileo,

faubleejacques 1959Faublée, Jacques. 1959. Les sociétés malgaches. Origine, formation et évolution. L'année sociologique 3:322-328.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

faubleejacques 1964Faublée, Jacques. 1964. Langue et dialectes malgaches. In Communications et rapports du premier Congrès International de Dialectologie Générale, edited by A. J. van Windekens. Louvain.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

faubleejacques 1984Faublée, Jacques. 1984. Les etudes littéraires malgaches de Jean Paulhan. Journal des Africanistes 54(1):79-93.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

faubleejacques 1992Faublée, Jacques. 1992. Notes sur un clan du sud-est de Madagascar. Journal des Africanistes 62(2):155-160.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,

Some information on the inhabitants of Savan and three neighbouring villages, Satra, Manarivu and Seranambari; research from 1956 - Antemuru, Antetsimetu, Anakara (re: the work of Suzy Bernu: origins of the Antetsimetu clan).

faurouxemmanuel 1975Fauroux, Emmanuel. 1975. La formation Sakalava ou l'histoire d'une articulation ratée. PhD dissertation. Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

fayerjoanm&krasinskiemily 1987Fayer, Joan M., and Emily Krasinski. 1987. Native and nonnative judgments of intelligibility and imitation. Language Learning 37(3):313-326.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

feeleyharnikgillian 1978Feeley-Harnik, Gillian. 1978. Divine kinship and the meaning of history among the Sakalava of Madagascar. Man n.s. 13:402-417.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

fergusoncharlesa&slobindanisaac 1973Ferguson, Charles A., and Dan Isaac Slobin (eds.) 1973. Studies of child language development. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

fergusoncharlesa 1959Ferguson, Charles A. 1959. Diglossia. Word 15.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

fergusoncharlesa 1968aFerguson, Charles A. 1968a. Language development. In Language problems of developing nations, 27-35, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

Selected quotes:

  • (.) the use of writing adds another variety of language to the community's repertory. The vocabulary, grammatical structure, and even the phonological structure of the language as used in writing begin immediately, as it were, to have a life of their own. Linguists like to point out that speech is primary and writing secondary and that written language is always in some sense a representation of speech. Although this is true in a general way, (.)the fact is that writing almost never reflects speech in an exact way, written language frequently develops characteristics not found in the corresponding spoken language, and it may change along lines quite different from changes in the spoken language. After the spread of writing, varieties of the spoken language can no longer be described in vacuo; they will interact with the written form to a greater or a lesser degree, and the linguistic analyst must note spelling pronunciations, lexical displacements, and grammatical fluctuations which originate in or are reinforced by written usage.
    It is remarkable that communities, as they begin the regular use of writing, generally do not feel that ordinary, everyday speech is appropriate for written use (29).
  • Sometimes this may be because the community already makes use of a classical language, but sometimes it merely transfers to the new medium some of the attitudes already present in the community toward the language of higher levels of discourse such as formal speeches, religious rituals, and the like. It may be assumed that all speech communities show linguistic differentiation along a casual/non-casual dimension (Voegelin 1960), and many communities will regard the new use of writing as far along the noncasual end, only much later coming to recognize the value of written representation of casual speech (.).
    It is sometimes asserted that the existence of a written variety inhibits language change, thus constituting an important influence for uniformity through time comparable to the kind of regional and social uniformity implicit in standardization (.).
    The second point to be made is that the use of writing leads to the folk belief that the written language is the "real" language and speech is a corruption of it. This attitude seems to be nearly universal in communities which have attained the regular use of writing. It is only the occasional perceptive observer, or in more recent times the professional linguist, who sees the relationship in other terms. To the extent that after the passage of time the written form of the language seems to be the more conservative (.).
    The importance of this folk belief for language development lies in the way it limits the kind of conscious intervention in the form of language planning that the community will conceive of or accept (30).

fergusoncharlesa 1968bFerguson, Charles A. 1968b. St Stefan of perm and applied linguistics. In Language problems of developing nations, 253-265, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fernandezjamesw 1991Fernandez, James W. (ed.) 1991. Beyond metaphor: The theory of tropes in anthropology. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

ferrandg 1903Ferrand, G. 1903. Essai de grammaire malgache. Paris: Leroux.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

fettermandavidm 1997Fetterman, David M. 1997. Ethnography. Applied social research methods series 17. London: Sage Publications.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fieldingnigelg 1999Fielding, Nigel G. 1999. The norm and the text: Denzin and Lincoln's handbooks of qualitative method. British Journal of Sociology 50(3):525-535.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Research methodology,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Linguistics,

fillalwin 1996Fill, Alwin. 1996. Sprachökologie und Ökolinguistik. Tübingen: Stauffenburg.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

firingamichaelignace 1971Firinga, Michaël Ignace. 1971. La dynastie des Maroseranana. Taloha 4:87-97.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

Very interesting observations on the origins of the Sakalava people. This article is a reprinted version of a study that first appeared in the "Revue de Madagascar," Sept 1901, pp. 658-672.

fishmanjoshuaa&cooperrobertl 1978Fishman, Joshua A., and Robert L. Cooper. 1978. The sociolinguistic foundations of language testing. In Approaches to language testing. Papers in Applied Linguistics. Advances in Language Testing Series 2, 31-38, edited by Bernard Spolsky. Arlington, Virginia: Center for Applied Linguistics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

fishmanjoshuaa&dasguptajyotirindra&fergusoncharlesa 1968Fishman, Joshua A., Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson (eds.) 1968. Language problems of developing nations. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,

A very comprehensive collection of papers on most relevant aspects of language planning issues in the first post-colonial decades.

fishmanjoshuaa&dasguptajyotirindra&jernuddbjoernh&rubinjoan 1971Fishman, Joshua A., Jyotirindra Das Gupta, Bjørn H. Jernudd, and Joan Rubin. 1971. Research outline for comparative studies of language planning. In Can language be planned?, 293-305, edited by Joan Rubin, and Bjørn H. Jernudd. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

This paper suggests, in a practical way, some possible research in the field of language planning.

fishmanjoshuaa&gertnermichaelh&lowyestherg&milanwilliamg 1984Fishman, Joshua A., Michael H. Gertner, Esther G. Lowy, and William G. Milan. 1984. The rise and fall of the ethnic revival: Perspectives on language and ethnicity. Contributions to the sociology of language 37. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fishmanjoshuaa 1964Fishman, Joshua A. 1964. Language maintenance and language shift as a field of inquiry. Linguistics 9:32-70.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

fishmanjoshuaa 1965Fishman, Joshua A. 1965. Who speaks what to whom and when? Linguistique 2:67-88.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

fishmanjoshuaa 1967Fishman, Joshua A. 1967. Bilingualism with and without diglossia, diglossia with and without bilingualism. Journal of Social Issues 23(2):29-38.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

fishmanjoshuaa 1968aFishman, Joshua A. 1968a. Language problems and types of political and sociocultural integration: A conceptual summary. In Language problems of developing nations, 491-498, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

fishmanjoshuaa 1968bFishman, Joshua A. 1968b. Nationality-nationalism and nation-nationism. In Language problems of developing nations, 39-51, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

Selected quotes:

  • Thus the sociocultural nationality and the politico-geographic nation are rarely in phase with each other (42).
  • There are both direct and indirect ties between language and nationism as well as between language and nationalism (43).
  • It is nationalism that views self-identity, group-identity, and self-identity through group-identity as impossible (unthinkable) without a particular language rather than merely without a common language. For nationism, language questions are initially not questions of authenticity (identity) but of efficiency (cohesion) (44).
  • Linguists recognise language differences (whether in phonology, morphology, or syntax) that millions of native speakers consciously or unconsciously ignore (44).
  • Wolff claims that mutual intelligibility is largely a function of intergroup attitudes (44).
  • Differences do not need to be divisive. Divisiveness is an ideologised position and it can magnify major differences; indeed it can manufacture differences in languages as in other matters almost as easily as it can capitalize on more obvious differences. Similarly, unification is also an ideologized position and it can minimize seemingly major differences or ignore them entirely, whether these be in the realm of language, religion, culture, race, or any other basis of differentiation (45).

fishmanjoshuaa 1968cFishman, Joshua A. (ed.) 1968c. Readings in the sociology of language. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

fishmanjoshuaa 1968dFishman, Joshua A. 1968d. Sociolinguistic perspective on the study of bilingualism. Linguistics 39:21-49.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

fishmanjoshuaa 1968eFishman, Joshua A. 1968e. Sociolinguistics and the language problems of developing countries. In Language problems of developing nations, 3-16, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,

This article may be a few decades old, but the issues raised are still relevant.

Selected quotes:

  • Thus language may and has become a symbol of supralocal ethnic-cultural identification at the nationality level (therefore: nationalism), just as it may and has become a symbol of contranational ethnic-cultural identification on the part of smaller groups who, resisting fusion into the larger nationality, develop a localized nationality consciousness of their own (Haugen 1959) (6).
  • Thus the ideologization of languages, which enables them to display desired roles in symbolic mobilization and unification, also leads to the development of these languages per se into fitting instruments of government, technology and High Culture (7).
  • The need for a broader ethnic-cultural unity may well point to the long-term espousal of a given language as the national language. Nevertheless, the immediate operational needs of the country may well necessitate the short-term recognition of another or of multiple languages, which leads away from the long-range goal of creating a new, supralocal authenticity. Thus some nations have hit upon the expediency of recognizing several local languages as permissable for early education (i.e. grades one to three or even six), whereas the preferred national language is retained for intermediate education and a nonindigenous language of international significance is retained (at least temporarily) for governmental activity and higher education. If such a pattern promotes or retains sufficient stability, language policies can subsequently be set in motion to continually develop the preferred language, enabling it to successively displace the language of wider communication above it and, eventually, the languages of narrower communication below it (7).
  • (.)not only are the new nations beset by problems that are clearly language-related, but the earliest stages of these problems are the most fleeting and the ones most difficult to reconstruct by means of archival or laboratory analysis.
    Languages undergo development when their functions undergo real or anticipatory expansion as a result of the expanded role repertories (once more, real or anticipatory) of those for whom these languages have become too symbolic of group membership and of group goals to be easily displaced. Such expansion and symbolic elaboration of language functions has, in recent years, occurred most frequently in developing nations.
    Both nationism and nationalism are concerned with language choice (selection) but in quite different ways. For the nationalist, language represents the continuity of a Great Tradition with all of its symbolic elaborations in terms of ideologized values and goals. Language selection therefore represents a triumph over other, purportedly lesser traditions and goals. Nationalisms do not need to ponder language choice, since each nationalism is seemingly irrevocably and seemingly naturally committed in this connection. Thus nationalisms pursue language reinforcement and maintenance rather than selection per se. For the nationist, however, language choice is a matter of calculated effectiveness, of communicational ease, of operational efficiency (Fishman, 1966b) (9).
  • A study of the social component of developing languages requires more than linguistic sophistication embellished by societal curiosity or sensitivity. It requires thorough familiarity with theories of social change and social innovation and social research methodology (11).
  • (.) language problems of disadvantaged speakers of nonstandard varieties represents another area of growing interaction with sociolinguistics (.). Some of these varieties have already been found to command intragroup moyalty so that the impediments between them and the activization of more standard varieties are not only structural but functional as well and fully ideologized to boot (.). In general, the problems of disadvantaged populations might helpfully be seen in broader perspective if they were considered against a background of coterritorial language differences more generally and of planned language shift in particular (12).

fishmanjoshuaa 1968fFishman, Joshua A. 1968f. Some contrasts between linguistically homogeneous and linguistically heterogeneous polities. In Language problems of developing nations, 53-68, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

Selected quotes:

  • (.) only worldwide-and-diachronic data can hope to answer many of the questions posed by interaction of linguistics and the social-behavioral sciences (53).

fishmanjoshuaa 1970Fishman, Joshua A. 1970. Sociolinguistics: A brief introduction. Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House Publishers.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

fishmanjoshuaa 1971aFishman, Joshua A. (ed.) 1971a. Advances in the sociology of language 1. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

fishmanjoshuaa 1971bFishman, Joshua A. 1971b. The impact of nationalism on language planning. In Can language be planned?, 3-20, edited by Joan Rubin, and Bjørn H. Jernudd. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

fishmanjoshuaa 1971cFishman, Joshua A. 1971c. The sociology of language: An interdisciplinary social science approach to language in society. Advances in the sociology of language. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

fishmanjoshuaa 1972Fishman, Joshua A. 1972. Language and ethnicity in minority sociolinguistic perspective. Multilingual matters 45. Clevedon, Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fishmanjoshuaa 1977Fishman, Joshua A. 1977. Language and ethnicity. In Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations, 15-57, edited by Howard Giles. London: Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fishmanjoshuaa 1978Fishman, Joshua A. 1978. Advances in the study of societal multilingualism. Paris-La Haye: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

fishmanjoshuaa 1987Fishman, Joshua A. 1987. English: Neutral tool or ideological protagonist? A 19th century east-central European Jewish intellectual views English from afar. English World-wide. A Journal of Varieties of English 8(1):1-10.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

fishmanjoshuaa 1991aFishman, Joshua A. 1991a. Putting the 'socio' back into the sociolinguistic enterprise. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 92:127-138.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

In this article, Fishman points to the divide between sociolinguistics and sociology and pleads for graduate studies in sociology to be had together with linguistics, and particularly with sociolinguistics.

fishmanjoshuaa 1991bFishman, Joshua A. 1991b. Reversing language shift. Clevedon, Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fishmanjoshuaa 1997Fishman, Joshua A. 1997. Bloomington, summer 1964: the birth of American sociolinguistics. In The early days of sociolinguistics. Memories and reflexions. SIL International: Publications in sociolinguistics, 87-95, edited by Christina Bratt Paulston, and G. Richard Tucker. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fishmanjoshuaa 1998Fishman, Joshua A. 1998. Language and ethnicity: The view from within. In The handbook of sociolinguistics. Blackwell handbooks in linguistics 4, edited by Florian Coulmas. Oxford: Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fishmanjoshuaa 1999Fishman, Joshua A. 1999. The new linguistic order. Foreign Policy 113:26-40.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

fishmanjoshuaa 2000aFishman, Joshua A. 2000a. Charles A. Ferguson 1921-1998 an appreciation. Journal of Sociolinguistics 4(1):120-129.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

fishmanjoshuaa 2000bFishman, Joshua A. 2000b. English: The killer language? Whole Earth 100:13-15.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

foleywilliama 1997Foley, William A. 1997. Anthropological linguistics: An introduction. Language in society 24. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fontoynont 1910Fontoynont. 1910. La légende des Kimosy. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache 7:51-59.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Kimosy,
Southern,
Bara,

fowlerfloydj 1993Fowler, Floyd J. 1993. Survey research methods. Applied social research methods series 1. London: Sage Publications.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Research,

fraserc&bellugiu&brownr 1973Fraser, C., U. Bellugi, and R. Brown. 1973. Control of grammar in imitation, comprehension and production. In Studies of child language development, edited by Charles A. Ferguson, and Dan Isaac Slobin. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

freedleroyo 1977Freedle, Roy O. (ed.) 1977. Discourse production and comprehension. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,

frenderrobert&lambertwallace 1973Frender, Robert, and Wallace Lambert. 1973. Speech style and scholastic success: The tentative relationships and possible implications for lower social class children. In Sociolinguistics: Current trends and prospects. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 1972, 237-272, edited by Roger W. Shuy. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

frithjamesr 1980Frith, James R. (ed.) 1980. Measuring spoken language proficiency. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

fullerjanetm 1996Fuller, Janet M. 1996. When cultural maintenance means linguistic convergence: Pennsylvania German evidence for the matrix language turnover hypothesis. Language in Society 25(4):493-514.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

Selected quotes:

  • Convergence involves a change in the selection of the language which sets the morpho-syntactic frame involved in language production. This is called a turnover in the Matrix language (ML) (493).
  • When social factors do not foster either stable bilingualism or language shift, linguistic varieties which Thomason and Kaufman term "nongenetic" (1988:3) may develop (493).
  • Convergence is defined here as the adoption of lexical and structural features from one language into another; thus, it includes, but is more than, lexical borrowing. The mechanism which accounts for convergence is the turnover of the ML in code-switching; before completion of the turnover, there is the intermediate stage of a composite ML (494).
  • Myers-Scotton's MLF model, first developed to explain intrasentential code-switching constraints, contains principles which apply to all language contact phenomena: the System/Content Morpheme distinction, and the Matrix/Embedded Language distinction. While Myers-Scotton does not argue that all language contact phenomena are versions of code-switching, she does argue that they all undergo versions of the same processes. Work has been done in the MLF model on the development of pidgins and creoles., on the structure of interlanguage and the process of L2 acquisition. and on language change.
    A key element of the MLF model is the distinction between system and content morphemes (see Myers-Scotton 199:99-101). Prototypical system morphemes are tense/aspect inflections; prototypical content morphemes are nouns, verbs, and descriptive adjectives.
    A second assumption basic to the MLF model is that the languages involved in code-switching do not contribute equally to the discourse. The ML sets the morpho-syntactic frame; the other language(s) involved in code-switching, I.e. the EL(s), provide content morphemes in mixed constituents.
    Two principles of the MLF model are crucial to this analysis. First, the Morpheme Order Principle states that, in mixed constituents, the morphemes will appear in an order which is well-formed for the ML. Second, the System Morpheme Principle states that all syntactically relevant system morphemes will come from the ML (Myers-Scotton 1993:7).
    For an EL content morpheme to appear in an ML frame, there must be sufficient CONGRUENCE between the two morphemes. If there is not, an EL "island" or bare form will appear. Congruence is defined as a correspondence of lexical-conceptual features, predicate-argument structure, and morphological realization patterns.
    For the label ML to be meaningful in a linguistic analysis, the ML and EL must interact in language production. Often, this interaction is code-switching; indeed, code-switching is claimed to be the catalyst for an ML turnover.
    An important issue underlying the assumption that code-switching leads to convergence is the much-debated distinction between code-switching and borrowing. The position taken here is that, while the two phenomena differ, they are related, and they comply with the same linguistic principles. Within the MLF model, the assumption is that code-switching leads to borrowing (Myers-Scotton 1993:174) . (496).
  • Along the path to a turnover, a composite language emerges which carries features of the two languages in contact, the original ML and EL (510).

galindodletticia 1995Galindo, D. Letticia. 1995. Language attitudes toward Spanish and English varieties: A Chicano perspective. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 17(1):77-100.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gallaghercharlesf 1980Gallagher, Charles F. 1980. North African problems and prospects: Language and identity. Language Problems and Language Planning 4(1):129-150.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gallimoreronald&tharprolandg 1981Gallimore, Ronald, and Roland G. Tharp. 1981. The interpretation of elicited sentence imitation in a standardized context. Language Learning 31(2):369-392.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

gaoge&schmidtkarenl 1994Gao, Ge, and Karen L. Schmidt. 1994. Strength of ethnic identity and perceptions of ethnolinguistic vitality among Mexican Americans. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 16(3):332-342.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

