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Topics : Indian Ocean region : Madagascar

Topics : Indian Ocean region : Comores, Comorien

Topics : Indian Ocean region : Comores, Comorien : Shingazidja (Grande Comore)

Topics : Indian Ocean region : Comores, Comorien : Shimaorais (Mayotte)

Topics : Indian Ocean region : Comores, Comorien : Shindzwani (Anjouan)

Topics : Indian Ocean region : Comores, Comorien : Shimwali (Moheli)

Topics : Indian Ocean region : Swahili

Topics : Linguistics

Topics : Linguistics : Applied linguistics

Topics : Linguistics : Austronesian linguistics

Topics : Linguistics : Diachronic linguistics

Topics : Linguistics : Language assessment

Topics : Linguistics : Sociolinguistics

Topics : Linguistics : Malagasy language

Topics : Linguistics : Dialectology

Topics : Linguistics : Language ecology

Topics : Linguistics : Language planning

Topics : Linguistics : Translation

Topics : Religion

Topics : Religion : Missiology

Topics : Religion : Theology

Topics : Religion : Church history

Topics : Research

Topics : Research : Research methodology

Topics : Research : Qualitative research

Topics : Research : Quantitative research

Topics : Social sciences - other

abrahamsrogerd 1989Abrahams, Roger D. 1989. Black talking on the streets. In Explorations in the ethnography of speaking, 240-262, edited by Richard Bauman, and Joel Sherzer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

abramovitchhenry 1974Abramovitch, Henry. 1974. Sainte-Marie. Taloha 6:187-188.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Saint Mariens,
Eastern,
Betsimisaraka,

A very brief account, based on observations during the author's stay at Ile Sainte Marie, July-October 1973, touching on the history of the island, its name, the customs of reburial, circumcision, mitrambo and tromba.

abramsdominic&hoggmichaela 1988Abrams, Dominic, and Michael A. Hogg. 1988. Language attitudes, frames of reference, and social identity: A Scottish dimension. In Language and ethnic identity, 45-57, edited by William B. Gudykunst. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Research methodology,
Research,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

A study using matched guise techniques.

abulughodlila 1986Abu-Lughod, Lila. 1986. Veiled sentiments: Honor and poetry in a Bedouin society. Berkeley: University of California Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

adelaarkarlalexander 1995bAdelaar, Karl Alexander. 1995b. Une perspective linguistique sur les origines asiatiques des malgaches. In Cultures of Madagascar: Ebb and flow of influences. Working papers series 2, 39-46, edited by Sandra Evers, and Marc Spindler. Leiden: International Institute for Asian Studies.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,

agarmichaelh 1973Agar, Michael H. 1973. Ripping and running: A formal ethnography of urban heroin addicts. New York: Seminar Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

agarmichaelh 1994Agar, Michael H. 1994. Language shock / understanding the culture of conversation. New York: William Morrow and Company.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

alainjeanpaul 1993Alain, Jean-Paul. 1993. La religion des Sakalava, une étude du Pasteur Rajoharivelo, publiée dans la revue Fiainana (1931-1937). In Religions. Etudes Océan Indien 16, 125-143, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

Jean-Paul Alain discusses in this article the contribution to ethnological knowledge made by Rajoharivelo, a Lutheran pastor who worked among the Sakalava around Belo-sur-Tsiribihina towards the end of the twenties. He extensively documented his discoveries concerning Sakalava culture. Apart from direct observation, by attending different religious ceremonies at the 'hazomanga' and the phenomena of the 'tromba' and the 'bilo', Rajoharivelo also questioned particularly the elders concerning the origin and meaning of the different observances. His work was published in the revue Fiainana between 1931 and 1937. His contribution has value for ethnology as well as for historians of religion.
Alain further includes the original Malagasy text of part of Rajoharivelo's work, with a French translation thereof.
The part quoted contains information on particularly the 'hazomanga' (the sacrificial post).

Selected quotes:

  • Rabesihanaka serait le premier évangéliste malgache, élu par ses pairs, à partir annoncer l'évangile hors des frontières de l'Imerina (126).
  • 'Hazomanga' veut dire dans un premier sens l'autel des idoles mais il se traduit par 'bois sacré' ou 'bois sacralisé', ou encore lieu réservé pour apporter les offrandes aux ancêtres et aux idoles et à dieu, faits de bois de 'katrafay' ou d'un (autre) bois dur, le sommet taillé en pointe, ils vont par deux, plantés en ligne dans le sol. Ils mesurent à peu près un mètre ou un mètre et demi de haut; c'est à l'est de la maison du 'mpitana hazomanga' qu'ils sont plantés, et on y suspend la gorge du bouf (sacrifié) et on les enduit de sang (131).
  • Dans un deuxième sens 'hazomanga' signifie : la personne qui fait le service au pied du 'hazomanga', ou la personne consacrée pour faire le sacrifice; (137).

albrechtsendorte&faerchclaus&henriksenbirgit 1980Albrechtsen, Dorte, Claus Faerch, and Birgit Henriksen. 1980. Native speaker reactions to learners' spoken interlanguage. Language Learning 30(2):365-396.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

alexandrepierre 1968Alexandre, Pierre. 1968. Some linguistic problems of nation-building in Negro Africa. In Language problems of developing nations, 119-127, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

allardreal&landryrodrigue 1992Allard, Réal, and Rodrigue Landry. 1992. Ethnolinguistic vitality beliefs and language maintenance and loss. In Maintenance and loss of minority languages, 171-195, edited by Willem Fase, Koen Jaspaert, and Sjaak Kroon. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

allibertclaude&verinpierre 1993Allibert, Claude, and Pierre Vérin. 1993. Linguistique, archéologie et l'exploration du passé malgache. In Language. A doorway between human cultures, 29-38, edited by Øyvind Dahl. Oslo: Novus Forlag.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

allibertclaude 1992bAllibert, Claude. 1992b. L'île des femmes dans les récits Arabes. In Le scribe et la grande maison. Etudes Océan Indien 15, 261-267, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

allibertclaude 1993Allibert, Claude. 1993. Accouplements rituels ou fantasmes zoophiles? In Religions. Etudes Océan Indien 16, 171-179, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Wakwak,
Other,
Malagasy,

alvarezalbertroca 1995Alvarez, Albert Roca. 1995. Ethnicity and nation in Madagascar. In Cultures of Madagascar: Ebb and flow of influences. Working papers series 2, 67-83, edited by Sandra Evers, and Marc Spindler. Leiden: International Institute for Asian Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