Selected quotes:

  • The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between strength of ethnic identify and perceived group vitality. Mexican Americans in the Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan are perceived English and Anglos as more vital than Spanish and Mexican Americans. Ethnic identity had a significant influence on perceived in-group vitality but not on perceived out-group vitality. Respondents who strongly identified their ethnic group, perceived their group's vitality to be higher than did those who identified less strongly with their ethnic group. First language did not influence vitality perceptions.

gardenierwilliamjg 1986Gardenier, William J. G. 1986. Divination and kinship among the Sakalava of west Madagascar. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 337-351, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

gardinbernard&marcellesijeanbaptiste 1980Gardin, Bernard, and Jean-Baptiste Marcellesi. 1980. Sociolinguistique. Approches, théories, pratiques 1-2. Rouen: Université de Rouen.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

gardnerrc 1979Gardner, R. C. 1979. Social psychological aspects of second language acquisition. In Language and social psychology. Language in society 1, 193-220, edited by Howard Giles, and Robert N. St Clair. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

gasssusan&varonisevangelinemarlos 1984Gass, Susan, and Evangeline Marlos Varonis. 1984. The effect of familiarity on the comprehensibility of nonnative speech. Language Learning 34(1):65-89.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

gaudinfrancois 1994Gaudin, François. 1994. Pour une socioterminologie. Rouen: Université de Rouen.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

gaulmefrancois 1992Gaulme, François. 1992. Tribus, ethnies, frontières. Afrique Contemporaine 164:43-49.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

A discussion of the terms "tribu," "ethnie," and how these have changed over time. Interesting exposure of the prejudice that calls the problems of the South African Zulu nation "tribalism," whereas the problems of the Slovaks and the Croats in Eastern Europe are in the league of "nationalism." Some good arguments in the light of the term 'ethnie,' "being one of the least theorised notions in the anthropological and ethnological discipline" (43).

geelenemile&botkeesde 1986Geelen, Emile, and Kees de Bot. 1986. Dialectverlies op individueel niveau. Taal en Tongval 38:172-184.

language(s):
Dutch
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

geertsguido&broeckjefvanden&nootensjohan 1978Geerts, Guido, Jef van den Broeck, and Johan Nootens. 1978. Flemish attitudes towards dialect and standard language: A public opinion poll. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 15:33-46.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

Interesting report on a public opinion poll about the attitudes of the Flemish community towards dialect and standard Dutch.

geertzc 1963Geertz, C. 1963. Old societies and new states: The quest for modernity in Asia and Africa. Glencoe, Illinois: Free Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

geffrec 1984Geffre, C. 1984. Théologie et choc des cultures. Colloque de L 'institut Catholique de Paris. Cogitatio Fidei 121. Paris: Cerf.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

geigerricharda&rudzkaostynbrygida 1993Geiger, Richard A., and Brygida Rudzka-Ostyn (eds.) 1993. Conceptualizations and mental processing in language. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,

genetteg 1980Genette, G. 1980. Narrative discourse: An essay in method. Translated by J.E. Lewin. New York: Cornell University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,

genetteg 1982Genette, G. 1982. Figures of literary discourse. Translated by 1. Sheridan. New York: Columbia University.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,

genetteg 1988Genette, G. 1988. Narrative discourse revisited. Translated by J E Lewin. New York: Cornell University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,

genetteg 1992Genette, G. 1992. The architext. Translated by J E Lewin. Berkeley: University of California Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,
Linguistics,

gerbinisml 1964Gerbinis, M. L. 1964. La langue malgache: Enseignée suivant la méthode directe, livre 2. Cours publics professés à Tananarive. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Nationale.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

giesbersherman 1986Giesbers, Herman. 1986. Code switching, dialectverlies en dialectbehoud. Taal en Tongval 38:128-145.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

gileshoward&bourhisrichardyvon&taylordonaldm 1977Giles, Howard, Richard Yvon Bourhis, and Donald M. Taylor. 1977. Towards a theory of language in ethnic group relations. In Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations, 307-349, edited by Howard Giles. London: Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gileshoward&couplandnikolas 1991Giles, Howard, and Nikolas Coupland. 1991. Language: Contexts and consequences. Buckingham: Open University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gileshoward&johnsonp 1981Giles, Howard, and P. Johnson. 1981. The role of language in ethnic group relations. In Intergroup behavior, 199-243, edited by J. C. Turner, and Howard Giles. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gileshoward&johnsonp 1987Giles, Howard, and P. Johnson. 1987. Ethnolinguistic identity theory: A social psychological approach to language maintenance. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 68:69-99.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gileshoward&stclairrobertn 1979Giles, Howard, and Robert N. St Clair (eds.) 1979. Language and social psychology. Language in society 1. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

gileshoward 1977Giles, Howard (ed.) 1977. Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations. London: Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

glausciuszjosie 1997Glausciusz, Josie. 1997. The ecology of language. Discover 18(8):30.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

goedefroitsophie 1998Goedefroit, Sophie. 1998. A l'ouest de Madagascar: Les Sakalava du Menabe. Collection "hommes et sociétés". Paris: Editions Karthala.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern Sakalava,
Sakalava,
Western,
Sakalava Menabe,
Vezo,
Masikoro,
South-western,

gontardmarc&braymaryse 1996Gontard, Marc, and Maryse Bray (eds.) 1996. Regards sur la francophonie. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

gorterdirk 1987Gorter, Dirk. 1987. Surveys of the Frisian language situation: Some considerations of research methods on language maintenance and language shift. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 68:41-56.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

gracegeorgew 1966Grace, George W. 1966. Austronesian lexicostatistical classification: A review article. Oceanic Linguistics 5(1):13-57.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
History,
Austronesian,

graeberdavid 1997Graeber, David. 1997. Painful memories. Journal of Religion in Africa 27(4):374-400.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

greenbergjosephh 1956Greenberg, Joseph H. 1956. The measurement of linguistic diversity. Language 32:109-115.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

grenoblelenore&whaleylindsay 1996Grenoble, Lenore, and Lindsay Whaley (eds.) 1996. Language loss and community response. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

grijnscd 1995Grijns, C. D. 1995. Don Kulick, language shift and cultural reproduction, socialization, self and syncretism in a Papua new Guinean village. Cambridge/new York/Victoria: Cambridge university press, 1992. Bijdragen Tot de Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde 151:150-151.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

grilloralph 1989aGrillo, Ralph. 1989a. Anthropology, language, politics. In Social anthropology and the politics of language. The sociological review 36, 1-24, edited by Ralph Grillo. London and New York: Routledge.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

grilloralph 1989bGrillo, Ralph (ed.) 1989b. Social anthropology and the politics of language. The sociological review 36. London and New York: Routledge.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

Selected quotes:

  • In their different ways, linguistic anthropologists, 'sociolinguists' (such as Labov in the United States and Trudgill in Britain) and 'sociologists of language' (outstandingly Fishman and Haugen) have each helped rescue language from the transformationalists (3).

grimesbarbaraf 1986Grimes, Barbara F. 1986. Evaluating bilingual proficiency in language groups for cross-cultural communication. Notes on Linguistics 33:5-27.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,
Anthropology and ethnology,

grimesbarbaraf 1987Grimes, Barbara F. 1987. How bilingual is bilingual? Notes on Linguistics 40:3-23.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

grimesbarbaraf 1988aGrimes, Barbara F. 1988a. On bilingual proficiency thresholds. Notes on Scripture in Use 16:1-10.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

grimesbarbaraf 1988bGrimes, Barbara F. 1988b. Why test intelligibility? Notes on Linguistics 42:39-64.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

grimesjosephe 1988Grimes, Joseph E. 1988. Interpreting sample variation in intelligibility tests. In Synchronic and diachronic approaches to linguistic variation and change. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 1988, 138-146, edited by Thomas J. Walsh. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

grimesjosephe 1994Grimes, Joseph E. 1994. Systematic comparison in language surveys. Notes on Literature in Use and Language Programs Special issue 3:30-47.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Research,
History,

grimesjosephe 1995Grimes, Joseph E. 1995. Language survey reference guide. Dallas, Texas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

grimesjosephe 1998Grimes, Joseph E. 1998. The logic of survey information. Notes on Linguistics 3(2):71-82.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Quantitative research,
Research,
Qualitative research,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

grimshawallenday 1971Grimshaw, Allen Day. 1971. Sociolinguistics. In Advances in the sociology of language 1, 92-151, edited by Joshua A. Fishman. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

grimshawallenday 1988Grimshaw, Allen Day. 1988. Sociolinguistics vs sociology of language: Tempest in a teapot or profound academic conundrum? In An international handbook of the science of language and society 1-2, 9-15, edited by Ulrich Ammon, Norbert Dittmar, and Klaus J. Mattheier. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

grimshawallenday 1997Grimshaw, Allen Day. 1997. Origins and milestones. In The early days of sociolinguistics. Memories and reflexions. SIL International: Publications in sociolinguistics, 101-112, edited by Christina Bratt Paulston, and G. Richard Tucker. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
History,

grimshawallenday 1998Grimshaw, Allen Day. 1998. What is a 'handbook of sociolinguistics'? Journal of Sociolinguistics 2(3):432-445.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

grinfrancois 1992Grin, François. 1992. Towards a threshold theory of minority language survival. Kyklos 45(1):69-98.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

gudschinskysarah 1956Gudschinsky, Sarah. 1956. The ABC's of lexicostatistics. Word 12:175-210.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,
History,

gudykunstwilliamb&hallb&schmidtkarenl&tingtoomeys 1989Gudykunst, William B., B. Hall, Karen L. Schmidt, and S. Ting-Toomey. 1989. Language and intergroup communication. In Handbook of international and intercultural communication, 145-162, edited by M. Asante, and William B. Gudykunst. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gudykunstwilliamb&schmidtkarenl 1988Gudykunst, William B., and Karen L. Schmidt. 1988. Language and ethnic identity: An overview and prologue. In Language and ethnic identity, 1-14, edited by William B. Gudykunst. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gudykunstwilliamb 1988Gudykunst, William B. (ed.) 1988. Language and ethnic identity. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gueuniernicole 1992Gueunier, Nicole. 1992. Le français langue d'Afrique. Présence Francophone 40.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

gueuniernoeljacques&raharinjanaharysolo 1993Gueunier, Noël Jacques, and Solo Raharinjanahary. 1993. Vocabulaire médical d'après l'enquête de l'Académie malgache de 1912. Atlas linguistique et ethnographique de Madagascar. Travaux préliminaires 3. Strasbourg: Université des Sciences Humaines.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gueuniernoeljacques&raharinjanaharysolo 1998Gueunier, Noël Jacques, and Solo Raharinjanahary. 1998. Raki-pandihana: Etudes de linguistique, d'anthropologie et de littérature malgaches offertes au Professeur Siméon Rajaona. Fianarantsoa: Editors.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gueuniernoeljacques&raharinjanaharysolo&rasoamalalavaoclaire 1992Gueunier, Noël Jacques, Solo Raharinjanahary, and Claire Rasoamalalavao. 1992. Une enquête sur les noms des parties du corps. Atlas linguistique et ethnographique de Madagascar. Travaux préliminaires 1. Strasbourg: Université des Sciences Humaines.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gueuniernoeljacques 1985Gueunier, Noël Jacques. 1985. Contes de la côte ouest de Madagascar. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Makoa,
Masikoro,
South-western,

gueuniernoeljacques 1986Gueunier, Noël Jacques. 1986. Lexique du dialecte malgache de Mayotte (comores). Etudes Océan Indien 7. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gueuniernoeljacques 1988Gueunier, Noël Jacques. 1988. Dialectologie et lexicostatistique: Cas du dialecte malgache de Mayotte (comores). In Linguistique de Madagascar et des Comores. Etudes Océan Indien 9, 143-116, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Research,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Kibushi (Shibushi),
Other,

gueuniernoeljacques 1992aGueunier, Noël Jacques. 1992a. La genèse de l'homme blanc. Récits d'origine du sud-ouest de Madagascar. In Le scribe et la grande maison. Etudes Océan Indien 15, 227-244, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
South-western,

gueuniernoeljacques 1993aGueunier, Noël Jacques. 1993a. "Aucune langue n'est indigne de louer Dieu". Poèmes Musulmans malgaches en dialecte Sakalava (deuxième recueil). Transcrits et traduits par NJ Gueunier. In Religions. Etudes Océan Indien 16, 87-103, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

Some interesting remarks in the introduction to the poems.

Selected quotes:

  • D'ailleurs on se moque de ceux dont la conversion n'est que superficielle en les appelant des "Silamo kofia, " des "Musulmans seulement par le bonnet" (.) (88).
  • A Madagascar comme dans bien d'autres contrées, l'islam populaire est mêlée de pratiques magiques diverses: astrologie, divination, commerce des amulettes, etc. Les Musulmans partout qu'une toute petite minorité, se voient attribuer par la superstition populaires des pouvoirs extraordinaires de guérisseurs et de magiciens (88).
  • L'emploi du malgache pour des chants religieux a besoin d'une justification. Il se heurte en effet à une vive opposition des musulmans traditionalistes: toute traduction en langue vulgaire est dès l'abord ressentie comme un risque de trahison du message divin, exprimé de manière parfaite et inimitable dans le Coran, révélé "en claire langue arabe. " (89).
  • Les Malgaches musulmans zanatany, les "enfants de la terre," ou "enfants du pays" forment aujourd'hui une communauté qui a ses institutions-précisément la confrérie shadhuli, implantée en terre malgache depuis les dernières années du XIXe siècle par le sheikh Ahmad al-Kabir. Quant à la langue, elle n'a rien d'indigne en elle-même (.). On peut et on doit en user pour "mikosifo Ndranahary" "faire la louange de Dieu. " (89).

gueuniernoeljacques 1993bGueunier, Noël Jacques. 1993b. L'arche de Noë dans l'Océan Indien, un thème d'origine de l'homme dans les contes malgaches et Comoriens. In Religions. Etudes Océan Indien 16, 145-169, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gueuniernoeljacques 1995Gueunier, Noël Jacques. 1995. La maladie et la guérison chez les Masikoro de la région de Tulear (sud-ouest de madagascar) diagnostiquer et guérir. Thèse de Bertin Ramamonjisoa. In Diagnostiquer et guérir à Madagascar. Etudes Océan Indien 19, 115-119, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Masikoro,
South-western,

gumperzjohnj 1964Gumperz, John J. 1964. Linguistic and social interaction in two communities. American Anthropologist 66:37-53.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

gumperzjohnj 1968Gumperz, John J. 1968. Types of linguistic communities. In Readings in the sociology of language, 460-472, edited by Joshua A. Fishman. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

This article has not lost any of its relevance for the study of speech communities, but presents some very solid, very valuable thinking on the topic.

Selected quotes:

  • In a very relevant paper on Language Communities Gumperz (1968:463). says that "linguistic distribution within a social or geographical space is usually described in terms of speech communities" referring to Bloomfield and shows that many studies of "speech communities" deal with a "single language and its dialects and styles," that "bilinguals are said to 'bridge speech communities' (quoting Hockett, 1958). Gumperz points out that bi- or multilingualism seems to be the rule in many societies and that there is therefore no "a priori grounds which force us to define speech communities so that all members speak the same language" (463). He cites Weinreich (1953) referring to Yiddish speech communities of Eastern Europe as "bilingual speech communities" and his own 1961 and Martinet's 1954 work showing that "from the point of social function the distinction between bilingualism and bidialectalism is often not a significant one" (463). Gumperz employs the term "linguistic community" as an areal concept, defining it as a social group which may be either monolingual or multilingual, held together by frequency of social interaction patterns and set off from the surrounding areas by weaknesses in the lines of communication. Linguistic communities may consist of small groups bound together by face-to-face contact or may cover large regions, depending on the level of abstraction we wish to achieve.
    Social communication within a linguistic community may be viewed in terms of functionally related roles, defined according to Nadel (1957, 31ff.) as "modes of acting allotted to individuals within a society." (463).
  • Gumperz calls "communication matrix" the collection of communication roles within a society, for his purposes indicating "only those roles or role clusters which corellate with significant speech differences" (464). He also speaks of the "code matrix" which represents the set of codes and subcodes, i.e. the "dialects or styles of the same language" (subcodes) and "genetically distinct languages" (codes), a linguistic distinction which does not "necessarily correspond to a difference in social function" (464). The criterion for a code to be included "in a study of a linguistic community is that its exclusion will produce a gap in the communication matrix.

gumperzjohnj 1982Gumperz, John J. 1982. Language and social identity. Studies in interactional sociolinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

guthriemalcolm 19671971Guthrie, Malcolm. 1967-1971. Comparative Bantu: An introduction to the comparative linguistics and prehistory of the Bantu languages. 4 vols. Farnborough: Gregg International.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
History,

guygregoryr&baughjohn&feagincrawford&schiffrindeborah 1995Guy, Gregory R., John Baugh, Crawford Feagin, and Deborah Schiffrin (eds.) 1995. Towards a social science of language. Papers in honor of William Labov. Volume I: Variation and change in language and society. Amsterdam studies in the theory and history of linguistic science 127. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

haarmanharald 1980aHaarman, Harald. 1980a. Multilingualismus (1): Probleme der Systematik und Typologie. Tübinger Beiträge zur Linguistik 116(1).

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

haarmanharald 1980bHaarman, Harald. 1980b. Multilingualismus (2): Elemente einer Sprachökologie. Tübinger Beiträge zur Linguistik 116(2).

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

haarmanharald 1986Haarman, Harald. 1986. Language in ethnicity. A view of basic ecological relations. Contributions to the sociology of language 44. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

Selected quotes:

  • As language is involved in interethnic relations, it is only a language-oriented view of ecology which can provide the key for understanding ethnicity and its place in the network of ecological relations (2).
  • Language ecology is not specified as a special subject or area of language sociology. The ecology of language is not a field of research with a limited sphere of application or of objects investigated. Rather it is based on principles of sociolinguistic analysis. Thus language ecology is valuable as a methodology in the sociology of language dealing as it does with the principles underlying the sociological study of language (2).
  • One can view language ecology as an attempt to find ecological principles applicable to the social study of language, an attempt to construct models of ecological relations for the purpose of elaborating a general theory about such relations. With such a theory, language ecology could serve as an integrating research perspective, one which promises progress in reaching the general goal of sociolinguistic studies. If one shares the view of Grimshaw that this general goal is the examination of the interaction of language structure and social structure and of the interimplications of speech behavior and social behavior (1971:93) then the application of ecology related principles is likely to become a favoured methodology for sociologists (3).
  • Language ecology should cover the whole network of social relations which control the variability of languages and their modal speakers' behavior (3).

haarmanharald 1990Haarman, Harald. 1990. Language planning in the light of a general theory of language: A methodological framework. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 86:103-126.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Language ecology,
Sociolinguistics,

Outlines the functional ranges of language planning and the methodological implications necessary for theory making, etc. Three elementary ranges of language-planning activities have to be distinguished, (1) corpus planning (2) status planning and (3) prestige planning. Interesting article for a basic theory of language planning, especially concerning demographic factors (p.109). Excellent outlines.

Selected quotes:

  • As one of its subdivision, language planning is of great significance to sociolinguistics, but so far its theoretical foundation is only poorly developed (.) (103).
  • In language planning, all activities which are directed at the structure of a language (I.e. its corpus) and at its status appear in the light of prestige values which form a network of evaluations and attitudes (105).

halekennethl&craigc&englandn&kraussm&masayesvajeannel&watahomigiel&yamamotoa 1992Hale, Kenneth L., C. Craig, N. England, M. Krauss, Jeanne L. Masayesva, L. Watahomigie, and A. Yamamoto. 1992. Endangered languages. Journal of the Linguistic Society of America 68(1):1-42.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

An excellent motivating article on endangered languages and the "rescue" of such.

halekennethl 1996Hale, Kenneth L. 1996. Universal grammar and the roots of linguistic diversity. In Papers on language endangerment and the maintenance of linguistic diversity. The MIT working papers in linguistics 28, 137-161, edited by Jonathan David Bobaljik, Rob Pensalfini, and Luciana Storto. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

hallbergcalindae&olearyclaref 1992Hallberg, Calinda E., and Clare F. O'Leary. 1992. Dialect variation and multilingualism among Gujars of Pakistan. In Hindko and Gujari. Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan 3, 91-194, edited by Calvin R. Rensch, Calinda E. Hallberg, and Clare F. O'Leary. Islamabad: National Institute of Pakistan Studies and Summer Institute of Linguistics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Language assessment,
Research,
Social sciences - other,

halle 1976Hall, E. 1976. Beyond culture. New York: Doubleday.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

hamayanelse&markmanbarbarar&pelletiersusanne&tuckergrichard 1978Hamayan, Else, Barbara R. Markman, Susanne Pelletier, and G. Richard Tucker. 1978. Differences in performance in elicited imitation between French monolingual and English-speaking bilingual children. International Review of Applied Linguistics 16(4):330-339.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

hameljacques 1993Hamel, Jacques. 1993. The case study in sociology: The contribution of methodological research in the French language. Canadian Review of Sociology & Anthropology 30(4).

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

A very clear, convincing argument for the appropriateness of the case study approach in sociology, on condition that the objectives of the study are clearly formulated.

hamelrainerenrique 1997Hamel, Rainer Enrique. 1997. Language conflict and language shift: A sociolinguistic framework for linguistic human rights. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 127:105-134.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

harrieslyndon 1968Harries, Lyndon. 1968. Swahili in modern east Africa. In Language problems of developing nations, 415-429, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Swahili,
Indian Ocean region,

haspelmathmartin&koenigekkehard&oesterreicherwulf&raiblewolfgang 2001Haspelmath, Martin, Ekkehard König, Wulf Oesterreicher, and Wolfgang Raible (eds.) 2001. Language typology and language universals. 2 vols. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

hatchevelyn&farhadyhossein 1982Hatch, Evelyn, and Hossein Farhady. 1982. Research design and statistics for applied linguistics. Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House Publishers.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Research,

hatchmaryjo 1996Hatch, Mary Jo. 1996. The role of the researcher: An analysis of narrative position in organization theory. Journal of Management Inquiry 5(4):359-375.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Social sciences - other,
Research,
Linguistics,

Explores the role of the researcher in terms of "narrative position," showing how traditional ethnography and modernist organizational theory has placed the researcher on the outside of the study object.

hatfielddeborah&lewismpaul 1996Hatfield, Deborah, and M. Paul Lewis. 1996. Surveying ethnolinguistic vitality. Notes on Literature in Use and Language Programs 48:34-47.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,
Anthropology and ethnology,

hattorishiro 1953Hattori, Shirô. 1953. On the method of glottochronology and the time depth of proto-Japanese. Gengo Kenkyu (Journal of the Linguistic Society of Japan) 22-23:29-77.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
History,

haugeneinar 1968Haugen, Einar. 1968. The Scandinavian languages as cultural artifacts. In Language problems of developing nations, 267-284, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

haugeneinar 1972aHaugen, Einar. 1972a. Author's postscript. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 340-343, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

haugeneinar 1972bHaugen, Einar. 1972b. Construction and reconstruction in language planning: Ivar Aasen's grammar. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 191-214, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

haugeneinar 1972cHaugen, Einar. 1972c. Dialect, language, nation. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 237-254, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Dialectology,
Sociolinguistics,

Haugen clarifies the terms " language" and "dialect" in terms of their history, the first entering the English language from French which had it from the Latin "lingua" in the twelfth century. "Dialect" was a loanword from Greek since the Renaissance. Greece knew no unified norm during classical times and referred to the closely related and written regional forms, each one with a specialized literary use descended from a previous common Greek usage. Subsequently "Greek" was to refer to a convergence of these dialects, the Greek koiné. The Greek situation became the model for all later usage of the terms "language" and "dialect." The term "language" comprises the idea of the result of historical convergence of dialects, which in its turn could be the result of divergence from a common language. French added the term "patois" to indicate "degraded dialects," but in English the term "dialect" has had to carry every sense.
Some of the confusion with the two terms stem from the fact that it is sometimes used in "structural" sense, (i.e. descriptive of the language itself) and at other times in a "functional" sense, that is, in terms of the social uses in communication.

haugeneinar 1972dHaugen, Einar. 1972d. Language and immigration. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 1-36, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

haugeneinar 1972eHaugen, Einar. 1972e. Language planning in modern Norway. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 133-147, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

haugeneinar 1972fHaugen, Einar. 1972f. Language planning, theory and practice. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 287-298, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

haugeneinar 1972gHaugen, Einar. 1972g. Linguistics and dialinguistics. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 299-306, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

haugeneinar 1972hHaugen, Einar. 1972h. Linguistics and language planning. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 159-190, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Language ecology,
Sociolinguistics,

haugeneinar 1972iHaugen, Einar. 1972i. National and international languages. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 255-264, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

haugeneinar 1972jHaugen, Einar. 1972j. Problems of bilingualism. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 59-78, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

haugeneinar 1972kHaugen, Einar. 1972k. Problems of linguistic research among Scandinavian immigrants in America. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 37-58, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

haugeneinar 1972lHaugen, Einar. 1972l. Schizoglossia and the linguistic norm. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 148-158, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

haugeneinar 1972mHaugen, Einar. 1972m. Semicommunication: The language gap in Scandinavia. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 215-236, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Research,
Anthropology and ethnology,

haugeneinar 1972nHaugen, Einar. 1972n. The analysis of linguistic borrowing. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 79-109, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

haugeneinar 1972oHaugen, Einar. 1972o. The confusion of tongues. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 110-132, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

haugeneinar 1972pHaugen, Einar. 1972p. The ecology of language. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 325-339, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

haugeneinar 1972qHaugen, Einar. 1972q. The stigmata of bilingualism. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 307-324, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

haugeneinar 1987Haugen, Einar. 1987. Blessings of Babel: Bilingualism and language planning. Problems and pleasures. Contributions to the sociology of language 46. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

healeyalan 1964Healey, Alan. 1964. Handling unsophisticated linguistic informants. Pacific linguistics. Series A: Occasional papers 2. Canberra: Linguistic Circle of Canberra Publications.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

Some good advice given on aspects of surveying, although in a different era. The PR tips are very good.

hebertjeanclaude 1958Hébert, Jean-Claude. 1958. Couleurs et robes de boufs dans l'Ambongo. Bulletin de Madagascar 36:223-240.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

hebertjeanclaude 1960Hébert, Jean-Claude. 1960. Quelques notes sur les Marques d'oreilles de boufs. Naturaliste Malgache 12:167-179.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

hebertjeanclaude 1962Hébert, Jean-Claude. 1962. Recherches sur l'histoire et la civilisation malgaches. Bulletin de Madagascar 191:339-352.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

This is a follow-up article on Bulletin no 172 of 1960, pp 809-820 and presents in maps the results of the survey done. It represents another attempt at clarifying the mystery of the origins of the first inhabitants of Madagascar. Hébert feels that the Bara and the Sakalava are the best representatives of the first Indonesians to land in Madagascar. He surveyed the dialectal forms during seven months out of twelve.

hebertjeanclaude 1992aHébert, Jean-Claude. 1992a. Le droit et le crochu: Les concepts de "droit" et de "justice" en malgache d'après la sémantique diachronique. In Le scribe et la grande maison. Etudes Océan Indien 15, 69-92, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

hebertm 1960Hébert, M. 1960. Les calendriers provinciaux malgaches. Bulletin de Madagascar 172:809-820.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

hendricksdebby&johnsonm&scholzg&spurlingr&vandenburgl 1980Hendricks, Debby, M. Johnson, G. Scholz, R. Spurling, and L. Vandenburg. 1980. Oral proficiency testing in an intensive English language program. In Research in language testing, 77-90, edited by John W. Oller Jr., and K. Perkins. Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House Publishers.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

henninggrant 1983Henning, Grant. 1983. Oral proficiency testing: Comparative validities of interview, imitation and completion methods. Language Learning 33(3):315-332.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

herfurthhans 1972Herfurth, Hans. 1972. Zur Lexicostatistique in Anwendung auf malaiopolenesische Sprachen. Orbis: bulletin international de documentation linguistique 21(1):479-519.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Research,
History,
Austronesian,

heurtebizegeorges 1981Heurtebize, Georges. 1981. Les progressions démographique et spatiale chez les Antandroy vues à travers le clan des Afomarolahy. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 13-14:113-121.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Afomarolahy,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

George Heurtebize presents here an excerpt from his very detailed study on the Afomarolahy, published later in book form. He explains very clearly the hierarchy among Tandroy lineages, giving examples to illustrate. He points out that the Afomarolahy form part of the Renivave (or Renive) group of Antandroy and constitutes, together with the Afondriambita and the Afomilaha, the three main subgroups of Renivave. In marriage, a man may take a wife from his own lineage or from a different Afomarolahy line, or from a different clan within the Renivave or, more rarely, from a non-Renivave group, but always respecting the rule of belonging to the same generation from the furthest ancestor. The author makes interesting applications from his detailed studies, such as the calculation that based on information collected and present numbers of Afomarolahy, one can project that three centuries before, there were very few of them (a small family) who started off the migratory process from the South (well known in oral traditions), by the mouth of the Manabovo River and later, when the population increased, moved further northwards in search of open land.
It should be feasible to record the full history of the Tandroy and other peoples, working backwards, as this researcher has done with one group.

Selected quotes:

  • Le territoire dénommé Androy ne correspond pas à une unité géologique ou géographique; à ces points de vue il présente au contraire des caractères fort diversifiés. La définition de l'Androy est purement humaine: c'est la patrie des Antandroy. Aussi ses limites ne sont-elles pas absolument fixes, mais tendent-elles à s'écarter toujours davantage en suivant l'expansion de la population antandroy. Actuellement ces limites s'établissent sensiblement à l'ouest le long de la rivière Menarandra, à l'est au pied des chaînes anosyennes à partir de l'embouchure du fleuve Mandrare, au nord suivant une ligne sinueuse passant à Bekily et au sud de Beraketa; non que, au nord de cette ligne, il n'y ait plus d'Antandroy, mais ils n'y sont plus seuls. Pour un habitant des environs d'Antanimora, au centre de la région envisagée, la limite nord de l'Androy se situe une vingtaine de kilomètres au sud de Beraketa. Pourtant, s'il doit faire un voyage vers le sud, vers Tsihombe ou Beloha, il dira: "Nous partons dans l'Androy"; ce qui sous-entend qu'en fait, il ne considère pas la région qu'il occupe comme faisant partie de l'Androy véritable.
    C'est qu'en effet toute la région centrale de l'Androy actuel est d'occupation récente. On peut même dire qu'elle reste encore maintenant en voie de colonisation ou d'appropriation, car d'année en année on y voit apparaître de nouveaux villages. L'histoire des déplacements récents peut être étudiée et précisée à partir d'un groupe bien défini (.)(113).
  • Les Afomarolahy font partie du groupe des Renivave, ou Renive, le plus important sans doute des divers groupes antandroy, au moins par son extension géographique. Les Renivave occupent en effet une région allongée en Sud-Nord sur 70km environ, commençant 20 à 30 km au nord de Tsihombe et allant au nord presque jusqu'à la limite de l'Androy. Les Renivave se divisent en plusieurs sous-groupes dont les trois plus importantes sont les Afomarrolahy, les Afondriambita et les Afomihala. Les Afomarolahy sont les plus nombreux. L'effectif des Afondriambita est plus réduit, celui des Afomihala davantage encore (115).
  • Les Afomarolahy occupent la partie sud du territoire des Renivave. Leurs derniers villages ne dépassent guère au nord la latitude d'AndalaTanôsy. Ils s'étendent donc sur une bande de terrain longue d'une cinquantaine de kilomètres, et dont la largeur est d'une vingtaine de kilomètres entre la rivière Manambovo à l'ouest et la grande route de Fort-Dauphin à l'est.
    Le premier arbre généalogique (.) concerne le village d'Analamahery, situé 20km au nord-ouest d'Antanimora. Il s'étend sur huit générations. Il comporte, en plus des noms des maillons de la chaîne familiale, les noms des conjoints ou des conjointes avec le clan et le village d'origine, et l'emplacement des tombeaux. Cet arbre génalogique recouvre la totalité d'un groupe qui se dénomme les Maromainty. La filiation se faisant en ligne patrilinéaire, à chaque génération les femmes nées d'un père maromainty sont elles-mêmes maromainty, mais leurs enfants, si elles se marient en dehors du groupe, ne le sont pas eux-mêmes: ils n'apparaissent donc pas dans l'arbre généalogique des Maromainty, mais dans les arbres généalogiques des groupes voisins (.).
    La première génération (de Maromainty) est représentée par un homme unique, Tsimiantoa, qui a dû naître vers 1800; la deuxième génération par ses trois fils, (.) (115).
  • (.) Actuellement les Maromainty, hommes et femmes, sont environ 300, vivant tous dans le village d'Analamahery, à l'exception, bien entendu, des femmes mariées dans d'autres villages et de ceux qui sont partis chercher du travail dans de lointaines régions de Madagascar (émigration en général temporaire, mais dans certains cas cependant quasi définitive) (116).
  • (.) Tsimiantoa avait trois frères qui ont fait souche de la façon que lui. Leur descendants peuplent plusieurs agglomérations qui forment le long village d'Antanandava, 4km à l'ouest d'Analamahery. De même que Tsimiantoa est l'ancêtre unique des Maromainty, Tsimagnola est l'ancêtre unique des Marofoty, Taindraza l'ancêtre unique des Marotsontsa, et Voriay l'ancêtre unique des Tebagnake. Le père des quatre frères est donc, lui, l'ancêtre unique des quatre branches, que recouvre le nom général de Tandranatelo. Tous les Tandranatelo, au nombre de 1000 environ, sont donc des cousins plus ou moins éloignés. C'est bien ainsi qu'ils se ressentent, comme des parents proches (.). Les Tandranatelo possèdent pour eux tous un seul poteau sacré hazomanga.
    (.) Mais revenons maintenant aux Afomarolahy. Les Tandranatelo sont en effet un de la quinzaine de lignages qui constitue le clan des Afomarolahy. Certains de ces lignages sont plus importants que celui des Tandranatelo, d'autres moins (.). Un des lignages les plus fournis est celui des Marokobo (.) (qui) peuplent quatre gros villages dispersés du sud au nord de l'aire couverte par les Afomarolahy. De même que les Tandranatelo sont divisés en quatre sous-lignages, les Marokobo, et aussi les autres lignages des Afomarolahy, sont également subdivisés. Mais quel que soit le nombre de ses membres et la dispersion actuelle de ses implantations, chaque lignage ne possède qu'un seul poteau sacré hazomanga (sauf accident temporaire provenant par exemple de querelle à l'intérieur d'un lignage) devant lequel tout le monde se retrouve pour le Savatse,la cérémonie préparatoire à la circoncision (117).
  • Tous les Afomarolahy ont conscience d'être apparentés, alors que l'appartenance au groupe plus vaste des Renivave avec les Afondriambita et les Afomihala ne paraît pas susciter à l'égard de ces derniers un sentiment de réelle parenté. Tous, disent-ils, ont un ancêtre commun. Le nom d'Andriamarolahy est souvent prononcé, mais le souvenir des filiations entre Andriamarolahy et les ancêtres situés à la racine de chaque lignage s'est perdu. Sauf peut-être chez un vieil homme (né vers 1890), habitant près de Jafaro et nommé Fanambinae, ou plus couramment Imbina. Il est dépositaire d'une tradition orale qui donne ce qui serait le fond généalogique commun à tous les Afomarolahy. Andriamarolahy serait un Bara Zafemaroza venu avec cinq fils de la région de Vangaindrano. Tous ont été accueillis par le roi antandroy des Temagnorikandro, qui habitait la région de Faralambo, à l'embouchure de la Manambovo. Les cinq fils se sont mariés là, et sont à l'origine des Afomarolahy (.) (117).
  • (.) Il faut cependant noter que deux lignages, même s'ils se considèrent comme entièrement Afomarolahy, se sont adjoints aux descendents d'Andriamarolahy sans en descendre eux-mêmes. Il s'agit des Tandranatelo et des Tantsaha. L'ancêtre des Tandranatelo est en réalité un Bara qui, avec son cousin, l'ancêtre des Tantsaha, est venu prendre femme parmi les Afomarolahy. Les descendants de ces deux hommes se sont intégrés complètement au clan. Mais pour les calculs de progression démographique, il faut donc soustraire ces deux lignages de la descendance réelle d'Andria marolahy-encore qu'ils en descendent cependant, mais par les femmes (118).
  • (.) dès (l'époque de Tsimiantoa) existait la complète liberté de choix qui préside encore maintenant à la conclusion des mariages. C'est-à-dire qu'un homme peut prendre comme épouse dans son propre lignage une parenté très proche (cousine germaine) ou une cousine plus éloignée; ou bien une parenté plus lointaine dans un autre lignage des Afomarolahy; ou bien une fille d'un autre clan que les Afomarolahy à l'intérieur des Renivave; ou bien enfin, plus rarement, une "étrangère" appartenant à un autre groupe, non Renivave. La seule règle, qui est et a toujours été respectée, est que les conjointes doivent appartenir à la même génération à partir de l'ancêtre commun, si éloigné soit-il. C'est d'ailleurs un excellent moyen de contrôler les uns par les autres les arbres généalogiques des différents lignages, en vérifiant que les multiples mariages qui y apparaissent de l'un et de l'autre n'enfreignent pa cette règle (119).
  • (.)Le village d'Analamahery a été créé vers 1920, en terrain libre, ce qui ne veut pas dire que personne auaravant n'avait occupé ces parages. Sans remonter au peuplement très ancien qui n'apparaît dans aucune tradition orale, mais dont on trouve de nombreuses traces archéologiques, une vague antandroy au moins avait précédé dans cette région les actuels occupants. Il s'agissait de forgerons qui ont laissé de nombreux témoins de leur travail et que la tradition dit avoir été des Tebekitro, qui sont ensuite partis vers l'ouest, ou ils ont fondé le village de Bekitro.
    Les parents et grands-parents des vieillards actuels avaient connu plusieurs étapes avant d'arriver à Analamahery, la plus importante de beaucoup étant celle d'Andragnanivo, 30 km au sud d'Antanimora. Tous les lignages afomarolahy, qui à cette époque ne s'étaient pas encore dispersés, ont fait en commun une longue station à Andragnanivo, et ce lieu est considéré par tous comme la "terre des ancêtres" par excellence (.) (119).
  • (.) Les noms des diverses étapes sont restés dans la mémoire de beaucoup (.) Successivement: Antsera, puis Kobaignabo, (.) puis Lahabe, 8 km au sud-est d'Andragnanivo, où beaucoup d'ancêtres ont leur tombeaux, enfin Andragnanivo (.). Tous les Afomarolahy sont restés groupés jusqu'à Andragnanivo. La dispersion des divers lignages à partir d'Andragnanivo a commencé un peu avant 1900, pour cause de pression démographique (.). Les hameaux créés il y a 40 à 60 ans sont devenus autant de villages, et l'on comprend pourquoi chacun de ces villages, encore maintenant, constitue une seule grande famille dont tous les individus trouvent place sur un arbre généalogique unique (120).
  • En résumé, les Afomarolahy, initialement petite famille habitant près de la mer à l'embouchure de la Manambavo, ont progressivement remonté vers le nord, en restant groupés, jusqu'à Andragnanivo. C'est de là qu'après une longue station s'est faite vers 1900, sous la poussée démographique qui imposait à chaque groupe d'aller plus loin chercher de nouvelles terres, la dispersion des lignages sur le vaste territoire (.).
    (.) les voisins des Afomarolahy ont connu des cheminements comparables, c'-est-à-dire qu'ils sont partis de l'embouchure de la Manambovo pour remonter vers le nord. C'est en particulier le cas des Afondriambita (dont l'ancêtre est venu de l'Anosy) et des Afomihala, Renivave comme les Afomarolahy, et qui ont habité Andragnanivo avec ces derniers. C'est aussi le cas des Milahe, les voisins actuels des Afomarolahy de l'autre côté de la Manambovo, qui ont été longtemps des ennemis contre qui se livraient des batailles meurtrières (120).