This paper confirms what has been our experience with Malagasy ethnic identities, that while vague and difficult to define in some ways, they do exist and contradict the political ideology which holds that the Malagasy people all subscribe to a united national identity. While Malagasy group identities are not as clearly "developed" or as nicely (contrivedly) forced into moulds by outsiders as tribal-ethnic characteristics in Africa have been, Malagasy ethnic identities may have, as Alvarez suggests, remained vague because of the historical interference of colonialism at a time when Merina nationalism had just reached a peak, interrupting and confounding the natural development of different Malagasy identities in the context of a new threat from outside.
Alvarez discusses the differences between political choices and true group identity, which manifests itself in the "solidarity networks used by the population" (77).

Selected quotes:

  • Madagascar has often been seen as one of the few African countries without the ethnic problems that are now so much in evidence. It has one language, even if there is a wide variety of dialects; one culture, even if Malagasy societies have developed distinct ways of life; one people, even if the physical appearance and the origin of the populations are extremely diverse. All these factors, contained within the natural frontiers provided by an island, constitute the arguments for Madagascar's exceptional status (67).
  • (.)the unification and expansion of the Merina are inter-related processes. They are not, however, one and the same thing (72).
  • The fiercest opposition to the colonial conquest was located precisely in those regions which were out of Merina control, the west and south, that defended their own interests, not those of the Merina state or of a non-existent Malagasy nation (73).
  • The references for collective identities are multiple, heterogeneous and non-exclusive. Madagascar offers a number of examples of this pluri-identity and of the strategically different use that persons and groups can make of it. The different identities are inter-related and inserted in human relations. Hence, any survey of the current problems of Madagascar has to number ethnicity and/or nationality among them (82).

andersonbenedict 1991Anderson, Benedict. 1991. Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. London: Verso.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

andriamanjatorichard 1957Andriamanjato, Richard. 1957. Le tsiny et le tody dans la pensée malgache. Paris: Présence Africaine.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

andrianaivoarivonyrafolo 1985Andrianaivoarivony, Rafolo. 1985. Reflections sur la présence Tsimihety dans la région de Mananara Avaratra et de Maroantsetra. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 21-22:61-78.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tsimihety,
Northern,

andrianierenanaclementluc 1987Andrianierenana, Clément-Luc. 1987. Ny fiofohana sy ny fampifandraisan-drafitra. Dinika sy Karoka Haiteny 1.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

andrianierenanaclementluc 1988Andrianierenana, Clément-Luc. 1988. Ny tsikera ara-piofohana. Dinika sy Karoka Haiteny 2.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

andrianirinarivofq&mandihitsycyprien&odona&paesc&paesmc&velonandro 1989Andrianirinarivo, F. Q., Cyprien Mandihitsy, A. Odon, C. Paes, M.-C. Paes, and Velonandro. 1989. Tsimamanga et autres contes malgaches en dialecte Masikoro. Angano Malagasy. Antananarivo: Centre Foi et Justice.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Masikoro,
South-western,

anonymous ndAnonymous. n.d. Des droits coutumiers oraux "Bara". Province et préfecture de Tuléar. Sous-préfecture de Tuléar. Arrondissement administratif de Sakaraha.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

anonymous 1898aAnonymous. 1898a. Cercle des Baras. Journal officiel de Madagascar et dépendances 15(284):2252-2254.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

anonymous 1898cAnonymous. 1898c. Variétés. Mours et coutumes des Baras-Bé. Journal officiel de Madagascar et dépendances 15(286):2269-2270.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

anonymous 1901cAnonymous. 1901c. Tantara nampitondrain'olona avy any amin'ny Bara. Vaovao frantsay-malagasy 5(237):950.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

anonymous 1934Anonymous. 1934. Soavololonapanga (conte Bara recueilli par l'instituteur de Ranohira). La Revue de Madagascar 7:61-64.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

anonymous 1984Anonymous. 1984. Tongotra aman-tanana. Lakroan'i Madagasikara 57:2371-2372.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

anonymous 1989Anonymous. 1989. La foi et l'inculturation. La Documentation catholique 19 March:281-289.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

antaldavid 1998Antal, David. 1998. A linguistic odyssey: One family's experience with language shift and cultural identity in Germany and France. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 133:143-168.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

asantem&gudykunstwilliamb 1989Asante, M., and William B. Gudykunst (eds.) 1989. Handbook of international and intercultural communication. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

astutirita 1995aAstuti, Rita. 1995a. People of the sea. Identity and descent among the Vezo of Madagascar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,

astutirita 1995bAstuti, Rita. 1995b. "The Vezo are not a kind of people": Identity, difference, and "ethnicity" among a fishing people of western Madagascar. American Ethnologist 22(3):464-482.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,

aubertjeanmarie 1984Aubert, Jean-Marie. 1984. Inculturation de l'eglise Catholique dans le nord de Madagascar. PhD dissertation. Université de Paris-Sorbonne.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana),
Northern,

aubertjeanmarie 1986Aubert, Jean-Marie. 1986. L'inculturation de l'eglise Catholique dans le nord de Madagascar. Recherches et Documents 1:1-43.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana),
Northern,

ayachesimon 1979Ayache, Simon. 1979. Beyond oral tradition and into written history: The work of Raombana (1809-1855). In Madagascar in history. Essays from the 1970's, edited by Raymond Kent. Albany, California: Foundation for Malagasy Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

bakervictoriaj 1987Baker, Victoria J. 1987. Pitching a tent in the native village: Malinowski and participant observation. Bijdragen Tot de Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde 143:14-24.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Anthropology and ethnology,

banksm 1996Banks, M. 1996. Ethnicity:Anthropological constructions. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

banksstephenp 1988Banks, Stephen P. 1988. Achieving 'unmarkedness' in organisational discourse: A praxis perspective on ethnolinguistic identity. In Language and ethnic identity, 15-44, edited by William B. Gudykunst. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

barbiercle 1921Barbier, C. le. 1921. Contes et légendes du pays des Bara (sud-ouest de madagascar). Revue d'ethnographie et des traditions populaires 2(6):119-137.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

barbiercle 1922Barbier, C. le. 1922. Notes sur le pays des Bara-Imamono (région d'ankazoabo). Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 3:61-119.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

barejeanfrancois 1971Baré, Jean-François. 1971. Traits des organisations sociales des Sakalava du nord: Les biens et le pouvoir. Taloha 4:184-194.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Northern Sakalava,
Sakalava,
Western,

barejeanfrancois 1973bBaré, Jean-François. 1973b. Hierarchies politiques et organisation sociale à Madagascar. In Malgache qui es-tu?, 43-67, edited by Musée d'ethnographie de Neuchâtel. Neuchâtel: Musée d'ethnographie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

barejeanfrancois 1973cBaré, Jean-François. 1973c. Successions politiques et légitimité. L'exemple Sakalava du nord (1700-1800). Asie du Sud-Est et Monde Insulindien 4(4):91-114.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Northern Sakalava,
Sakalava,
Western,

barejeanfrancois 1978Baré, Jean-François. 1978. Pouvoirs des vivants et langage des morts. Idéologiques Sakalava. Paris: Maspéro.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

barejeanfrancois 1986Baré, Jean-François. 1986. L'organisation sociale Sakalava du nord: Une récapitulation. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 353-392, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Northern Sakalava,
Sakalava,
Western,

baron 1896Baron. 1896. The Bara. The Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine 2(5):82-84.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

barthf 1959Barth, F. 1959. Political leadership among the Swat Pathans. London school of economics monographs on anthropology. London: London School of Economics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

barthf 1969Barth, F. 1969. Ethnic groups and boundaries. London: Allen & Unwin.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

bassoellenb 1992Basso, Ellen B. 1992. Contextualization in Kalapalo narratives. In Rethinking context: Language as an interactive phenomenon, 253-269, edited by Alessandro Duranti, and Charles Goodwin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

bassokeithh&selbyharrya 1976Basso, Keith H., and Harry A. Selby (eds.) 1976. Meaning in anthropology. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

bassokeithh 1976Basso, Keith H. 1976. "Wise words" of the western Apache: Metaphor and semantic theory. In Meaning in anthropology, 93-121, edited by Keith H. Basso, and Harry A. Selby. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

bassokeithh 1984Basso, Keith H. 1984. "Stalking with stories": Names, places, and moral narratives among the western Apache. In Text, play and story, 19-55, edited by Edward M. Bruner. Washington, DC: AES.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

bassokeithh 1990bBasso, Keith H. 1990b. Western Apache language and culture: Essays in linguistic anthropology. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

bastardej 1898bBastard, E.-J. 1898b. Voyage chez les Sakalaves du sud-ouest et chez les Bares. In Compte rendu des seances de la Société de Géographie et de la commission centrale, 275-281, edited by Société de géographie et de la commission centrale. Paris.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,
South-western,

bastardej 1899Bastard, E.-J. 1899. Mission chez les Mahafaly. Colonie de Madagascar. Notes, Reconnaissances, Explorations 3(5):480.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

bastardej 19041905Bastard, E.-J. 1904-1905. Les mémoires d'un roi Bara. La Revue de Madagascar 6(11-12),7(3-4).

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

baumannhermann 1975Baumann, Hermann (ed.) 1975. Die Völker Afrikas und ihre traditionellen Kulturen. Allgemeiner Teil und südliches Afrika. Studien Zur Kulturkunde 34. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

baumanrichard&sherzerjoel 1989Bauman, Richard, and Joel Sherzer (eds.) 1989. Explorations in the ethnography of speaking. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

beaugranderobertde&colbybenjaminn 1979Beaugrande, Robert de, and Benjamin N. Colby. 1979. Narrative models of action and interaction. Cognitive Science 3:43-66.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,
Linguistics,

beaugranderobertde&dresslerwolfgang 1981Beaugrande, Robert de, and Wolfgang Dressler. 1981. Introduction to text linguistics. London and New York: Longman.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,

beaujardphilippe 1983Beaujard, Philippe. 1983. Princes et paysans. Les Tanala de l'Ikongo. Un espace social du sud-est de Madagascar. Paris: L'Harmattan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

beaujardphilippe 1988Beaujard, Philippe. 1988. Les manuscrits arabico-malgaches (sorabe) du pays antemoro. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 28:123-150.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,

beaujardphilippe 1991Beaujard, Philippe. 1991. Mythe et société à Madagascar (Tañala de l'Ikongo). Le chasseur d'oiseaux et la princesse du ciel. Paris: L'Harmattan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

beaujardphilippe 1992Beaujard, Philippe. 1992. Le "roi" et le devin. Réflections à partir d'un chef politique Anakara. In Le scribe et la grande maison. Etudes Océan Indien 15, 137-176, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

beaujardphilippe 1992aBeaujard, Philippe. 1992a. Islamisés et systèmes royaux dans le sud-est de Madagascar : les examples antemoro et tañala. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:235-286.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,
Tanala (Antanala),

beaujardphilippe 1995Beaujard, Philippe. 1995. La violence dans les sociétés du sud-est de Madagascar. Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines 35:563-598.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,
South-eastern,

This article addresses certain characteristics of Tanala society, specifically the Tanala d'Ikongo and also touches on the Antemoro. It deals with recent changes in the Tanala society.

bellwoodpeter&foxjamesj&tryondarrell 1995Bellwood, Peter, James J. Fox, and Darrell Tryon. 1995. The Austronesians: Historical and comparative perspectives. Canberra: Australian National University, Dept of Anthropology.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,

This is an excellent source for gaining an overview of Austronesian history, language and culture. The subtitle indicates that it deals with "Historical & Comparative Perspectives." On Madagascar, K.A. Adelaar's contribution deserves mention (77-82). Adelaar discusses Dahl's contribution to the understanding of the origins of the Malagasy language and then continues to mention some of his own findings. Tom Dutton (194-196) gives a good summary of the effects of language contact, in general.