hinskensfrans&kallenjeffreyl&taeldemanjohan 2000Hinskens, Frans, Jeffrey L. Kallen, and Johan Taeldeman. 2000. Merging and drifting apart. Convergence and divergence of dialects across political borders. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 145:1-28.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
History,

hinskensfrans 1986Hinskens, Frans. 1986. Onderzoek van dialektverlies in de lexicale component, enkele kanttekeningen. Taal en Tongval 38:185-197.

language(s):
Dutch
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

hoggmichaela&rigolininetta 1996Hogg, Michael A., and Ninetta Rigoli. 1996. Effects of ethnolinguistic vitality, ethnic identification, and linguistic contacts on minority language use. Journal of language and social psychology 15(1):76-90.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

hoggmichaela 1995Hogg, Michael A. 1995. Intra group processes, group structure and social identity. In Social groups and identities, edited by W. P. Robinson. Oxford: Butterworth-Heineman.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

hopperpaulj&thompsonsandraa 1984Hopper, Paul J., and Sandra A. Thompson. 1984. The discourse basis for lexical categories in universal grammar. Language 60(3):703-752.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

hornbergernancyh 1997Hornberger, Nancy H. 1997. Literacy, language maintenance, and linguistic human rights: Three telling cases. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 127:87-103.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

horvathbarbaram&vaughanpaul 1991Horvath, Barbara M., and Paul Vaughan. 1991. Community languages: A handbook. Multilingual matters 67. Clevedon, Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

The chapter on sociolinguistic profiles represents very relevant reading for sociolinguistic surveyors in that the author gives clear and succinct definitions of different sociolinguistic profiles that are found in language/speech communities. The term "community languages" is the Australian term for what the Canadians call "heritage languages," replacing terms like "migrant" language or "foreign" language, indicating a shift from assimilationist to multiculturalist attitudes on the part of language politicians.

horvathbarbaram 1998Horvath, Barbara M. 1998. Some 'fractious energy'. Journal of Sociolinguistics 2(3):446-457.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

houlderja 1881Houlder, J. A. 1881. Madagascar and its proverbs. The Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine 2:58-75.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

houlderja 1894Houlder, J. A. 1894. Ohabolana, or wit and wisdom of the Hova of Madagascar. The Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine 18:188-204.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

houlderja 1960Houlder, J. A. 1960. Ohabolana ou proverbes malgaches. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Luthérienne.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

An excellent collection of proverbs, with a very interesting introduction by this missionary of the LMS who holds the traditional prejudice that the Merina "are intellectually superior to the other peoples of Madagascar" (III).

houtmanfrederickde 1603Houtman, Frederick de. 1603. Spraeckende woord-boeck inde Maleysche ende Madagascarsche talen met vele Arabische ende Turcsche woorden. Amsterdam: Jan Evertsz.

language(s):
Dutch
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

huebernard 1996Hue, Bernard. 1996. La langue française en question dans le discours du colonisé: L'exemple vietnamien. In Regards sur la francophonie, 77-81, edited by Marc Gontard, and Maryse Bray. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

A very provocative (and short) article on the effects of colonial language learning in cases where people love and are proficient in the colonial (here French) language.

Selected quotes:

  • Pour se mal comprendre, le pire n'est pas de parler une langue différente et que l'on ignore, mais de parler différemment la même langue; et dans ce cas parlant français de ne pas l'entendre de la même manière, de ne pas donner aux mots la même signification, la même portée, de ne pas mettre dessous les mêmes concepts (Raoul Serène dans Cahiers de la jeunesse :10) (79).
  • Prenez un texte très bien écrit en français par un Annamite. C'est toujours une sorte d'habit d'Arlequin, fait de pièces de choix cousues comme on peut. La pense tâchera de se loger comme elle peut là-dedans (Raoul Serène dans Cahiers de la jeunesse :12) (79).

huellenwerner 1980Hüllen, Werner. 1980. Understanding bilingualism. Forum Linguisticum 27. Frankfurt: Lang.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

huntingtonwilliamrichard 1986aHuntington, William Richard. 1986a. Bara pastoral kingdoms (19th century). Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 23-24:179-185.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

In this short paper, Huntington mainly revises what is known about Bara history from eyewitness accounts, dating from the 1870's. He also addresses Kent's work in this respect, asserting that Kent tends to force the African origins of the Bara people, especially that these cannot be proved and because of inconsistencies in his theories. As, "all published oral traditions from the Bara stress a south-eastern origin for the Bara, followed by a westward expansion" (179) it seems that Raymond Kent ignores these sources and prefers western and African origins for the Bara people. In Huntington's words, he "looks at nineteenth century Bara events through fifteenth century spectacles."
After explaining the different Bara migrations according to his sources, Huntington concludes that "nobody, not even the Zafimanely themselves, can be said to have been Bara in the eighteenth century, since the term "Bara" did not come into use until the early nineteenth century" (quoting Kent, 1968:183) and has come to refer to all peoples who came under Zafimanely rule during that time.
Huntington's use of the term Baralahy, to exclusively designate the Bara in the Iantsatsa region, is not convincing, as we have found it to be used all over Ibara by Bara of different origins to refer to themselves and their language, male and female, adult and child alike.

Selected quotes:

  • Today all of the peoples in the Iantsantsa region refer to themselves as Bara-lahy, male Bara are in some sense superior to the Bara-be whose name is said to mean not "great Bara," but to be derived from "be tambatra" meaning "many came together." (183). Unconvincing.

huttargeorgel 1994Huttar, George L. 1994. Conditions for effective use of LWC scriptures. Notes on Literature in Use and Language Programs Special issue 2.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

hymesdellh&bittlewe 1967Hymes, Dell H., and W. E. Bittle (eds.) 1967. Studies in southwestern ethnolinguistics. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

hymesdellh 1960Hymes, Dell H. 1960. Lexicostatistics so far. Current Anthropology 1(1):3-44.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,
History,

hymesdellh 1964aHymes, Dell H. (ed.) 1964a. Language in culture and society: A reader in linguistics and anthropology. New York: Harper and Row.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

hymesdellh 1964bHymes, Dell H. 1964b. The ethnography of speaking. In Readings in the sociology of language, 99-138, edited by Joshua A. Fishman. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

ingramelizabeth 1978Ingram, Elizabeth. 1978. The psycholinguistic basis. In Approaches to Language Testing. Papers in Applied Linguistics. Advances in language testing 2, 1-14, edited by Bernard Spolsky. Arlington, Virginia: Center for Applied Linguistics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Research,

isajiwww 1974Isajiw, W. W. 1974. Definitions of ethnicity. Ethnicity 1:111-124.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

jahrernsthaakon 1992Jahr, Ernst Håkon (ed.) 1992. Language contact: Theoretical and empirical studies. International Tromsø Symposium on Language. Trends in linguistics 60. Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

See under individual authors.

jahrernsthaakon 1993Jahr, Ernst Håkon (ed.) 1993. Language conflict and language planning. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

jaovelodzaorobert 1990Jaovelo-Dzao, Robert. 1990. La conception de la mort chez les Sakalava du nord-ouest de Madagascar. Recherches et Documents 8:1-32.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

jenseniuso 1910Jensenius, O. 1910. Dictionnaire Bara-Hova. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache 7:163-194.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

jernuddbjoernh 1968Jernudd, Bjørn H. 1968. Linguistic integration and national development: A case study of the Jebel Marra area, Sudan. In Language problems of developing nations, 167-181, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

joleaudl 1924Joleaud, L. 1924. Le bouf de Madagascar. Son origine. Son rôle dans les coutumes Sakalaves. L'anthropologie 34(1-2):103-107.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

jonesrandalll&spolskybernard 1975Jones, Randall L., and Bernard Spolsky (eds.) 1975. Testing language proficiency. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

jonesrandalll 1975Jones, Randall L. 1975. Testing language proficiency in the United States government. In Testing language proficiency, 1-9, edited by Randall L. Jones, and Bernard Spolsky. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

jonessarasu 1993Jones, Sara Su. 1993. Power of Babel: Struggle to balance linguistic unity and diversity. Harvard International Review 15(4):46-51.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

jorgensendannyl 1989Jorgensen, Danny L. 1989. Participant observation. Applied social research methods series 15. London: Sage Publications.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

josephjohne&taylortalbotj 1990Joseph, John E., and Talbot J. Taylor (eds.) 1990. Ideologies of language. Routledge politics of language series. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Language ecology,
Sociolinguistics,

josephjohne 1988Joseph, John E. 1988. Four models of linguistic change. In Synchronic and diachronic approaches to linguistic variation and change. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 1988, 147-157, edited by Thomas J. Walsh. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
History,

juillardcaroline 1996Juillard, Caroline. 1996. La situation sociolinguistique au Sénégal. In Regards sur la francophonie, 115-119, edited by Marc Gontard, and Maryse Bray. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

Very relevant case study.

Selected quotes:

  • (.) la langue wolof ne correspond plus nécessairement à une identité wolof (119).

juliengustave 1921aJulien, Gustave. 1921a. Charmes thérapeutiques et séducteurs. Les Tabake. Revue d'ethnographie et des traditions populaires 2(7):161-165.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

jullyantony 1901Jully, Antony. 1901. Manuel des dialectes malgaches. Comprenant sept dialectes: Hova, Betsileo, Tankarana, Betsimisaraka, Taimorona, Tanôsy, Sakalava (mahafaly) et le Soahély. Paris: Librairie Africaine et Coloniale.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Swahili,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Hova,
Merina,
Central,
Sakalava,
Western,
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,
Betsileo,
Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana),
Northern,
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,
Betsimisaraka,

jullyantony 1974Jully, Antony. 1974. Les immigrations Arabes à Madagascar. Taloha 6:143-149.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Antalaotra,
North-western,
Tsimihety,
Northern,

Interesting information on the Antalaotra, a group of immigrants of Arabic origin to Madagascar, who settled on the West Coast. "Antalaotra" means "people from over-seas." According to popular history recorded by the author, the town of Boina was founded by the Antalaotra, Arabs who came from an island near the Comores. Their settlement was destroyed by the Sakalava in the first half of the eighteenth century.

kaboreraphael 1988Kabore, Raphael. 1988. Le morphème 'ho' du malgache. In Linguistique de Madagascar et des Comores. Etudes Océan Indien 9, 197-213, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

kahanehenry 1988Kahane, Henry. 1988. Synchrony and diachrony in etymological analysis. In Synchronic and diachronic approaches to linguistic variation and change. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 1988, 158-162, edited by Thomas J. Walsh. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
History,

kamprandy 1992Kamp, Randy. 1992. Inherent intelligibility, bilingualism, or both? In Windows on bilingualism, edited by Eugene H. Casad. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

kaplanrobert 2002Kaplan, Robert. 2002. The Oxford handbook of applied linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Language ecology,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,

karanmarke&stalderjuerg 2000Karan, Mark E., and Jürg Stalder. 2000. Assessing motivations: Techniques for researching the motivations behind language choice. In Assessing ethnolinguistic vitality: Theory and practice. Selected papers from the third International Language Assessment Conference, 1997. SIL International: Publications in sociolinguistics, 189-205, edited by Gloria E. Kindell, and M. Paul Lewis. Dallas, Texas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

karanmarke 2000Karan, Mark E. 2000. Motivations: Language vitality assessments using the perceived benefit model of language shift. In Assessing ethnolinguistic vitality: Theory and practice. Selected papers from the third International Language Assessment Conference, 1997. SIL International: Publications in sociolinguistics, 65-75, edited by Gloria E. Kindell, and M. Paul Lewis. Dallas, Texas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

kashimaemikos&kashimayoshihisa 1998Kashima, Emiko S., and Yoshihisa Kashima. 1998. Culture and language. The case of cultural dimensions and personal pronoun use. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 29(3):461-487.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

kaspergabriele 1998Kasper, Gabriele. 1998. Linguistic etiquette. In The handbook of sociolinguistics. Blackwell handbooks in linguistics 4, 374-386, edited by Florian Coulmas. Oxford: Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

katznerkenneth 1986Katzner, Kenneth. 1986. The languages of the world. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

kaufmanhowardk 1975Kaufman, Howard K. 1975. Attitude research: The theoretical basis of some problems of application in rural Thailand. In Linguistics and anthropology. In honor of CF Voegelin, 351-385, edited by M. Dale Kinkade, Kenneth L. Hale, and Oswald Werner. Lisse: Peter de Ridder Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,
Anthropology and ethnology,

Good background reading for anyone interested in Attitude Research. Case study from Thailand.

keenanedwardlouis&ochselinor 1979Keenan, Edward Louis, and Elinor Ochs. 1979. Becoming a competent speaker of Malagasy. In Languages and their speakers, 112-157, edited by Timothy Shopen. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Winthrop.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Excellent overview of the Malagasy language and comparison with Western European conventions.

keenanelinorochs 1973Keenan, Elinor Ochs. 1973. A sliding sense of obligatoriness: The poly-structure of Malagasy oratory. Language in Society 2:225-243.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vakinankaratra,
Central,
Merina,

keenanelinorochs 1976Keenan, Elinor Ochs. 1976. The universality of conversational postulates. Language in Society 5:67-80.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vakinankaratra,
Central,
Merina,

Keenan deals in this paper with cross-cultural issues of communication, with a Malagasy speech community as ethnographic case study. The handling of information by the Malagasy of the Vakinankaritra shows that information is an important commodity to them and underlines the need to be aware of potential misunderstandings due to differences in conversation ethics.

keenanelinorochs 1989Keenan, Elinor Ochs. 1989. Norm-makers, norm-breakers: Uses of speech by men and women in a Malagasy community. In Explorations in the ethnography of speaking, 125-143, edited by Richard Bauman, and Joel Sherzer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vakinankaratra,
Central,
Merina,

An excellent article on Malagasy speech culture, written from experiences in the village of Namoizamanga in the Vakinankaratra. A learning experience for a vazaha (foreigner) to read this article-du savoir-vivre.

kettedenbernhard&penzhermine 2000Ketteden, Bernhard, and Hermine Penz (eds.) 2000. ECOnstructing Language, Nature and Society. The Ecolingustic Project Revisited. Essays in Honour of Alwin Fill. Stauffenburg Festschriften. Tübingen: Stauffenburg Verlag.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,

khubchandanilachmanm 1978Khubchandani, Lachman M. 1978. Distribution of contact languages in India: A study of the 1961 bilingualism returns. In Advances in the study of societal multilingualism, 553-586, edited by Joshua A. Fishman. Paris-La Haye: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

khubchandanilachmanm 1983Khubchandani, Lachman M. 1983. Plural languages, plural cultures. Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

kindellgloriae&lewismpaul 2000Kindell, Gloria E., and M. Paul Lewis (eds.) 2000. Assessing ethnolinguistic vitality: Theory and practice. Selected papers from the third International Language Assessment Conference, 1997. SIL International: Publications in sociolinguistics. Dallas, Texas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,
Anthropology and ethnology,

kindellgloriae 1991Kindell, Gloria E. (ed.) 1991. Proceedings of the Summer Institute of Linguistics International Language Assessment Conference, Horsleys Green, 23-31 May 1989. Dallas, Texas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

kinkademdale&halekennethl&werneroswald 1975Kinkade, M. Dale, Kenneth L. Hale, and Oswald Werner (eds.) 1975. Linguistics and anthropology. In honor of CF Voegelin. Lisse: Peter de Ridder Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

klemherbertv 1982Klem, Herbert V. 1982. Oral communication of the scripture. Pasadena, California: William Carey Library.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Religion,
Linguistics,
History,

klossheinz 1968Kloss, Heinz. 1968. Notes concerning a language-nation typology. In Language problems of developing nations, 69-85, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

koechlinbernard 1972Koechlin, Bernard. 1972. Atlas ethnolinguistique de Madagascar. Asie du Sud-Est et Monde Insulindien 3(1):71-83.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

kokorapascald 1989Kokora, Pascal D. 1989. "Anglophonie" and "francophonie" in Africa, a communication gap: A case study from francophone Africa. Paper presented at the 32nd annual meeting of the African studies association, Atlanta, Georgia, Nov 1-4, 1989. In African Studies Association Annual Meeting. Atlanta: Crossroads Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
History,

kottakconradphillip&rakotoarisoajeanaime&southallaidan&verinpierre 1986Kottak, Conrad Phillip, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin (eds.) 1986. Madagascar: Society and history 38. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