Selected quotes:

  • Dahl (1951, 1977) showed that Malagasy, the Austronesian language spoken as a number of dialects by almost all inhabitants of Madagascar, belongs to the Southeast Barito subgroup, the other members of which (Maanyan, Samihim, Dusun Malang, Dusun Witu, Dusun Deyah and Paku) are spoken in the southeastern part of Borneo. Dahl observed that Malagasy has a relatively small number of Sanskrit loanwords in comparison to the large numbers in some Indonesian languages. According to him, this indicated that the East Barito migrants to Madagascar must have left their homeland only just after Indian influence had begun to affect the Indonesian languages and cultures. Considering the fact that Indian linguistic influence in Indonesia can be traced to a date as far back as the fifth century AD, Dahl concluded that the migration must have taken place at this time or slightly after. He does not explicitly consider the possibility of influence from other Austronesian languages.
    The first extensive studies of such influence (Adelaar 1989, 1991a and in press) show that there are many Malay loanwords in Malagasy, and that there are also a number of loanwords from Javanese. Malay and Javanese were also the vehicular languages for the Sanskrit vocabulary in Malagasy. Thus, none of the Sanskrit loanwords support the assumption of direct Indian influence on the Malagasy language. This has an important consequence for Dahl's date of the migration to Madagascar: as all Sanskrit influence in Malagasy was channelled through Malay and Javanese, we should postdate the migration to the first Malay and Javanese influence on Malagasy, although it is likely that it happened at least two centuries later than the fifth century AD. The borrowed material also gives us information on the nature of the influence of Malays and Javanese on the migrating East Barito speakers, influence that must have begun some time before the migration, and that must have lasted until a considerable time afterwards.
    Generally speaking, the Malay and Javanese loanwords belong to all sorts of semantic domains. But Malay loanwords are particularly well represented in the domain of maritime life and navigation (.). Loanwords are also often found in the domain of plant names and in metallurgic terminology (.).
    Higher numerals and calendrical terms are originally Malay and/or Javanese adaptations of Sanskrit terms. Sanskrit loanwords came into Malagasy via Malay or Javanese, as their shape or meaning often betray (.).
    That these terms were borrowed via Malay and Javanese is supported by the fact that, of all Sanskrit loanwords in Malagasy (at least 35 in total), there is only one word that is not also found in Malay or Javanese.
    A large part of the vocabulary for body-parts in Malagasy was originally Malay or Javanese (.).
    The Malagasy have a pre-colonial writing system, which is an adapted form of the Arabic script. The writing system is called Sorabe, which derives from soratra 'writing' and be 'big'. The name Sorabe and some of the adaptations in its system indicate that the concept of writing, and possibly also the the actual writing system of the Malagasy, were introduced by Southeast Asians, and probably Javanese (.).
    (If the Malagasy did learn the Arabic script from the Javanese) this probably happened during continued contacts after the period of migration. There is some lexical evidence that the Malagasy were still in contact with Malays or Javanese after the latter came under the influence of Islam (.).
    An important question now is how to interpret the linguistic data, and how to integrate them in a theory which also takes into account archeological, historical and anthropological findings. The problem is that the linguistic data do not seem to correlate with data from these other disciplines, and as a consequence some non-linguists are reluctant to accept the linguistic evidence. Quite apart from the fact that there is considerable regional diversity in the cultures of Madagascar themselves, many manifestations of Malagasy spiritual and material culture cannot unequivocally be linked up with the spiritual and material culture of the Dayaks of the Southeast Barito area. Some of the Malagasy are wet rice cultivators, while the Dayaks are as a rule dry rice cultivators. Some Malagasy use outrigger canoes, whereas Southeast Barito Dayaks never do. The Malagasy migration to East Africa presupposes navigational skills which are found with some Indonesian peoples, but which can hardly be attributed to Dayaks, who, as we know them today, are as a rule forest dwellers. Some of the Malagasy musical instruments are allegedly very similar to musical instruments found in Sulawesi, and Malagasy funeral cults are reminiscent of the Toraja funeral cults (.) (77-82).

bemananjarazefaniasyrafaralahy 1979aBemananjara, Zefaniasy Rafaralahy. 1979a. Contes malgaches. Fleuve et flamme. Paris: Conseil international de la langue francaise.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

benevent 1897Benevent. 1897. Etude sur le Bouéni, II. Colonie de Madagascar. Notes, Reconnaissances, Explorations 2:49-77.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

benevent 1907Benevent. 1907. Notes sur les Kimosy. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache 4:83-85.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Kimosy,
Southern,

benolofrancois 1996Benolo, François. 1996. La foi d'un gentil ou l'inculturation nature. Collection ISTA. Ambatoroka, Antananarivo: Institut Supérieur de Théologie et de Philosophie de Madagascar.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

Père Benolo's personal testimony-autobiographical.

benolofrancois 2001Benolo, François. 2001. Sambatra aho fa Kristianina. Antananarivo: Edisiona Md Paoly.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

bensche 1899Bensch, E. 1899. De Tuléar à Fianarantsoa. Du 1er au 21 decembre 1899. Colonie de Madagascar. Notes, Reconnaissances, Explorations 1899:529-538.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern,

berggeraldm 1977Berg, Gerald M. 1977. The myth of racial strife and Merina kinglists: The transformation of texts. History in Africa 4:1-29.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

The author warns against the European bias in early written histories of Merina history and points out inconsistencies among documents rendering the oral histories in a Europeanised form, in line with the scientific and missionary models of the time. Others perpetuated these documents by quoting from them.

berggeraldm 1986Berg, Gerald M. 1986. Royal authority and the protector system in nineteenth-century Imerina. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 175-192, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

berghepierrelvanden 1968Berghe, Pierre L. van den. 1968. Language and "nationalism" in south Africa. In Language problems of developing nations, 215-224, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

berlierm 1983Berlier, M. 1983. Polygamie et "mariage chrétien" en Afrique noir. Telema 9(34):47-50.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

berlinbrent 1970Berlin, Brent. 1970. A universalist-evolutionary approach in ethnographic semantics. In Current directions in anthropology, 3-18, edited by Ann Fischer. Washington, DC: American Anthropological Association.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

berlinbrent 1992Berlin, Brent. 1992. Ethnobiological classification: Principles of categorization of plants and animals in traditional societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

bernardalain 1978Bernard, Alain. 1978. Essai sur la transition de la société Mahafaly vers les rapports marchands. Travaux et documents de l'Orstom 90. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tañalaña,
South-western,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Karimbola (Karembola),

Selected quotes:

  • (.)'une langue mahafaly qui n'existe pas (.) (360). [Contradicts himself-e.g. p. 8]

berthierh 1906Berthier, H. 1906. Fragments du folklore des Bara. La Revue de Madagascar 8(12):1062-1066.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

bieselemegan 1986Biesele, Megan. 1986. How hunter-gatheres' stories "make sense": Semantics and adaptation. Cultural Anthropology 1:157-170.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

birkelye 1924Birkely, E. 1924. Folkore Sakalava recueilli dans la région de Morondava. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache 6:185-395.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

birkelye 1936Birkely, E. 1936. Les Vazimba de la côte ouest de Madagascar. Mémoires de l'Académie malgache 22. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vazimba,
Western,
Beosy,
Mikea,
South-western,

Interesting statements regarding the language of Vazimba, Behosy, Mikea.

Selected quotes:

  • je fus frappé du soin que mettaient les malgaches à se rappeler leurs groupes funitiaux et leurs clans. On le remarque surtout dans les taboos concernant les mariages qui tous, ou presque, étaient exogamiques. Mais le phénomène se présente aussi dans la vie courante. Mon attention fut attirée par l'importance de la forme des entailles, faites aux oreilles des boufs, et qui servent à distinguer les clans et les habitations. Cétait là un document de première ordre pour apporter un peu de clarté dans l'ethnologie de la Côte Ouest. On désignait alors tous les habitants sous le nom de "Sakalaves" et on se livrait aux hypothèses les plus fantaisistes sur l'origine de leur nom.
    (.)je tombai, en 1914, sur les Vazimba de la Tsiribihina(.) des mots et des sons complètement nouveaux, une langue tout à fait différente du malgache!
    En tout état de cause, et malgré l'insuffisance des matériaux, il était clair que l'on avait à faire à un groupe bien défini, nettement différent de ceux qui peuplent la côte ouest, tant au point de vue religieux, qu'ethnique et philologique (7).
  • dahalo (homme de forêt) (11).
  • Si l'on se fonde sur les marques faites aux oreilles des boufs, ces populations se répartissent en plusieurs groupes don't chacun a son histoire.
    Il y a eu une forte émigration, allant du nord au sud, et composée de pêcheurs et de marins. Ces nouveaux-venus se sont mélangés avec une autre population plus ancienne: les Mikea, les Antanandro et les Vazimba.
    En deux autres grandes invasions, une race plus puissante venant du Sud et de l'Est, sous la conduite des deux dynasties des Maroserana et des Andrivola, a conquis toute la côte ouest, de Tulear à Majunga. Ces conquérants étaient suivis de beaucoup d'autres tribus qui leur étaient soumises.
    Les Antanandro étaient des gens civilisés venant de l'intérieur. Ils ensevilissaient leurs morts dans des cavernes ou des caveaux de pierres, ils savaient tisser, ornaient leurs maisons, et cultivaient le riz. Ils ont tout à fait disparu, se mélangeant aux autres tribus (12).
  • Ces Mkea étaient stationnaires: il n'y a pas trace de migration de leur part, ni vers le nord, ni vers le sud. Ils sont sauvages, fuient la société, n'ont aucune organisation sociale. Ils étaient chasseurs et peuvent se rattacher au groupe désigné par les anglais comme "foodcollectors" (don't la seule raison de vivre est la recherche de leur nourriture.
    Les Vazimba de la région de lacs de la Tsiribihina, sont un peuple composite. Les uns viennent d'au-delà des mers, les autres de l'intérieur, d'autres sont issus du mélange avec les populations sédentaires, comme les Beosi. L'attention des savants devraient s'attacher, tant aux particularités ethnologiques qu'à la langue de ces populations primitives. Ces trois groupes-le fait est établi-ont parlé, et parlent encore une langue différente du malgache. Tous les Masikoro du sud, par exemple, voisins des Mikea, savent que ces derniers ont eu leur langue propre, qu'ils emploient encore, en partie, dans des circonstances spéciales.
    Drury rapporte lui-même que les Vazimba des bords de la Tsiribihina avaient une langue particulière. Quant aux Beosi, le vocabulaire, donné au chapitre III, fournit la preuve qu'ils ont une langue à eux.
    Ces débris de langues sont d'une importance capitale pour l'ethnologie primitive de Madagascar (13).