See under individual authors.

kottakconradphillip 1986Kottak, Conrad Phillip. 1986. Kinship modeling: Adaptation, fosterage, and fictive kinship among the Betsileo. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 277-298, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,

kulickdon 1992Kulick, Don. 1992. Language shift as cultural reproduction. In Culture change, language change. Case studies from Melanasia. Pacific linguistics. Series C: Books 120, 7-26, edited by Tom Dutton. Canberra: Australian National University, Dept of Linguistics: Research School of Pacific Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

kurokawahiroshi 1972Kurokawa, Hiroshi. 1972. A report of field linguistic research in Madagascar. Bulletin of Reitaku 13.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Research,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

labovwilliam 1966Labov, William. 1966. The social stratification of English in new York city. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

labovwilliam 1972Labov, William. 1972. Sociolinguistic patterns. Conduct and Communication 4. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

lacitymaryc&jansonmariusa 1994Lacity, Mary C., and Marius A. Janson. 1994. Understanding qualitative data: A framework of text analysis methods. Journal of Management Information Systems 11(2):137-160.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,

laitindavidd 2000Laitin, David D. 2000. What is a language community? American Journal of Political Science 44(1):142-156.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

lambekmichael&walshandrew 1997Lambek, Michael, and Andrew Walsh. 1997. The imagined community of the Antankaraña: Identity, history, and ritual in northern Madagascar. Journal of Religion in Africa 27(3):308-333.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tsimihety,
Northern,
Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana),

Excellent for insight into Antankarana group identity.

lambekmichael 2001Lambek, Michael. 2001. Reflections on the "ethno-" in Malagasy ethnohistory. Ethnohistory 48(1-2):301-308.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

In this short paper, Michael Lambek summarizes the contributions of the different participants to the 48th volume of Ethnohistory dedicated to Madagascar. He also does not clear up the fuzziness surrounding ethnicity in Madagascar, but calls for boldness among Malgachisants to make comparisons with African and insular Southeast Asian situations, to apply common paradigms, analyse and make statements, ready to be taken on for those by others. Lambek makes a convincing point for ambiguity being central to social life. He says that "the ambiguity inherent in social life and the unrationalized and multiple forms of personal and collective identity throw into question what is meant by ethnos and ethnicity" (304) and challenges the assumption "that at some level identity is not simply articulated contextually, but categorically" (304).

Selected quotes:

  • One answer may be that ethnic groups and boundaries are clarified by distinct languages, or at least that mutually unintelligible languages can readily serve as the signs to realize ethnicity. In this respect, Madagascar is different from the states of continental Africa. Even tiny Mayotte has mutually distinct languages, though not distinct ethnic groups, I have argued (Lambek 1995) (304).

lambertwallace&gardnerrc&oltonr&tunstallk 1968Lambert, Wallace, R. C. Gardner, R. Olton, and K. Tunstall. 1968. A study of the roles, attitudes and motivation in second-language learning. In Readings in the sociology of language, 473-491, edited by Joshua A. Fishman. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

landryrodrigue&bourhisrichardyvon 1997Landry, Rodrigue, and Richard Yvon Bourhis. 1997. Linguistic landscape and ethnolinguistic vitality. Journal of language and social psychology 16(1):23-50.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

lanehartsonjal 1996Lanehart, Sonja L. 1996. The language of identity. Journal of English linguistics 24(4):322-332.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

laponceja 1987Laponce, J. A. 1987. Languages and their territories. Translation and new ed of "langue et territoire". Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Dialectology,
Sociolinguistics,

Selected quotes:

  • (.) the modern state (.) is 'glossophagic' (Calvet 1974)-destructive of its minority language (4).

larsonpierm 1996Larson, Pier M. 1996. Desperately seeking 'the Merina' (central Madagascar): Reading ethnonyms and their semantic fields in African identity histories. Journal of Southern African Studies 22(4):541-560.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

In this paper the building blocks of ethnic identity are discussed against a background of ethnological theory. The clear argument of the author lends itself to application to many ethnic identity-related situations.

Selected quotes:

  • Ethnic identities rarely come full-blown, they are made, often from the building blocks of named, pre-existing identities. The nature of named identities shifts over time (.).Shallowly read, then, identity names are empty vessels designating bounded and classified sets of people in local cultural taxonomies yet offering few immediate clues to the nature of the collective consciousness they contain. The signifier is of less social and historical significance than the signified (.).
    'Ethnonyms', therefore, are not always ethnonyms. They may designate full-blown identities, nascent ones or even point to identities of an altogether different nature (.) (558).
  • The fact that the meaning of identity signifiers constantly shifts raises the simple but all too often ignored question of what ethnic identity actually is and when a shifting identity crosses the border into a consciousness that we can confidently label as ethnic. Historians are unlikely to come to agreement on this issue, not least because borders of identity are never neatly drawn and ethnicity is an elusive abstraction to define with precision or in a universally applicable manner (.). What, for example, really differentiates Merina political consciousness from Merina ethnic consciousness?(559).
  • Consciousness itself derives from the cognitive capacity of humans to reflect on themselves, their behaviour, and their relationship to other humans and their environment. Collective consciousness therefore becomes a sort of corporate self-concept as the group's reflection is moulded and articulated from within and without, ever in an interested fashion.The content and character of consciousness within what Bill Bravman calls 'communities of belonging' (1994) are neither unproblematically ascertained nor neatly differentiated along political, ethnic, religious, social, clan or national lines. Ethnic belonging (ethnicity), however, normally entails a purposeful, interested collective consciousness of common descent and kinship, a claim to 'natural' belonging on the basis of certain linguistic, cultural or physical characteristics, or even on a set of attitudes and behaviours. A political consciousness (i.e. that which designates the sense of belonging to a polity) may express itself through a similar set of articulating institutions-such as through collective ritual, versions of corporate history, visual and verbal imagery, or clothing-and is similarly imagined and moralized, but its referent identity should not be analytically equated with ethnicity. Political identities channel loyalty toward administrative communities; ethnic identities toward communities of imagined kinship that assume a certain independence from formal structures of power and politics. When political identities successfully draw diverse peoples into a synthesized cultural/symbolic system they tend to generate an emergent ethnic or national consciousness(559).
  • While communities of belonging are relevant to the everyday lives of their members, whether scholars characterize that 'belonging' as ethnic or political might seem of little import. Yet the attempt to discern differences and shifts in the nature of belonging change as the type of belonging itself shifts, hence influencing the social relationships people entertain, expect or can mobilize (559).
  • Investigating the semantic fields of 'names of belonging' is the single most effective tool for determining such qualitative identity shifts (560).
  • Finally, the Merina case demonstrates that ethnic identity can be created and transformed outside of a colonial context. Ethnogenesis is not simply a function of colonial rule (560).

ledwellbrownjane&diaspatrickx 1994Ledwell-Brown, Jane, and Patrick X. Dias. 1994. The way we do things here: The significance of narratives in research interviews. Journal of Business and Technical Communication 8(2):165-186.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Linguistics,

leel 1970Lee, L. 1970. A screening test for syntax development. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders 35:103-112.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

leesrobertb 1965Lees, Robert B. 1965. Two views of linguistic research. Linguistics 11:21-29.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

legersylvie 1996Léger, Sylvie. 1996. Vers un agenda linguistique: Regard futuriste sur les nations unies/ towards a language agenda: Futurist outlook on the united nations. Actes du deuxième colloque/ proceedings of the second conference, university of ottawa, 25-27 may 1995. Ottawa: Centre Canadien des droits linguistiques, Université d'Ottawa.

language(s):
French, English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,

lehmannwinfredp 1963Lehmann, Winfred P. 1963. Historical linguistics: An introduction. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
History,

levinehalb 1999Levine, Hal B. 1999. Reconstructing ethnicity. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 5(2):165-181.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

leyewzelealem 1998Leyew, Zelealem. 1998. An Ethiopian language on the verge of extinction: K'Emant, a preliminary sociolinguistic survey. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 134:69-84.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Research,

liebersonstanley 1980Lieberson, Stanley. 1980. Procedures for improving sociolinguistic surveys of language maintenance and language shift. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 25:11-27.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

litteralrobert 1999aLitteral, Robert. 1999a. Four decades of language policy in Papua New Guinea: The move towards the vernacular. SIL Electronic Working Papers. SIL. First presented in absentia at the annual meeting of the Linguistic Society of Papua New Guinea in June, 1995.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Research,

This paper gives an historical overview of a shift in language policy which took place in Papua New Guinea over four decades, starting with post-colonial trends, developing from centralised colonial to centralised national to decentralised to multilevel decision-making.

litteralrobert 1999bLitteral, Robert. 1999b. Language development in Papua New Guinea. SIL Electronic Working Papers. SIL. This paper, originally titled Language Development in Papua New Guinea, Cheaper by the hundreds, was first presented by Dr. Robert Litteral in 1993 as a special lecture sponsored by the Linguistics Department of the University of Texas at Arlington.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Research,

In this paper, Robert Litteral describes the case of PNG language policies where vernacular education in 250 out of 850 languages initially seemed viable and beneficial; and he presented a strong argument for mother tongue education (as well as a serious challenge for developing a national system). From the PNG experience, he re-evaluates some assumptions in sociolinguistics, in particular, those put forward by Fasold. As a case study, the PNG example points to potential solutions for multilingual nations.

lojacomofrancois 1986Lo Jacomo, François. 1986. Plurilinguisme et communication. Paris: Société d'Etudes Linguistiques et Anthropologiques de France.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

lunthoraceg 1962Lunt, Horace G. (ed.) 1962. Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Linguistics. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

mackeywilliamf 1983Mackey, William F. 1983. Sociolinguistics: The past decade. In Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Congress of Linguists, 39-51, edited by Shirô Hattori, and Kazuko Inoue. Tokyo: Proceedings Publishing Committee.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
History,

mackjohn 1986Mack, John. 1986. Madagascar: Island of the ancestors. London: British Museum Publications Limited.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Easy reading; interesting ethnographic information. Divided into two parts:
1. The ancestors of the Malagasy (history).
2. The living and the dead (anthropology).

macnamarajohn 1971Macnamara, John. 1971. Successes and failures in the movement for the restoration of Irish. In Can language be planned?, 65-94, edited by Joan Rubin, and Bjørn H. Jernudd. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

mahajobom&rajaonarimanananarivelo 1988Mahajobo, M., and Narivelo Rajaonarimanana. 1988. Régis Rajemisa-Raolison, rakibolana Malagasy. Dictionnaire malgache-malgache, Fianarantsoa, Ambozontany, 1985. In Linguistique de Madagascar et des Comores. Etudes Océan Indien 9, 236-248, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

mahajobom 1992aMahajobo, M. 1992a. Jean Paulhan: Hain-teny Merina. Poésies populaires malgaches, recueillies et traduites par J. Paulhan. Antananarivo: Foi et justice, 1992, 239p. In Le scribe et la grande maison. Etudes Océan Indien 15, 287, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

mahajobom 1992bMahajobo, M. 1992b. Leonard Fox: Hainteny. The traditional poetry of Madagascar (.) Lezisburg: Bucknell university press, 1990, 464p. In Le scribe et la grande maison. Etudes Océan Indien 15, 285-286, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

mahajobom 1992dMahajobo, M. 1992d. Une traduction ocuménique du nouveau testament en malgache. In Le scribe et la grande maison. Etudes Océan Indien 15, 269-282, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

This review of the DIEM translation of the New Testament in Madagascar provides many insights into the result of the translation, illustrated with examples from previous Malagasy translations of the Bible, as well as from the French, always comparing the example with the original Greek text. The author discusses the opposing traits of translations done according to a principle of "équivalence formelle" which gives a kind of "mot à mot," concording, translation, and the principle of "équivalence dynamique," where the translation of the original text is done by using inherent characteristics of the target language to clarify the message.

maherjulianne 1984Maher, Julianne. 1984. Sociolinguistic factors in the direction of language change. Language Problems and Language Planning 8(3):281-293.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
History,

A study of language change where the speech community is cut off from the standard variety: "Languages spoken in enclave communities tend to take on lives of their own."

malzacvictorin 1908Malzac, Victorin. 1908. Grammaire malgache. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Catholique.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

malzacvictorin 1926 1893Malzac, Victorin. 1926 (1893). Dictionnaire Français-Malgache. Paris: Societé d'Editions géographiques, maritimes et coloniales.

language(s):
French, Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

malzacvictorin 1950Malzac, Victorin. 1950. Grammaire malgache. Paris: Societé d'Editions géographiques, maritimes et coloniales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

manasterrameralexis 1992Manaster-Ramer, Alexis. 1992. Malagasy and the topic/subject issue. Oceanic Linguistics 31(2):267-279.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

This study presents Malagasy as a type of language between English and Tagalog on the issue of topic/subject and the author proposes a modification(s) to the typology developed by Schachter, namely that "(a) languages can either have topics or not (.), (b) in English there is no topic, (c) in Malagasy the subject is also the topic, (d) the Malagasy subject cannot be identified with the actor (.), (e) hence, in Tagalog the nominal that possesses role prominence (.) must be analyzed as subject (.). Thus, English has subjects and no topics, Malagasy has subjects that are also topics, and Tagalog distinguishes topics and subjects (that are also actors).

manjakaherybarthelemy 1986Manjakahery, Barthélémy. 1986. Les vallées de l'ltomampy dans l'histoire des hautes terres méridionales. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 23-24:169-178.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

Manjakahery discusses here the history of the Itomampy valleys, known as the Eastern limit of Ibara. He clarifies the historical role of the Ivondro, where life is centred around the Itomampy river, the land of the Bara Antevondro. The term Tevondro or Antevondro is a geographical indication, meaning the Bara people who settled in the Tevondro region and includes the Manambia, Zafimarosoa, Zafimarozaha and many others. Concerning language, the author refutes the notion that the Antevondro are separate from the other Bara people because their dialect is close to that of the Antesaka and so differs from Bara "mikaty". He believes that these linguistic differences cannot be seen as ethnic markers, because, according to him "un Bara est avant tout Zafindrendriko, Zafimarosoa, Zafimagnely ou Zafimarozoha avant d'être Bara Antevondro, Bara-Be, Bara Vinda ou Bara Imamono" (171). This idea confirms what we have found during field research, namely that language variety and ethnic identity are sometimes at variance with each other. It is clear from history that the names Bara Vinda, Bara Imamono, etc are secondary to Bara identity.
Manjakahery then describes what is known concerning the role of the Itomampy area in the ancient migrations from the fifteenth century onwards, nothing being known on the issue before that time. He is certain that the ancestors of the Zafimagnely passed through the Ivondro region, staying there for an extended period of time before they took on their final migration towards the prairies of the West. There is also evidence for the establishment of the Bara Manambia in the area, originally from the mouth of the Menarandra. One branch of Manambia in the Ivondro at one stage was the Zafipanolaha. The Zafindravola were also established in the Itomampy before emigrating westwards There is oral evidence about the Zafimarozaha who came from Matsakafasy in Karianga, east of Ivohibe, the Zafipanolaha at Bekifafa, and the Zafimarosoa at Tanandava. The Zafimarozaha, before coming to the Itomampy, lived on the banks of the Mananara at Besavoa.
During the 19th century the Manambia, Zafimarosoa, Zafimarozaha are mostly found in the vast western prairies, beyond the Ivakoany for reasons of better pastures and perhaps also because of Merina penetration of the Ivondro, from the north.

Selected quotes:

  • Pour en revenir aux Antevondro, il est encore un fait qui ne manque pas de nous laisser perplexe c'est que d'aucuns associent le terme d'Antevondro ou Tevondro à une notion ethnique, voire tribale. A vrai dire, celle-ci est une simple notion géographique sans plus, pour désigner ceux des Bara qui sont restés dans l'Ivondro, voire ceux qui continuent d'entretenir des relations avec les parents qui sont restés là-bas. C'est à ce titre par exemple qu'on appelle Antevondro les Manabia, les Zafimarosoa, les Zafimarozaha et beaucoup d'aautres encore. D'autre part, dans la même perspective, au niveaux du parler, on a cherché à distinguer l'Antevondro (comme étant une entité ethnique) des autres Bara par le fait que, parlant un dialecte proche de l'Antesaka, il est donc foncièrement différent du Bara "mikaty," c'est-à-dire avec un parler dans lequel le phénomène "TS" (interdentale spirante sourde) donne dans bien des cas "T" (occlusive dentale sourde). Exemple: ATSIMO (Bara antevondro) donne ATIMO (Bara mikaty). Toutefois, l'argumentation linguistique n'est qu'un leurre et ne fait que masquer une réalité qui est toute autre, car le parler n'est pas un élément distinctif de l'ethnie. De ce fait, on peut aisément passer de l'un à l'autre dialecte ("mikaty" et "non mikaty") car un Bara est avant tout Zafindrendriko, Zafimarosoa, Zafimagnely ou Zafimarozaha avant d'être Bara Antevondro, Bara-Be, Bara Vinda ou Bara Imamono (171).

manncharlesc 2000Mann, Charles C. 2000. Reviewing etholinguistic vitality: The case of anglo-Nigerian pidgin. Journal of Sociolinguistics 4(3):458-474.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

mannmichael&dalbydavid 1987Mann, Michael, and David Dalby. 1987. A thesaurus of African languages. A classified and annotated inventory of the spoken languages of Africa with an appendix on their written representation. London: Hans Zell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

Good information in introduction. Update needed.