birkelyottoemil 1926Birkely, Otto Emil. 1926. Marques de boufs et traditions de race : Document sur l'ethnologie de la côte occidentale de Madagascar. Bulletin: Etnografisk Museum 2.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Western,
South-western,

blackmaryb&metzgerduane 1969Black, Mary B., and Duane Metzger. 1969. Ethnographic description and the study of law. In Cognitive anthroplogy, 137-165, edited by Stephen A. Tyler. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

blanchysophie 1992aBlanchy, Sophie. 1992a. Famille et parenté dans l'archipel des Comores. Journal des Africanistes 62(1):7-53.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
Anthropology and ethnology,

blanchysophie 1992bBlanchy, Sophie. 1992b. Les langues de Mayotte. In Mayotte: Actes du Colloque Universitaire tenu à Mamoudzou les 23 et 24 avril 1991, 75-85, edited by Olivier Gohin, and Pierre Maurice. St Denis: Université de la Réunion: Fac de Droit et des Sciences Economiques et Politiques.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,

blanchysophie 1993Blanchy, Sophie. 1993. Philippe Beaujard: Mythe et société à Madagascar (Tañala de l'ikongo). Préface de Georges Condominas. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1991. 606p. In Religions. Etudes Océan Indien 16, 181-185, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

blochmauriceef 1971aBloch, Maurice E. F. 1971a. Placing the dead. Tombs, ancestral villages, and kinship organization in Madagascar. Studies in anthropology. London: Seminar Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

blochmauriceef 1971bBloch, Maurice E. F. 1971b. The implications of marriage rules and descent: Categories for Merina social structures. American Anthropologist 73:164-178.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

blochmauriceef 1975aBloch, Maurice E. F. 1975a. Introduction. In Political language and oratory in traditional society, 1-28, edited by Maurice E. F. Bloch. London: Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

blochmauriceef 1975bBloch, Maurice E. F. (ed.) 1975b. Political language and oratory in traditional society. London: Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

blochmauriceef 1978Bloch, Maurice E. F. 1978. Marriage among equals: An analysis of the marriage ceremony of the Merina of Madagascar. Man n.s. 13(1):21-33.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

blochmauriceef 1985Bloch, Maurice E. F. 1985. Questions historiques concernant la parenté sur la côte est. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 21-22:49-56.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern Betsimisaraka (Antatsimo, Tatsimo),
Betsimisaraka,
Eastern,
Northern Betsimisaraka (Antavaratra, Tavaratra),

Selected quotes:

  • Le peu que nous savons suffit en effet pour montrer clairement que la région dite Betsimisaraka est extrèmement diverse et que certaines populations betsimisaraka sont plus proches des populations non-betsimisaraka que d'autres égalements dénommées Betsimisaraka. Il ne peut en être autrement si nous nous rappelons que le terme Betsimisaraka se réfère non à une unité culturelle mais à une ligue politique temporaire du 18e siècle (50-1).

blochmauriceef 1986aBloch, Maurice E. F. 1986a. From blessing to violence. History and ideology in the circumcision ritual of the Merina of Madagascar. Cambridge studies in social anthropology 61. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

Some very good insights to be had from this work by an author who knows the Merina people well, but particularly concerns the circumcision ritual.

blochmauriceef 1986bBloch, Maurice E. F. 1986b. Hierarchy and equality in Merina kinship. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 217-228, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

blochmauriceef 1989Bloch, Maurice E. F. 1989. Ritual, history and power: Selected papers in anthropology. London school of economics. Monographs on social anthropology 58. London: Athlone Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

blochmauriceef 1998Bloch, Maurice E. F. 1998. How we think they think. Anthropological approaches to cognition, memory and literacy. Oxford: Westview Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Zafimaniry,
Eastern,

bloomalfredh 1984Bloom, Alfred H. 1984. Caution - the words you use may affect what you say: A response to Au. Cognition 17:275-287.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

blotb 1973Blot, B. 1973. Les coutumes actuelles des Tanala de l'Ikongo à l'occasion des naissances, mariages et enterrements. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 50(1):1-6.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

boasfranz 1939Boas, Franz. 1939. Geographical names of the Kwakiutl Indians. Contributions to anthropology 20. New York: Columbia University.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

boin&mouveaux 1897Boin, and Mouveaux. 1897. Les Bara et les Tanalas des districts d'Ivohibe et d'Ihosy. Colonie de Madagascar. Notes, Reconnaissances, Explorations 1897:446-456.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

boisdelavillerabeladu 1899Bois De La Villerabel, A. du. 1899. Etude sur le secteur des Bara Imamono. Colonie de Madagascar. Notes, Reconnaissances, Explorations 1899:523-528.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Imamono,
Bara,
Southern,

boisdelavillerabeladu 1900Bois De La Villerabel, A. du. 1900. La tradition chez les Baras. Colonie de Madagascar. Notes, Reconnaissances, Explorations 6(29):263-273.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

Captain du Bois De La Villerabel transcribes here a history of the Bara, according to Impoinimerina, mpanjaka (king of the) Bara Imamono. Impoinimerina's account explains the settlements of different Bara groups, the wars they were involved in, and culminates in some self-glorification, probably overrating his role, position, and history. De La Villerabel ends his transcription with a significant statement, namely that in spite of it being the account of senseless and endless intestinal fighting among the Bara people, it is worth recording, "if only to better show up the work of civilisation that they (the French) had undertaken."