martinetandre 1970Martinet, André. 1970. Eléments de linguistique générale. Paris: Armand Colin.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Linguistics,

martinetandre 1985Martinet, André. 1985. Syntaxe générale. Collection U. Paris: Armand Colin.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Linguistics,

mathiotmadeleine 1979Mathiot, Madeleine (ed.) 1979. Ethnolinguistics: Boas, Sapir, and Whorf revisited. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

maussmarcel 1947Mauss, Marcel. 1947. Manuel d'ethnographie. Paris: Payot.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

mazruialia 1968Mazrui, Ali A. 1968. Some sociopolitical functions of English literature in Africa. In Language problems of developing nations, 183-197, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

mbimapierreernest 1986Mbima, Pierre Ernest. 1986. Contact du français et du parler malgache-antekarana: Problèmes linguistiques. Master's thesis. CUT.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana),
Northern,

mcdadehl&lambde&simpsonma 1982McDade, H. L., D. E. Lamb, and M. A. Simpson. 1982. The use of elicited imitation as a measure of expressive grammar: A question of validity. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders 47:19-24.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

mcnamaratf 1988McNamara, T. F. 1988. Language and social identity: Israelis abroad. In Language and ethnic identity, 59-72, edited by William B. Gudykunst. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

menyukpaula 1964Menyuk, Paula. 1964. Comparison of grammar of children with normal and deviant speech. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders 7:109-121.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

menyukpaula 1969Menyuk, Paula. 1969. Sentences children use. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

michelandrianarahinjakalucienx 1986Michel-Andrianarahinjaka, Lucien X. 1986. Le système littéraire Betsileo. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,

millercarolynp 2000Miller, Carolyn P. 2000. Modifying language beliefs: A role for mother-tongue advocates? In Assessing ethnolinguistic vitality: Theory and practice. Selected papers from the third International Language Assessment Conference, 1997. SIL International: Publications in sociolinguistics, 167-187, edited by Gloria E. Kindell, and M. Paul Lewis. Dallas, Texas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

millerjonf 1973Miller, Jon F. 1973. Sentence imitation in pre-school children. Language and Speech 16:1-14.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

milroyjames 1992Milroy, James. 1992. Linguistic variation and change: On the historical sociolinguistics of English. Language in society 19. Oxford: Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

milroylesley 1987Milroy, Lesley. 1987. Observing and analysing natural language. A Critical account of sociolinguistic method. Language in society 12. Oxford: Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

moelionoantonm 1986Moeliono, Anton M. 1986. Language development and cultivation: Alternative approache in language planning. Translated by Kay Ikranagara. Pacific linguistics. Series A: Occasional papers 30. Canberra: Australian National University, Dept of Linguistics: Research School of Pacific Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

mohantyajitk 1994Mohanty, Ajit K. 1994. Bilingualism in a multilingual society. Central institute of Indian languages silver jubilee publication series. Mysore: CIIL.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

moletlouis 1954Molet, Louis. 1954. Les statuettes Bara de Iakora. Naturaliste Malgache 6:109-120.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

moletlouis 1972Molet, Louis. 1972. Origine et sens du nom des Sakalava de Madagascar. In Etudes de géographie tropicale offertes à Pierre Gourou, 341-355, edited by Marc Michel. Paris-La Haye: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

mougeonraymond&beniakedouard&valoisdaniel 1985Mougeon, Raymond, Edouard Beniak, and Daniel Valois. 1985. A sociolinguistic study of language contact, shift and change. Linguistics 23:455-487.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
History,

A study of the influence of English on Ontario French speakers. "It is shown that a high level of French is not a safeguard against grammatical influence from English, any more than maintenance of French on a par with English is a guarantee against simplification. This suggests that in a situation of UNSTABLE bilingualism, speakers may be unable to preserve the structural 'integrity' of the subordinate language."

mougeonraymond&beniakedouard 1991Mougeon, Raymond, and Edouard Beniak. 1991. Linguistic consequences of language contact and restriction. Oxford studies in language contact. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

Selected quotes:

  • This book is concerned with an increasingly popular aspect of the broad topic of linguistic change, namely change as it takes place in languages in contact, and more specifically, in what are commonly referred to as 'minority languages' (.)we understand the term 'minority language' not only in a prestige or social value sense, i.e. a language whose speakers are socio-economically disadvantaged with respect to those of a 'superordinate' language, but also in a demographic sense, i.e. a language whose speakers are in numerical inferiority in comparison with those of a 'majority' language (.).
    Bilingual speech communities provide linguists with a favourable and favourite laboratory to study the effects of language contact on linguistic structure, that is, the influence of one linguistic system on another, or what Weinrich referred to as 'interference' (.).
    Weinrich (1968:I): two or more languages will be said to be'in contact' if they are used alternately by the same persons. The language-using individuals are the locus of the contact.
    The practice of alternately using two languages will be called 'bilingualism' and the persons involved, 'bilingual'. Those instances of deviation from the norms of either language which occur in the speech of bilinguals as a result of their familiarity with more than one language, i.e. as a result of language contact, will be referred to as 'interference' phenomena. It is these phenomena of speech, and their impact on the norms of either language exposed to contact, that invite the interest of the linguist(1-2).
  • Martinet in his preface of Weinreich's book, (says) 'Contact breeds imitation and imitation breeds linguistic convergence. Linguistic divergence results from secession, estrangement, loosening of contact (.) (2).
  • Giacalone Ramat (1979:I): the 'interference model in the study of bilingual communities has proven to be insufficient'. This is evident in minority-language situations where speakers display a significant amount of restriction in the use of the minority language.
    (.) restricted users of a minority language may show a pattern either of compartmentalized language use (.) or of uncompartmentalized language use (as when the majority language is allowed to penetrate into these domains). Both kinds of speakers display restriction in minority-language use in comparison with monolingual speakers of the same language elsewhere but only the ones showing uncompartmentalized language use can be said to exhibit a shift to the majority language (2).
  • (.)bilingualism and restriction are overriding sociological processes that cut across the whole social spectrum and free the structural (intra-and/or intersystemic) forces at play (13).
  • (.) as Appel and Muysken (1987:I) put it, 'language contact inevitably leads to bilingualism', to which we would add 'and bilingualism may-but need not-be accompanied by more or less severe restriction of the original language', so that the linguistic effects of bilingualism are expected to manifest themselves first and separately from those of any ensuing restriction (at least in minority-language settings which involve prolonged contact with and gradual shift to the majority language).

mufwenesalikoko 2000Mufwene, Salikoko. 2000. Language contact, evolution and death: How language ecology rolls the dice. In Assessing ethnolinguistic vitality: Theory and practice. Selected papers from the third International Language Assessment Conference, 1997. SIL International: Publications in sociolinguistics, 39-64, edited by Gloria E. Kindell, and M. Paul Lewis. Dallas, Texas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
History,

A very clear, very factual exposition of the ideas of language as a species and how that ties into a language ecological perspective. Mufwene shows that the life of a language is "closely tied to the distribution of (its) hosts, which provide many of the essential environmental conditions necessary to (its) survival and reproduction" (44). The ecological features that have an effect on language are not necessarily physical attributes of its speaker-hosts, but "features of other parasitic systems that are hosted by the same individuals, such as culture (which brings along notions such as status, gender and power) and other language varieties"(44).

Selected quotes:

  • (.) the agents of language are individual speakers (43).
  • (.) approaching language as species makes it possible to capitalize on variation within a population, to highlight factors that govern the competition and selection processes (.) in a speech community, to pay particular attention to the linguistic behaviors of individual speakers, on whom selection operates, and thereby to understand language evolution better as we can make more explanatory uses of notions such as accommodation, networks of communication, and focussing (61).
  • (.) individuals who interact with each other, setting their respective features in competition with each other, and having to accommodate each other by dropping some features, or accepting new ones, or even by modifying their respective individual systems. Little by little, thanks more to lateral than to vertical transmission, linguistic features spread in a community and affect a whole language, often leading to a minor or serious reorganization of its system. Speciation into different subspecies (identified as dialects or separate languages, depending on the speaker's ideological inclinations) obtains when networks of communication have little contact with each other and make different selections even out of the same pool of features (44).
  • (.) language is more of the parasitic, more specifically symbiotic, than of the autonomous kind of species (44).
  • Knowledge of more than one language by the same speaker makes one linguistic system part of the ecology for the other, just as much as knowledge of competing structural features of the same language used by other speakers makes them part of the ecology for the speaker's own features. (The competing features may be phonological, morphological, syntactic, semantic or pragmatic) (45).
  • (.) overall, answers to diverse questions about language evolution, such as why a particular language was restructuured and in which specific ways, or why a particular language was/is endangered, are to be found in its ecology, both internal and external, and both structural and nonstructural (.). Linguistic systems seem to be rather osmotic; and no differences in kind of structural processes may be clearly associated exclusively with external or internal ecological factors (61).

muehlhaeuslerpeter&duttontom&hovdhaugeneven&williamsjeff 1996Mühlhäusler, Peter, Tom Dutton, Even Hovdhaugen, and Jeff Williams. 1996. Precolonial patterns of intercultural communication in the Pacific islands. In Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia and the Americas, 205-238, edited by Stephen A. Wurm, Peter Mühlhäusler, and Darrell Tryon. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
History,
Austronesian,

muehlhaeuslerpeter&harrerom 1991Mühlhäusler, Peter, and Rom Harré. 1991. Pronouns and people: The linguistic construction of social and personal identity. Applied Language Studies. Oxford: Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

muehlhaeuslerpeter&mcgregorwilliam 1996Mühlhäusler, Peter, and William McGregor. 1996. Post-contact language of western Australia. In Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia and the Americas, 101-122, edited by Stephen A. Wurm, Peter Mühlhäusler, and Darrell Tryon. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Austronesian,

muehlhaeuslerpeter&peaceadrian 2001Mühlhäusler, Peter, and Adrian Peace. 2001. Discourses of ecotourism: The case of Fraser island, Queensland. Language and Communication 21:359-380.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1974Mühlhäusler, Peter. 1974. Pidginization and simplification of language. Pacific linguistics. Series B: Monographs 26. Canberra: Australian National University, Dept of Linguistics: Research School of Pacific Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1978Mühlhäusler, Peter. 1978. Papuan pidgin English rediscovered. In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics, edited by Stephen A. Wurm, and Lois Carrington. Canberra: Australian National University, Dept of Linguistics: Research School of Pacific Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Austronesian,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1979Mühlhäusler, Peter. 1979. Growth and structure of the lexicon of new Guinea pidgin. Pacific linguistics. Series C: Books. Canberra: Australian National University, Dept of Linguistics: Research School of Pacific Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1980Mühlhäusler, Peter. 1980. Phases in the development of Tok Pisin. In Understanding bilingualism. Forum Linguisticum 27, 119-130, edited by Werner Hüllen. Frankfurt: Lang.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1981Mühlhäusler, Peter. 1981. The development of the category of number in Tok Pisin. In Generative studies on Creole languages, 35-84, edited by Pieter Muysken. Dordrecht: Foris.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Austronesian,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1984Mühlhäusler, Peter. 1984. Tracing the roots of pidgin German. Language and Communication 4:27-58.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1990aMühlhäusler, Peter. 1990a. 'Reducing' Pacific languages to writings. In Ideologies of language. Routledge politics of language series, 189-205, edited by John E. Joseph, and Talbot J. Taylor. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,

Mühlhäusler discusses what he terms "sociolinguistic problems that have resulted from the introduction of literacy into the Pacific area where, prior to the arrival of the Europeans, some 3000 languages were spoken" (189). He confesses to being radical, and to over-generalizing, but in so doing hopes to evoke productive reaction. His experience can be applied to the language situation in Madagascar, with some useful comparisons to be explored.

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1990bMühlhäusler, Peter. 1990b. Towards an implicational analysis of pronouns development. In Development and diversity. Language variation across time and space. Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington publications in linguistics 93, 351-370, edited by Jerold A. Edmondson, Crawford Feagin, and Peter Mühlhäusler. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1992aMühlhäusler, Peter. 1992a. Preserving languages or language ecologies? A top-down approach to language survival. Oceanic Linguistics 31(2):163-180.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Language ecology,
Sociolinguistics,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1992bMühlhäusler, Peter. 1992b. Redefining creolistics. In New departures in linguistics, 193-198, edited by George Wolf. New York: Garland Publishing.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1994aMühlhäusler, Peter. 1994a. Babel revisited. Unesco Courier 47(2):16-22.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

In this paper the author deals with the historical trend to view linguistic diversity as a negative and shows how two central views of the relationship between language and the world have shaped language policies. The one view is that language serves to map and label the world in which we live, hence, all languages are fully inter-translatable. The second view holds that different languages represent different perceptions of the world we live in. Linguistic diversity should be viewed as "an invaluable resource rather than an obstacle to progress" (17).

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1994bMühlhäusler, Peter. 1994b. What is the use of language diversity? Inaugural lecture. In The public face of linguistics, 16-22, edited by Peter Mühlhäusler. Adelaide: Centre for Language Teaching and Research.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1995aMühlhäusler, Peter. 1995a. On the effectiveness of language maintenance programs. In A review of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages Initiatives Program, 1-26, edited by Richard B. Baldauf Jr. Canberra: National Languages and Literacy Institute of Australia Limited.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1995bMühlhäusler, Peter. 1995b. The interdependence of linguistic and biological diversity. In The politics of multiculturalism in the Asia/Pacific, 154-162, edited by David Myers. Darwin: Northern Territory University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1996aMühlhäusler, Peter. 1996a. Linguistic adaptation to changed environmental conditions: Some lessons from the past. In Sprachökologie und ökolinguistik, 105-130, edited by Alwin Fill. Tübingen: Stauffenburg.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1996bMühlhäusler, Peter. 1996b. Linguistic ecology: Language change and linguistic imperialism in the Pacific region. London and New York: Routledge.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Language ecology,
Sociolinguistics,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1996cMühlhäusler, Peter. 1996c. Post contact languages in mainland Australia after 1788. In Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas 2, 11-16. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Austronesian,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1997aMühlhäusler, Peter. 1997a. Language ecology. Contact without conflict. In Language choices: Conditions, constraints, and consequences. Impact: Studies in language and society 1, 3-15, edited by Martin Pütz. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1997bMühlhäusler, Peter. 1997b. Pidgin and Creole linguistics. London: Westminster University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Applied linguistics,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1999aMühlhäusler, Peter. 1999a. Metaphor and metonymy in environmental advertising. Arbeiten aus Anglistik und Amerikanistik 24(2):167-180.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 1999bMühlhäusler, Peter. 1999b. Mind your language: Ecolinguistics as a resource for ecotourism. In Proceedings of the National Conference of the Ecotourism Association of Australia, Fraser Island, 1999.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 2000Mühlhäusler, Peter. 2000. Bleached language on unbleached paper. The language of ecotourism. In ECOnstructing Language, Nature and Society. The Ecolingustic Project Revisited. Essays in Honour of Alwin Fill. Stauffenburg Festschriften, 241-251, edited by Bernhard Ketteden, and Hermine Penz. Tübingen: Stauffenburg Verlag.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Language assessment,
Applied linguistics,
Research,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 2001aMühlhäusler, Peter. 2001a. Typology and universals of pidginization. In Language typology and language universals 2, 1648-1656, edited by Martin Haspelmath, Ekkehard König, Wulf Oesterreicher, and Wolfgang Raible. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 2001bMühlhäusler, Peter. 2001b. Universals and typology of space. In Language typology and language universals 1, 568-574, edited by Martin Haspelmath, Ekkehard König, Wulf Oesterreicher, and Wolfgang Raible. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 2002aMühlhäusler, Peter. 2002a. Language as an ecological phenomenon. The Linacre Journal: a Review of Research in the Humanities 5:61-68.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

muehlhaeuslerpeter 2002bMühlhäusler, Peter. 2002b. The ecology of languages. In The Oxford handbook of applied linguistics, 374-387, edited by Robert B. Kaplan. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,

muntheludvig 1969Munthe, Ludvig. 1969. La bible à Madagascar. Les deux premières traductions du nouveau testament malgache. Oslo: Egede Instituttet.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

muntheludvig 1978Munthe, Ludvig. 1978. Le manuscrit Arabico-malgache HB-4 à Paris. Acta Orientalia 39:127-179.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,

muntheludvig 1982Munthe, Ludvig. 1982. La tradition Arabico-malgache. Vue à travers le manuscrit A-6 d'Oslo et d'autres manuscrits disponibles. Antananarivo: Trano Printy Loterana.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,

muntheludvig 1985Munthe, Ludvig. 1985. La tradition Arabico-malgache et l'influence Indonesienne. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 21-22:57-59.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,

Selected quotes:

  • (.) je pense qu'il est important pour trouver l'identité malgache, de tourner maintenant le regard en direction de l'Est (59)
  • Le Sorabe étant une écriture phonétique, il permet de connaître la language malgache parlée autrefois. Si nous nous rappelons que le manuscrit sorabe le plus ancien connu a été enregistré en Europe au début du XVIIIè siècle, et qu'il peut être considérée comme une "bande magnétique" de la langue parlée à Madagascar au XVIIè siècle sinon au XVIè siècle, nous en comprenons l'importance (58).
  • Mes récentes études en Indonésie m'ont persuadé qu'on devrait s'y rendre pour trouver des réponses à certaines questions sur l'ancienne religion malgache (59).
  • A propos de l'Indonésie, on peut aussi poser la question de savoir si l'ancien nom donné à l'écriture arabico-malgache: sorabe, ne correspond pas à une soratra kely, plus ancienne, apportée d'Indonésie à Madagascar (59).

muyskenpieter 1980Muysken, Pieter. 1980. Generative studies on Creole languages. Studies in generative grammar. Dordrecht: Foris.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,

muyskenpieter 1985Muysken, Pieter. 1985. Twenty years of sociolinguistics? Sociolinguistics 15(2):12-19.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
History,

myersdavida 1995Myers, David A. (ed.) 1995. The politics of multiculturalism in Asia/Pacific. Darwin: Northern Territory University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

myersscottoncarol 1996Myers-Scotton, Carol. 1996. One way to dusty death: The matrix language turnover hypothesis. In Language loss and community response, edited by Lenore Grenoble, and Lindsay Whaley. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

myersscottoncarol 1998Myers-Scotton, Carol. 1998. Code-switching. In The handbook of sociolinguistics. Blackwell handbooks in linguistics 4, 217-237, edited by Florian Coulmas. Oxford: Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

naderlaura 1964Nader, Laura. 1964. A note on attitudes and the use of language. In Readings in the sociology of language, 276-281, edited by Joshua A. Fishman. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

naimann 1974Naiman, N. 1974. The use of elicited imitation in second language acquisition research. Working papers on bilingualism 2:1-37.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

nataliciodianas&williamsfrederick 1971Natalicio, Diana S., and Frederick Williams. 1971. Repetition as an oral language assessment technique. Austin, Texas: Center for Communication Research, School of Communication, University of Texas at Austin.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

nataliciodianas 1975Natalicio, Diana S. 1975. What characteristics can "experts" reliably evaluate in the speech of Black and Mexican-American children? In Papers on language testing 1967-1974, 164-171, edited by Leslie Palmer, and Bernard Spolsky. Washington, DC: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

navonegabriele 1977Navone, Gabriele. 1977. "Ny atao no miverina" ou ethnologie et proverbes malgaches. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

nekitelotto 1992Nekitel, Otto. 1992. Culture change, language change: The case of Abu'Arapesh, Sandaun province, Papua new Guinea. In Culture change, language change. Case studies from Melanasia. Pacific linguistics. Series C: Books 120, 49-58, edited by Tom Dutton. Canberra: Australian National University, Dept of Linguistics: Research School of Pacific Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

nettledaniel&romainesuzanne 2000Nettle, Daniel, and Suzanne Romaine. 2000. Vanishing voices: The extinction of the world's languages. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

nettledaniel 1998Nettle, Daniel. 1998. Coevolution of phonology and the lexicon in twelve languages of west Africa. Journal of Quantitative Linguistics 5(3):240-245.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
History,

nettledaniel 2000Nettle, Daniel. 2000. Linguistic fragmentation and the wealth of nations: The Fishman-pool hypothesis reexamined. Economic Development and Cultural Change 48(2):335-348.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

Selected quotes:

  • The fact that two variables have co-evolved in no way implies that manipulating one will affect the other in the desired direction (345).
  • Furthermore, there is little evidence that the ethnolinguistic situation of a country can be effectively manipulated, even if this is thought desirable and ethical; the experience of language planning is that it often fails and only succeeds where it is concordant with the spontaneous sociolinguistic preferences of most of the people. Indeed, it is likely that the economic situation will ultimately determine the linguistic one, since people respond to economic incentives not just in narrow monetary terms, but with broad patterns of often unconscious social-cultural choices that involve shifting their patterns of language use (346).
  • I have argued elsewhere that linguistic groups should be seen as systems of generalized exchange, and that linguistic diversity arises precisely where the scope of such exchange is limited. Money is another system of exchange, analogous to language in many ways, and we should not be surprised to find that the scope of one system is related to that of another. GDP will tend to be low where the economy is very local, people are self-sufficient, and transactions are nonmonetized. These are precisely the conditions required for high linguistic diversity. Large linguistic groups arise where there is more intense exchange over longer distances; GDP will be higher under such circumstances because more of the goods produced will enter the monetized market, and they will tend to travel further and to pass through more intermediaries, with the corresponding additions of value (340-1).

neustupnyjiriv 1968Neustupny, Jiri V. 1968. Some general aspects of "language" problems and "language" policy in developing societies. In Language problems of developing nations, 285-294, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,

newmeyerj 1988Newmeyer, J. (ed.) 1988. Language: The sociocultural context. Linguistics: The Cambridge survey 4. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

noiretfrancois 1993Noiret, François. 1993. Le mythe d'Iboina. Angano Malagasy. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

norbergmadlena 1994Norberg, Madlena. 1994. Small languages and small language communities, 16. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 107:149-158.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

The Sorbs are a linguistic minority of 67,000 speakers in Germany (South-East); They constitute the smallest West Slavic people. This article describes their history and present status.

Selected quotes:

  • I can only imagine the world with my ethnicity in place. Its disappearance signifies loss. Slowly but surely the impoverishment would be perceptible across the country's breadth. Perhaps even continentally and planetarily. One color less. Increase of greyness. One sound less, one language less. Increase of silence (156: quoted from Jurij Koch, 1992:42, Lower Sorbian Author).

nursederek 1983Nurse, Derek. 1983. A linguistic reconsideration of Swahili origins. Azania 18:127-150.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
Swahili,
Indian Ocean region,
History,

nursederek 1997Nurse, Derek. 1997. The contributions of linguistics to the study of history in Africa. Journal of African History 38:359-391.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Research,
History,

obrechtdeanh 1965Obrecht, Dean H. 1965. Toward automated phonological mapping. Linguistics 17:21-35.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

ollerjrjohnw&perkinsk 1978Oller Jr., John W., and K. Perkins (eds.) 1978. Language in education: Testing the tests. Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House Publishers.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

ollerjrjohnw&perkinsk 1980Oller Jr., John W., and K. Perkins (eds.) 1980. Research in language testing. Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House Publishers.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

ollerjrjohnw 1979Oller Jr., John W. 1979. Language tests at school. A pragmatic approach. London: Longman.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

ollerjrjohnw 1983Oller Jr., John W. (ed.) 1983. Issues in language testing research. Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House Publishers.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

oskarssonmats 1981Oskarsson, Mats. 1981. Subjective and objective assessment of foreign language performance. In Directions in language testing, 225-239, edited by John A. S. Read. Singapore: Singapore University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

ottinopaul 1982Ottino, Paul. 1982. Myth and history: The Malagasy "Andriambahoaka" and the Indonesian legacy. History in Africa 9:221-250.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Andriambahoaka,
Eastern,

A complicated, "meta-philosophical" treatment of the "Andriambahoaka cycle" to which the "historical" legends of Imerina seem to belong, itself "scattered fragments" of the Malay myth of origin.

ottinopaul 1986Ottino, Paul. 1986. L'étrangère intime. Essai d'anthropologie de la civilisation de' l'ancien Madagascar 1-2. Paris: Editions des archives contemporaines.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

ottinopaul 1992Ottino, Paul. 1992. Les discours oratoires kabary et les "joutes de paroles" hain-teny. In Le scribe et la grande maison. Etudes Océan Indien 15, 93-104, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

padenjohnn 1968Paden, John N. 1968. Language problems of national integration in Nigeria, the special position of Hausa. In Language problems of developing nations, 199-213, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

paesc&paesmc&rabedimyjeanfrancois&rajaonarimanananarivelo&velonandro 1991Paes, C., M.-C. Paes, Jean-François Rabedimy, Narivelo Rajaonarimanana, and Velonandro. 1991. L'origine des choses. Récits de la côte ouest de Madagascar. Antananarivo: Centre Foi et Justice.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Western,

pagerobertble 1968Page, Robert B. le. 1968. Problems to be faced in the use of English as the medium of education in four west Indian territories. In Language problems of developing nations, 431-442, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

pagerobertble 1998Page, Robert B. le. 1998. The evolution of a sociolinguistic theory of language. In The handbook of sociolinguistics. Blackwell handbooks in linguistics 4, 15-32, edited by Florian Coulmas. Oxford: Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

palmergaryb 1996Palmer, Gary B. 1996. Toward a theory of cultural linguistics. Austin: University of Texas Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

palmerleslie&spolskybernard 1975Palmer, Leslie, and Bernard Spolsky (eds.) 1975. Papers on language testing 1967-1974. Washington, DC: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

palmerleslie 1973Palmer, Leslie. 1973. A preliminary report on a study of the linguistic correlates of raters' subjective judgments of nonnative English. In Language attitudes: Current trends and prospects, edited by Roger W. Shuy, and Ralph W. Fasold. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Research,

paolybe 1969aPaoly Be. 1969a. Ny foko Bara. Lakroan'i Madagasikara 29 June-13 July.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

passinherbert 1968Passin, Herbert. 1968. Writer and journalist in the transitional society. In Language problems of developing nations, 443-457, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
History,

pattanayakdp 1981Pattanayak, D. P. 1981. Multilingualism and mothertongue education. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

paulstonchristinabratt&tuckergrichard 1997Paulston, Christina Bratt, and G. Richard Tucker (eds.) 1997. The early days of sociolinguistics. Memories and reflexions. SIL International: Publications in sociolinguistics. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
History,

paulstonchristinabratt 1987Paulston, Christina Bratt. 1987. Catalan and occitan: Comparative test cases for a theory of language maintenance and shift. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 68:31-62.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

Excellent background information on language maintenance and shift.

paulstonchristinabratt 1994Paulston, Christina Bratt. 1994. Linguistic minorities in multilingual settings: Implications for language policies. Studies in bilingualism 4. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,

paulstonchristinabratt 1997Paulston, Christina Bratt. 1997. Epilogue: Some concluding thoughts on linguistic human rights. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 127:187-195.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

CBP puts perspective into the potentially emotionally loaded issue of linguistic human rights as formulated in her conclusion: "before we rally around the battle cry of linguistic human rights, we need to work them out" (194). The issue is multi-faceted and complex and very practical. Each situation needs to be studied in its own right.

pecriauxbernard 1996Pécriaux, Bernard. 1996. Le sixième sommet de la francophonie (Cotonou, décembre 1995). Afrique Contemporaine 177:64-69.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

peressuttiu 1969Peressutti, U. 1969. Petit Dictionnaire Bara (Madagascar). Torino: Copisteria Magenta.

language(s):
Bara Malagasy, French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

perkinsk&angelispaulj&bruttensheilar 1986Perkins, K., Paul J. Angelis, and Sheila R. Brutten. 1986. Derivational complexity and item difficulty in a sentence repetition task. Language Learning 36(2):125-141.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

pfaffcarolw 1997Pfaff, Carol W. 1997. Contacts and conflicts: Perspectives from code-switching research. In Language choices: Conditions, constraints, and consequences. Impact: Studies in language and society 1, 341-360, edited by Martin Pütz. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

philippsongerard 1988Philippson, Gérard. 1988. L'accentuation du Comorien. Essai d'analyse métrique. In Linguistique de Madagascar et des Comores. Etudes Océan Indien 9, 35-79, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
Austronesian,

phillipsonrobert 1992Phillipson, Robert. 1992. Linguistic imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

phillipsonrobert 1993Phillipson, Robert. 1993. A symposium on linguistic imperialism. World Englishes 12(1):335-373.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

pizarromarc&veraelizabethm 2001Pizarro, Marc, and Elizabeth M. Vera. 2001. Chicana/o ethnic identity research: Lessons for researchers and counselors. Counseling Psychologist 29(1):91-118.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

plattjennifer 1986Platt, Jennifer. 1986. Functionalism and the survey: The relation of theory and method. Sociological Review 34(3):501-536.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Research methodology,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,

poiriercharles 1939Poirier, Charles. 1939. Notes d'ethnographie et d'histoire malgaches. Mémoires de l'Académie malgache 28. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

poiriercharles 1950aPoirier, Charles. 1950a. Ethnographie malgache. 2 Vol: 1. Sorcellerie médicale-magie-art, 2. aperçu sur la représentation de la femme et du bouf. Mémoires de l'Académie malgache 38. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Sakalava,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Bara,

Mixed with valuable information, almost unbearable colonialist propaganda, and opinionatedness which make this hard to read.

poiriercharles 1950bPoirier, Charles. 1950b. Généalogie des rois Maroseranana du sud de l'Onilahy. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 28:28-39.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,
Western,

poiriercharles 1950cPoirier, Charles. 1950c. Le damier ethnique du pays côtier Sakalava. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 28:23-28.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

The name "Sakalava" has been and still is used to classify many different clans and identities, as well as ways of speaking and customs practised across Western Madagascar. This paper provides some insight into who all are thrown into the Sakalava basket-forty-nine different principal clans are inventoried here, representing North and North-West Sakalava.

Selected quotes:

  • Tableau des quarante-neuf principaux clans aborigènes ou allogènes englobés sous la dénomination de Sakalava, tels qu'ils ponctuaient en 1916, la région côtière du nord de Madagascar, plus particulièrement celle de l'ancienne province d'Analalava (.).
  • A l'homogénéité de la population sakalava pure qui peuple la côte centre-ouest, du Fiherenana à la Betsiboka, s'oppose la composition clanique hétérogène des habitants de la côte Nord-Ouest (.).

poirierjean&dezjacques 1963Poirier, Jean, and Jacques Dez. 1963. Les groupes ethniques de Madagascar.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

This provisional report on a survey of ethnic groups in Madagascar mentions forty-eight groups having been found according to the subjective criterion of an informants' own idea of belonging. Even though the information provided represents only the first step in a study that for some reason was never followed up nor completed, it makes a very clear statement against the idea of the eighteen "tribes" of Madagascar. This study does not advance the idea of 48 "tribes," but was aiming to complete the initial results with field research, to verify whether these groupings represent fractions of larger, well-known groups or whether they can be seen as a truer representation of ethnic identity. The authors present an introduction to define and set out the perimeters of the initial research and then provide an inventory of the groups identified, with a short description of each, an estimation of their number, and their location concluding each description with a short bibliography. In three Annexes, the reader finds examples of groups that are mentioned in literature, but that have since disappeared, group names that do not indicate ethnic groupings, and thirdly, a listing of the elements that characterise Malagasy ethnic groups.

poirierjean 1964Poirier, Jean. 1964. La relation de l'homme au sol à Madagascar. Annales de l'Université de Madagascar, Série Lettres et Sciences Humaines 2:57-71.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

poirierjean 1974Poirier, Jean. 1974. Les groupes ethniques de Madagascar. Revue Française d'Etudes Politiques Africaines 100:31-40.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Professor Poirier speaks with insight of the Malagasy people among whom he spent many years. Though dating back substantially, he raises some issues in this paper that have still not been settled concerning ethnicity and ethnic groupings in Madagascar. The article paints in large strokes, some typifying characteristics of the different large group divisions of Malagasy people. A useful calculation of the population numbers Poirier quotes can be made by extrapolating his figures to the 1993 census, which found that the Malagasy population had doubled over the twenty-five years prior to that.

Selected quotes:

  • 'Il n'y a que des Malgaches'; c'est ce qu'on entend dire souvent à Madagascar aujourd'hui. Voux pieux, ou expression d'une unité nationale pleinement assumée'.
    En effet, il est nécessaire de marquer que les problèmes de "tribalisme" qui déchirent encore trop de pays africains n'existent pas, à ce niveau, à Madagascar: la Grande Ile est la seule des quelques quarante nations qui ont accédé à l'indépendance au cours des deux dernières décennies qui puissent se prévaloir d'une triple unité: géographique, linguistique et culturelle. C'est par rapport à cette unité que doivent être appréciées les disparités que tout le monde connaît, mais dont on évite de parler. Il serait vain, cependant, de sous-estimer l'importance des originalités locales: les ethnies (qu'on appelait autrefois très improprement "races"-du temps de l'ère coloniale-puis "tribus") sont nombreuses, beaucoup plus nombreuses que l'énumération officielle ne le laisserait croire: on compte vingt groupes qui servent de cadres aux comptages démographiques (voir infra l'inventaire). Mais en réalité, la population est différenciée en une cinquantaine d'ethnies, qui-on soulignerait le fait-présentent entre elles moins de divergences culturelles que les ethnies françaises du XIXe siècle (les Antandroy sont plus proches des Tsimihety et des sakalava que les Gascons ne l'étaient-ou ne le sont-des Bretons et des Alsaciens).
    L''analyse culturelle de ces groupes est loin d'être achevée; il faut espérer qu'elle pourra l'être avant l'effacement des caractères originaux qui font la richesse et la complexité de la civilisation malgache traditionnelle. Sur le plan ethnologique, on pourrait montrer facilement que les groupes ethniques constituent parfois-mais non toujours-une réalité subjective plus qu'une réalité objective : ils sont en effet diversifiés en sous-groupes, en familles culturelles façonnées par l'histoire de telle sorte qu'il arrive par exemple que deux sous-groupes d'une ethnie donnée soient plus proches entre eux que chacun d'eux ne l'est de son propre groupe. D'autre part, si l'on essaie de faire une typologie, on constate que les groupes se répartissent de manière différente selon que l'on considère la langue, l'habitation, les systèmes de parenté, les rituels funéraires . Il existe donc une osmose profonde faite de multiples imbrications et recouvrements, qui, là encore, traduit une situation très différente de celle de l'Afrique (31-2).

politzerrobertl&browndwight&palmerleslie&spolskybernard 1975Politzer, Robert L., Dwight Brown, Leslie Palmer, and Bernard Spolsky. 1975. A test of proficiency in Black standard and nonstandard speech. In Papers on language testing 1967-1974, 91-100, edited by Leslie Palmer, and Bernard Spolsky. Washington, DC: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

polomeedgar 1968Polomé, Edgar. 1968. The choice of official languages in the democratic republic of the Congo. In Language problems of developing nations, 295-311, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

pratorcliffordh 1968Prator, Clifford H. 1968. The British heresy in TESL. In Language problems of developing nations, 459-476, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

princeellaf 1987Prince, Ella F. 1987. Sarah Gorby, Yiddish folksinger: A case study of dialect shift. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 67:83-116.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

profitapietro 1978Profita, Piétro. 1978. La société malgache et ses valeurs ancestrales. Essai Ethno-Pastoral. Ambatondrazaka: Académie Malgache.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

profitappietro 2000Profita, P. Piétro. 2000. Malgaches et malgachitude. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,
Sihanaka,
Central,
Merina,
Betsileo,

proschanfrank 1997Proschan, Frank. 1997. "We are all Kmhmu, just the same": Ethnonyms, ethnic identities, and ethnic groups. American Ethnologist 24(1):91-113.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

pruttingca&connollyje 1976Prutting, C. A., and J. E. Connolly. 1976. Imitation: A closer look. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders 41:412-422.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

pruttingca&gallaghertm&mulaca 1975Prutting, C. A., T. M. Gallagher, and A. Mulac. 1975. The expressive portion of the NSST compared to a spontaneous language sample. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders 40:40-48.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

puetzmartin 1997aPütz, Martin (ed.) 1997a. Language choices: Conditions, constraints, and consequences. Impact: Studies in language and society 1. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,

puetzmartin 1997bPütz, Martin. 1997b. Language choices: Contact and conflict? Introduction. In Language choices: Conditions, constraints, and consequences. Impact: Studies in language and society 1, ix-xxi, edited by Martin Pütz. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,

quakenbushjohnstephan 1986Quakenbush, John Stephan. 1986. Language use and proficiency in a multilingual setting. PhD dissertation. Georgetown University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

rabaovololonalucieraharinirina 1997Rabaovololona, Lucie Raharinirina. 1997. Problèmes posés par les expressions ou idiomes dans la construction d'un dictionnaire d'usage bilingue. Cas de Vitasoa, dictionnaire français-malgache confectionné par le DIFP, université d'Antananarivo. Meta 42(2):346-355.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,

rabbeliere 1930Rabbelier, E. 1930. Folklore Bara Imamono. Capricorne 1-3:39-44, 71-75, 125-134.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Imamono,
Bara,
Southern,

rabemananjararw 1990Rabemananjara, R. W. 1990. Le culte des ancêtres à Madagascar. Madagascar Ocean Indien 1:79-99.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rabenilainarogerbruno&etal 1988Rabenilaina, Roger-Bruno, and et al. 1988. Ny fitsipiky ny teny 10. Antananarivo: FOFIPA.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rabenilainarogerbruno&etal 1989Rabenilaina, Roger-Bruno, and et al. 1989. Ny fitsipiky ny teny 11. Antananarivo: FOFIPA.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rabenilainarogerbruno 1970Rabenilaina, Roger-Bruno. 1970. Ny takahotsy eo anivon'ny karazan-dahateny Bara. Tahiry sy Remby 3(30):192-200.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

rabenilainarogerbruno 1974Rabenilaina, Roger-Bruno. 1974. Description morpho-syntaxique du Bara (Madagascar). I: Texte. II: Corpus. PhD dissertation. Université de Bordeaux III.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

Based on some texts he collected in 1968, the author elaborately analyses the Bara dialect, in terms of its morphological and syntactic characteristics. His write-up is very technical and is typical of structural linguistics, which was the trend at the time.

rabenilainarogerbruno 1983Rabenilaina, Roger-Bruno. 1983. Morpho-syntaxe du malgache. Description structurale du dialecte Bara. Langues et civilisations de l'Asie du sud-est et du monde Insulindien. Langues, cultures et sociétés de l'océan Indien 14. Paris: SELAF.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

rabenilainarogerbruno 1985Rabenilaina, Roger-Bruno. 1985. Lexique-grammaire du malgache. PhD dissertation. FOFIPA.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rabenilainarogerbruno 1987aRabenilaina, Roger-Bruno. 1987a. Fotopototry ny gramera Malagasy. Dinika sy Karoka Haiteny 1.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rabenilainarogerbruno 1987bRabenilaina, Roger-Bruno. 1987b. Les takahotsy, contes Bara des origines. In Contes et mythes de Madagascar et des Comores. Etudes Océan Indien 8, 57-95, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

rabenilainarogerbruno 1988Rabenilaina, Roger-Bruno. 1988. Roger Bruno Rabenilaina, lexique-grammaire du malgache: Constructions transitives et intransitives. In Linguistique de Madagascar et des Comores. Etudes Océan Indien 9, 249-252, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rabenilainarogerbruno 1991aRabenilaina, Roger-Bruno. 1991a. Construction du dictionnaire électronique du malgache parallèlement à celui du français. Communication au colloque international sur les industries de la langue, du 21 au 24 novembre à Montréal. In Actes du colloque international sur les industries de la langue, Montréal, 21-24 novembre 1990 1, edited by Office de la langue française et société des traducteurs du Québec.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rabenilainarogerbruno 1991bRabenilaina, Roger-Bruno. 1991b. Le verbe malgache. Paris: AUPELF/ UREF.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rabenilainarogerbruno 1991cRabenilaina, Roger-Bruno. 1991c. Voix et diathèse en malgache. Linguisticae Investigationes 15(2):325-335.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rabenilainarogerbruno 1993Rabenilaina, Roger-Bruno. 1993. L'intégration des différents parlers, signes manifestes de l'unicité de la langue malgache. In Language. A doorway between human cultures, 135-157, edited by Øyvind Dahl. Oslo: Novus Forlag.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Dialectology,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

This article is essential for a study of language planning in Madagascar. Because it was written fairly recently, it contains some recent language policies and decisions.