Selected quotes:

  • Comme on le voit par ce rapide exposé, sa tradition ne nous révèle guère qu'une longue suite de guerres intestines sans but élevé, et dont le butin est toute la gloire; telle qu'elle est, elle mérite toutefois d'être enregistrée, ne serait-ce que pour mieux faire ressortir l'ouvre de civilisation que nous avons entreprise (273).

boittinpatrick ndBoittin, Patrick. n.d. Etude monographique de Bezaha.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,
Bara,

boittinpatrick 1993Boittin, Patrick. 1993. Identification Sampona. Report, Action International Contre la Faim.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

boudryrobert 1933Boudry, Robert. 1933. L'art décoratif malgache. La Revue de Madagascar 2:23-82.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

bouliniergeorges 1985Boulinier, Georges. 1985. L'archipel des Comores. Hérodote 37-38:201-209.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

bourhisrichardyvon&gileshoward&rosenthaldoreen 1981Bourhis, Richard Yvon, Howard Giles, and Doreen Rosenthal. 1981. Notes on the construction of a "subjective vitality questionnaire" for ethnolinguistic groups. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 2:145-150.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Research methodology,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

brandstetterrenward 1893Brandstetter, Renward. 1893. Die Beziehungen des Malagasy zum Malaiischen. The Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine 18:155.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

brittonbrucek&pellegriniad 1990Britton, Bruce K., and A. D. Pellegrini (eds.) 1990. Narrative thought and narrative language. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,
Linguistics,
History,

brodyjill 1991Brody, Jill. 1991. Indirection in the negotiation of self in everyday Tojolabál women's conversation. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 1:78-96.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

browncecilh&witkowskistanleyr 1981Brown, Cecil H., and Stanley R. Witkowski. 1981. Figurative language in universalist perspective. American Ethnologist 8:596-615.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

browncecilh&witkowskistanleyr 1983Brown, Cecil H., and Stanley R. Witkowski. 1983. Polysemy, lexical change and cultural importance. Man 18:72-89.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

browncecilh 1976Brown, Cecil H. 1976. General principles of human anatomical partonomy and speculations on the growth of partonomic nomenclature. American Ethnologist 3:400-424.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

browncecilh 1977Brown, Cecil H. 1977. Folk botanical life-forms: Their universality and growth. American Anthropologist 79:317-342.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

browncecilh 1979Brown, Cecil H. 1979. Folk zoological life-forms: Their universality and growth. American Anthropologist 81:791-817.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

browncecilh 1984aBrown, Cecil H. 1984a. Language and living things: Uniformities in folk classification and naming. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

browncecilh 1984bBrown, Cecil H. 1984b. The growth of ethnobiological nomenclature. Current Anthropology 27:1-19.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

browncecilh 1996Brown, Cecil H. 1996. Lexical acculturation, areal diffusion, lingua francas, and bilingualism. Language in Society 25(2):261-279.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

brownduncan 1995Brown, Duncan. 1995. The society of the texrt: The oral literature of the /Xam bushmen. Critical Arts 9(2):76-109.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Linguistics,
History,

brownmervyn 1978Brown, Mervyn. 1978. Madagascar rediscovered. A History from early times to independence. London: Damien Tunnacliffe.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

The author succeeds in producing an attractive account of Malagasy history; touching on geography, fauna and flora, describing different theories on the population of Madagascar and then treating the different phases in historical development until independence in 1960.

brownmervyn 1995Brown, Mervyn. 1995. A history of Madagascar. London: Tunnacliffe.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

brugmanclaudia 1983Brugman, Claudia. 1983. The use of body-part terms as locatives in Chalcatongo Mixtec. In Studies in mesoamerican linguistics. Reports from the Survey of California and Other Indian Languages 4, 235-290, edited by Alice Schlichter, Wallace L. Chafe, and Leanne Hinton. Berkeley: University of California, Dept. of Linguistics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

bruneredwardm 1984Bruner, Edward M. (ed.) 1984. Text, play and story. Washington, DC: AES.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,

bruneredwardm 1986aBruner, Edward M. 1986a. Ethnography as narrative. In The anthropology of experience, 139-155, edited by Victor W. Turner, and Edward M. Bruner. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

bruneredwardm 1986bBruner, Edward M. 1986b. Experience and its expressions. In The anthropology of experience, 3-30, edited by Victor W. Turner, and Edward M. Bruner. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

brunerjerome 1986Bruner, Jerome. 1986. Actual minds, possible worlds. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

brunerjerome 1990Bruner, Jerome. 1990. Acts of meaning. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

buehlmannw 1983Bühlmann, W. 1983. Questions à propos du mariage et de la famille en Afrique. Familiaris Consortio apporte-t-elle une réponse? Telema 9(34):63-78.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

bullockcharles 1970Bullock, Charles. 1970. The Mashona. Westport, Conn.: Negro Universities Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

burgessandrew 1932Burgess, Andrew. 1932. Zanahary in south Madagascar. Minneapolis: Board of Foreign Missions.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Bara,

burlingrobbins 1964Burling, Robbins. 1964. Cognition and componential analysis: God's truth or hocus-pocus? American Anthropologist 66:20.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

burlingrobbins 1970Burling, Robbins. 1970. Man's many voices: Language in its cultural context. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

burneydavida&ramilisonina 1999Burney, David A., and Ramilisonina. 1999. The kilopilopitsofy, kidoky and bokyboky: Accounts of strange animals from Belo-sur-mer, Madagascar, and the megafaunal "extinction window". American Anthropologist 100(4):957-966.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Vazimba,
Sakalava,
Masikoro,
South-western,
Betsileo,
Central,

cabanesr 1972Cabanes, R. 1972. Cultes de possession dans la plaine de Tananarive. Cahiers du Centre d'Etudes des Coutumes - Université de Madagascar 9:33-66.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

Some interesting etymological arguments.

calamegriaulegenevieve 1977Calame-Griaule, Geneviève. 1977. Langage et cultures Africaines. Essais d'ethnolinguistique. Etudes réunies et présentées par G. Calame-Griaule. Paris: François Maspero.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

This work has interesting sections on oral literature and even though already thirty-odd years old, is very useful for understanding various ethnolinguistic issues.