Selected quotes:

  • Il s'agit moins d'incorporation de nouveaux éléments à un système que d'établissement d'une interdépendance entre les parties d'un être vivant (135).
  • Si l'on veut que la langue malgache soit, (.) le premier outil de/du développement, il faut procéder à l'intégration des parlers par lesquels cette langue se réalise, c'est-à-dire établir l'interdépendance des diférentes variétés régionales qui conditionnent son existence même. Une telle intégration suppose qu'on accepte que chaque région, chaque hameau même, utilise son parler en toute quiétude, sans aucun complexe. Chaque Malgache se sentira alors dans sa peau, conscient de sa propre dignité et respectueux de celle des autres. La communion d'esprits ainsi favorisée sera source de solidarité dans et pour le développement du pays (135).

rabenilainarogerbruno 2000Rabenilaina, Roger-Bruno. 2000. Ny teny sy ny fiteny Malagasy. Antananarivo: SME.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

raberegis 1995 1928Rabe, Régis. 1995 (1928). Fitsimbinan'ain'ny razana hohatsarain'ny taranany. In Diagnostiquer et guérir à Madagascar. Etudes Océan Indien 19, 139-148, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

radimilahychantal 1981Radimilahy, Chantal. 1981. Migrations anciennes dans l'Androy. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 13-14:99-111.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

This paper contains much historical detail and information on Androy and its people, clans, migrations, and history. Archaeological discoveries during the latter half of the 1970's indicate that the area was inhabited since the tenth to eleventh centuries, by people with a particular culture.
The researchers were able to find precise information on two groups of Antandroy, namely the Andriamanary and the Afomarolahy - the first consisting of Andriamanary plus thirteen other groups, the second consisting of ten groups. For the rest, their list was already quite substantial for names of clans and sub-clans, but still incomplete. They obtained the information from mpisorona, i.e. the guardians of the hazomanga, since each different group identifies with their own hazomanga.
From what the researchers were told, all of these groups of Tandroy came from elsewhere, the unwritten memory dating migration to around the beginning of the 19th century, but the genealogies given pointing to the second half of the 17th century, when these migrations would have pushed the tompontany towards the North. Most groups presently living in the North and interior of Androy affirm their southern and south-eastern origin: Ranopiso-Fort Dauphin; some (the Tebekitro) say they came from the Midongy; others (the Antesomahy) from Betsileo. The inhabitants these migrants found were Tsihenimbalala, Bara and Tanala. (The Bara at a later date than the others). Some groups remained living in the area, but regrouped somewhere else, as in the case the author mentions of the Tanala of Antanandava-Ambiromena, who consider themselves Tandroy, but have kept their cultural identity.
The author mentions that the reasons for these migrations remain obscure, but that sometimes these were sociopsychological, where the people were fleeing evil spirits which are mentioned in traditions and ritual songs, such as the myths of the fanany (multi-headed serpent) and the kokolampo (a bad spirit which persecutes the people).
According to informants, the migrations were meant to be temporary, but circumstances forced them to establish themselves in the new areas, other than their place of origin. They retain a symbolical relationship through rites and customs, which, continues to influence them, even to the point that it produces in them an inner conflict between the desire to return to their land of origin and being forced to remain on "foreign" soil.
The sources of information for this study were mainly of an oral nature, undergirded in some instances by archaeological evidence, but the author stresses that written sources on ancient migrations are mostly insufficient or non-existing.

Selected quotes:

  • A l'heure actuelle, le pays antandroy forme un quadrilatère limité à l'ouest par le fleuve Menarandra, à l'est par une ligne partant de Tsivory vers Tranomaro et Ranopiso. La ligne passant par les villes Bekily-Beraketa-Tsivory constitue la limite nord.
    Les Antandroy divisés en de nombreux clans et sous-clans dont le nom est lié à l'histoire de l'entité, se regroupent selon trois grandes régions:
    -les Tahandrefa (à l'Ouest du Manambovo);
    -les Reneve (à l'Est du Manambavo);
    -les Tatimo (au sud) (100).
  • Les Andriamanary comprennent les Andriamanary à proprement parler, et 13 autres groupes: Tefanomboke, Tekonda, Tebelampy, Telanja, Temangaike (qui se divisent en deux: les Temangaikefoty et les Temangaikemainte), Tandavake, Terano, Telane, Tehelakelake, Tanandapary, Tsitaila, Tambanekile, Temaromena.
    Quant aux Afomarolahy, nous avons décompté 10 groupes: Antemafe, Zazafoty, Takobo, Temarokobo, Tsibontsoa, Tafakatse, Afondriatehake, Tezantelo, Tandaza.
    A part ces deux groupes, nous allons nous contenter de donner une liste des autres clans ou sous-clans avec, si possible, la région où ils sont installés. Nous espérons que des renseignements sur leurs subdivisions internes nous seront bientôt fournis. Ce sont:
    -dans la région d'Antanimora: les Tanalave, Afondriambata, Afomihala, Tananilahy, Tedoho, Tantsaha, Temafy;
    -dans le nord du pays: les antesomahy, Antedodo, Tandemby, Tafondratôke, Tefanoroke, Zafindravola, Tambanditse, Tsihenimbalala, Temanasa, Zafindratsiloke;
    -dans la région d'Ambovombe: les Tesevohitse, Tamparehitsy, Tezaha, Lamitihy, Teampoly, Temalaky, Sihanamena, Tanandrove, Tetsila, Temahatomotsy, Tezaha, Tetsimanato, Tambahy, Temarosiha, Tambotake, Tesampona, Temaroaloka, Tambaninato.
    Par ailleurs, un certain nombre de noms de groupes antandroy nous ont été cités sans que l'on ait pu nous indiquer leur localisation. Ce sont: les Tambolovohitra, Tambonitratroke, Tsimihina, Tebefeno, Sanameloke, Tampototse, Tebekitro, Sanamahie, Takitre, Antevahy, Anteady, Antekibo, Tandringy, Tampany, Antevato, Antandramenatse, Lavaheloke, Manitsine, Marolabo, Tsitemanindry, Fenovahoaka, Tambato, Tsihatrika, Tambohitse, Tanantampohitse, Zatomotry, Antesatry, Maroakalo, Befangitse, Hazoangatse, Sanamaka, Antetsimena, Mahaitampoe, Tevahe, Tevondro, Namotoa, Tamonto, Tambahy, Tesonona, Talomborona, Tambinany, Teafo, Tevahazo, Tananfindravoay, Tamboroho, Tsimanata, Tanalavondrove, Afondraosa, Afondralambo, Afondrasiloke, Anasosa, Milahea, Tsirangoto, Tanjeke, Tezano, Tsimihina, Tsirandrany, Tanatampoty, Antsesatry, Antekibo, Zatoafo.
    Ces différents groupes se reconnaissent à leur hazomanga-D'ailleurs, ces renseignements nous ont été donnés par les mpisorona, gardiens de hazomanga (101).
  • Ces différents groupes se reconnaissent à leur 'hazomanga' (101).
  • En plus, les traditionnistes disparaissent petit à petit et sont plus ou moins remplacés par des successeurs qui, à l'heure actuelle, nous communiquent ou interprètent les traditions selon leurs options politiques ou selon ce qu'ils pensent et croient être la nôtre (101).
  • Bien sûr, les Antandroy ou ceux qui habitent la région comme tous les autres Malgaches sont hospitaliers mais nous discernons quand même une certaine méfiaance vis-à-vis de nous qui ne faisons que passer et prétendons leur soutirer des informations concernant l'histoire de leur groupe, informations dont, somme toute, l'utilisation les laisse sceptiques (101).
  • En dernier lieu, insistons sur le caractère précieux mais relatif des données orales dont la crédibilité ne sera vérifiée que quand elles seront confrontées avec d'autres données, ou quand on sera certain des modes d'interprétation qui lui conviennent (101).
  • Les premiers occupants 'tompon-tany' de la région que ces groupes auraient trouvés seraient les Tsihenimbalala, les Bara, et les Tanala. Le refoulement de ces derniers vers le nord est chose certaine, car les traces de leur occupation sont attestées autant dans les traditions que par la présence de tombes anciennes.
    Il semble que les Bara soient venus après les Tsihenimbalala. En effet, en ce qui concerne la culture matérielle et en se basant sur les traditions orales, la présence des Bara semblerait bien plus proche des temps actuels.
    D'autres groupes considérés comme les premiers occupants par les Tandroy 'nouvellement' installés, vivent encore dans la région bien qu'ils aient été aussi refoulés par ces mêmes Tandroy et soient cantonnés dans certains villages. C'est le cas par exemple dans le Nord des Tanala regroupés dans le village d'Antanandava-Ambiromena. Ils se considèrent comme Tandroy mais gardent toutefois leur 'identité' culturelle.
    Ces mouvements de population auraient obéi à une loi de groupe et ne prennent jamais un aspect individuel.
    Les affirmations des Tandroy Tebekitro de Marovaho nous font savoir qu'ils ne sont pas d'origine Tanôsy mais que deux groupes ayant vécu ensemble ont quitté à peu près à la même époque la région de l'Anosy.
    Les groupes se sont déplacés en masse poussés par des raisons qui nous restent encore obscures.
    Les raisons évoquées sont souvent économiques, mais nous nous rendons compte qu'elles sont récentes. Quelquefois elles sont d'ordre socio-psychologique: fuir des esprits malveillants. Ainsi, nous en trouvons la trace dans les traditions et dans les cantiques: le mythe du 'fanany' (serpent à plusieurs têtes) et le mythe du 'kokolampo', un esprit maléfique qui persécute les populations (103).
  • Les résultats actuels montrent alors que l'intérieur et surtout la partie nord de l'Androy forme une zone de convergence de divers groupes ethniques: autrefois Tandroy, Bara, Tanôsy surtout, actuellement Betsileo et également Merina. Quoi qu'il en soit, la prédominance antandroy est chose évidente (103).
  • Au début, il semble que les migrants aient conçu leurs déplacements comme essentiellement temporaires. Mais les faits les ont obligés à s'établir loin de leur pays d'origine. Ce cas est vraiment indéniable pour le groupe des Antesomahy. Leur itinéraire forme une boucle. D'aiileurs, la tradition affirme qu'ils ont voulu revenir dans leur pays d'origine (les Hauts-plateaux). Ce désir n'a pu être satisfait. Serait-ce le même cas qui se serait produit pour les autres groupes? En effet, on ressent comme un déchirement chez les groupes, déchirement entre le désir toujours entretenu de revenir dans le pays d'origine et l'obligation de demeurer sur une terre "étrangère," entre la fidélité aux sources et les contraintes du pays natal.
    Le pays d'origine continue de rester, même symboliquement, en relation avec la terre d'origine. Toutefois, le fait de ne pouvoir ramener les parents et d'enterrer sur place rattachent à la terre d'immigration.
    L'"identité" est donc maintenue. C'est le cas des Tebekitro de Marovaho qui considèrent la terre où ils sont comme la leur, bien qu'ils avouent ne pas en être originaires.
    La persistance, le souvenir des coutumes et l'absence de relations autres que symboliques avec la terre d'origine ou les membres de la grande famille, nous laissent supposer que les migrations donc se sont effectuées depuis une époque très lointaine( 104-5).
  • Toutes les informations disent en effet que seuls les Tanôsy-Tatsimo savent forger depuis longtemps. D'autres moins sûres en attribuent la connaissance aux Tanala et aux Bara. Le groupe des Tebekitro de Marovaho reste alors un énigme. Ils se disent forgerons deouis leurs ancêtres. Ils viennent d'Anosy mais ne seraient pas Tanôsy. Leurs affirmations peuvent-elles être retenues? (105).
  • Les recherches sont donc à pousser du côté des Bara ou des Tsihenimbalala qui auraient autrefois peuplé l'Androy (105).
  • Le groupe des Temaroalaka d'Ambovombe nous posent un problème dont la situation peut nous aider à comprendre les autres groupes. En effet, ce groupe est antandroy par le parler mais Tanôsy par les us et coutumes. Et pourtant il se considère antandroy. Les données sociologiques et ethnographiques pourraient alors peut-être nous aider (106).
  • Le contacte entre les Antandroy nouveaux-venus et les groupes 'tompon-tany' qui s'est d'abord manifesté d'une manière violente, belliqueuse par affrontements, puis ensuite par un ralliement des anciens occupants, laissent supposer que les Tandroy avaient une organisation de groupe cohérente et solide par rapport à leurs adversaires.
    A l'heure actuelle, le groupe antandroy constitue un des groupes migrateurs les plus actifs. Avec les gens du Sud-Est, ils forment la majorité des travailleurs dans les régions de l'île qui demandent beaucoup de main-d'ouvre comme, par exemple, dans les plantations et les sucreries du Nord-Ouest de l'île.
    Ces migrations temporaires, une dizaine d'années tout au plus, peuvent prendre différents aspects: soit individuels, soit familiaux, soit claniques.
    La principale cause en est la recherche de l'argent qui permettra de regrouper un important troupeau de zébus lors du retour au pays, qui permettra aussi d'avoir du prestige et ainsi de construire des tombeaux grandioses. Il faut aussi noter l'existence des migrations plus durables, migrations qui concernent des groupes entiers de Tandroy qui ont voulu peut-être revenir au pays d'origine mais n'en ont pas eu la possibilité.
    Le genre de vie pour ces derniers peut changer de visage. De nomades, ces Antandroy sont devenu sédentaires. C'est le cas d'un groupe de Tandroy regroupés dans un village dans la région de Belo-sur-Tsiribihina et qui sont devenus riziculteurs (106).

radloffcarlaf 1991aRadloff, Carla F. 1991a. Avenues of acquisition of Urdu proficiency for Hindko-speaking women of Hazara division (pakistan). In Proceedings of the Summer Institute of Linguistics International Language Assessment Conference, Horsleys Green, 23-31 May 1989, 23-31, edited by Gloria E. Kindell. Dallas, Texas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,

radloffcarlaf 1991bRadloff, Carla F. 1991b. Sentence repetition testing for studies of community bilingualism. Summer institute of linguistics & the university of Texas at Arlington: Publications in linguistics 104. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Research methodology,
Research,
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,

An excellent comprehensive guide and description, logically set out, of the SRT method. It is easy to read and does not presume expertise on the part of the reader. Yet, the emphasis is on quality research methods and meticulous planning of a survey. This can be applied because of the clear instructions given.

Selected quotes:

  • The test itself is a measuring device that is so designed as to allow, within a reasonable timeframe, the testing of a sufficient sample of people so that the summary of their responses can be construed as a rough index of community characteristics of language proficiency (.) the relative ease of field application does not mean that the test is easy to construct or that the field implementation of the method is simple: good results necessitate meticulous planning and implementation (ix-x).

rahajarizafyantoinedepadoue 1960Rahajarizafy, Antoine de Padoue. 1960. Essai sur la grammaire malgache. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Catholique.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rahajarizafyantoinedepadoue 1969Rahajarizafy, Antoine de Padoue. 1969. Ny kabary. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rahajarizafyantoinedepadoue 1998Rahajarizafy, Antoine de Padoue. 1998. Ny ohabolana Malagasy. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

raharinirinarabaovololonarazanajohanylucie 1987Raharinirina-Rabaovololona, Razanajohany Lucie. 1987. Ny fehezan-teny sy ny fehezan-teny fototra. Dinika sy Karoka Haiteny 1.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

raharinirinarabaovololonarazanajohanylucie&ralalaoherivonybaholisoasimone 1988Raharinirina-Rabaovololona, Razanajohany Lucie, and Baholisoa Simone Ralalaoherivony. 1988. Endri-teny. Ny fifanoloana. Dinika sy Karoka Haiteny 1.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

raharinjanaharylala&velonandro 1995Raharinjanahary, Lala, and Velonandro. 1995. Proverbes malgaches en dialecte Masikoro. Collection repères pour Madagascar et l'océan Indien. Paris: L'Harmattan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Masikoro,
South-western,

Excellent source on Masikoro culture; useful introduction.

raharinjanaharysolo&mahajobom&vaovolodimby 1988Raharinjanahary, Solo, M. Mahajobo, and Dimby Vaovolo. 1988. Une enquête lexicostatistique sur les parlers Tanôsy et Tañalaña de l'Onilahy. In Linguistique de Madagascar et des Comores. Etudes Océan Indien 9, 171-183, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Research,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tañalaña,
South-western,
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,

raharinjanaharysolo 199Raharinjanahary, Solo. 199-