calletfrancois 18711883Callet, François. 1871-1883. Tantaran'ny andriana eto Madagascar. 5 vols. Antananarivo: Presy Katolika.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

calletfrancois 19531978Callet, François. 1953-1978. Histoire des rois. 5 vols. Traduction de "Tantaran'ny andriana eto Madagascar" par G.S. Chapus et E. Ratsimba. Antananarivo: Académie Malgache.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

carbaughdonal 1990aCarbaugh, Donal (ed.) 1990a. Cultural communication and intercultural contact. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

carbaughdonal 1990bCarbaugh, Donal. 1990b. Culture talking about itself. In Cultural communication and intercultural contact, 1-9, edited by Donal Carbaugh. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

carusov 1971Caruso, V. 1971. Brève esquisse d'analyse du 'hazomanga' dans la société bara. Bulletin de Madagascar 298:264.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

casagrandejb&halekennethl 1967Casagrande, J. B., and Kenneth L. Hale. 1967. Semantic relations in Papago folk definitions. In Studies in southwestern ethnolinguistics, 165-196, edited by Dell H. Hymes, and W. E. Bittle. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

cassonronaldw 1981Casson, Ronald W. 1981. Language, culture, and cognition: Anthropological perspectives. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

cassonronaldw 1983Casson, Ronald W. 1983. Schemata in cognitive anthropology. In Annual review of anthropology, 429-462, edited by Bernard J. Siegel, Alan R. Beals, and Stephen A. Tyler. Pala Alto: Annual Reviews.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

celliera 1971Cellier, A. 1971. Notes sur les populations de la rive droite du bas-Mangoky en 1906. Taloha 4:99-109.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Sakalava,
Makoa,
Bara,
Southern,
Betsileo,
Central,
Tesaka (Antesaka, Antaisaka),
Eastern,
Tanala (Antanala),

Captain Cellier gives in this article a summary of his reports to the authorities during the years 1904-1906. He gives a detailed description of the geographic area he deals with, as well as some interesting information on the origins of the people living to the right of the Bas-Mangoky, how they came to be there, according to oral history, and an analysis of why they stayed.

certeaumde 1970Certeau, M. de. 1970. La possession de Loudun. Archives. Paris: Julliard.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

chafewallace 1990Chafe, Wallace. 1990. Some things that narratives tell us about the mind. In Narrative thought and narrative language, 79-98, edited by Bruce K. Britton, and A. D. Pellegrini. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,

chamlamarieclaude 1958Chamla, Marie-Claude. 1958. Recherches anthropologiques sur l'origine des malgaches. Mémoires du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle. Paris: Editions du Muséum.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

championbernard 1995Champion, Bernard (ed.) 1995. L'étranger intime. Mélanges offerts à Paul Ottino. Madagascar - Tahiti - Insulinde - Monde swahili - Comores - Réunion. Saint-André, La Réunion: Université de la Réunion, Océan Éditions.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,

charlesclementseverin 1985Charles, Clément Séverin. 1985. Les Mahafale de l'Onilahy: Des clans au royaume, du xvie siècle à la conquête coloniale. Thèse. Paris: Université de Paris 1.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

charlesclementseverin 1995Charles, Clément Séverin. 1995. Les Tanala de la rive droite de l'Onilahy et du bas-Mangoky. Talily 1:108-109.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tañalaña,
South-western,

chazangilligsuzanne 1983Chazan-Gillig, Suzanne. 1983. Le fitampoha de 1968 ou l'efficacité du mythe de la royauté Sakalava dans l'actualité politique et économique malgache. In Les souverains de Madagascar. Collection "hommes et sociétés", 451-476, edited by Françoise Raison-Jourde. Paris: Editions Karthala.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Menabe,

chazangilligsuzanne 1991Chazan-Gillig, Suzanne. 1991. La société sakalave. Le Menabe dans la construction nationale malgache. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Menabe,

chengpw 1985Cheng, P. W. 1985. Pictures of ghosts: A critique of Aflred Bloom's 'the linguistic shaping of thought'. American Anthropologist 87:917-922.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

chevalierl 1952Chevalier, L. 1952. Madagascar, populations et ressources. Travaux et documents 51. Paris: INED-PUF.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

clarkherberth&havilandsusane 1977Clark, Herbert H., and Susan E. Haviland. 1977. Comprehension and the given-new contract. In Discourse production and comprehension, 1-40, edited by Roy O. Freedle. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Research,
Anthropology and ethnology,

clastrespierre 1974Clastres, Pierre. 1974. De l'ethnocide. L'homme 14(3-4):101-110.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

cliffordjames 1986aClifford, James. 1986a. Introduction: Partial truths. In Writing culture: The poetics and politics of ethnography, 1-26, edited by James Clifford. Berkeley: University of California Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

cliffordjames 1986bClifford, James (ed.) 1986b. Writing culture: The poetics and politics of ethnography. Berkeley: University of California Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

clignetremi&ernstbernard 1995Clignet, Rémi, and Bernard Ernst. 1995. L'école à Madagascar: Evaluation de la qualité de l'enseignement primaire public. Paris: Editions Karthala.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Dialectology,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Excellent study which contains a discussion of language in Malagasy education that is very relevant to our study.

clynemichael 1988Clyne, Michael. 1988. The German-Australian speech community: Ethnic core values and language maintenance. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 72:67-83.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

This article is a study of the status of the German-Australian speech community in terms of their ethnic identity and the importance of their language.

colbybenjaminn 1973Colby, Benjamin N. 1973. A partial grammar of Eskimo folktales. American Anthropologist 75:645-662.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

colejennifer 1997Cole, Jennifer. 1997. Sacrifice, narratives and experience in east Madagascar. Journal of Religion in Africa 27(4):401-425.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Eastern,

collinsjamest 1989Collins, James T. 1989. Malay dialect research in Malaysia: The issue of perspective. Bijdragen Tot de Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde 145:235-264.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,

The situation described here reveals striking similarities with the dialectal situation and policies in Madagascar. On most points a fruitful comparison could be drawn.

colombigiovanniluigi 1994Colombi, Giovanni Luigi. 1994. Une evangélisation dans le diocèse d'ihosy à Madagascar (1971-1992). itinéraires Théologico-pastoraux. Thèse de licence en missiologie. PhD dissertation. Université Pontificale Urbanienne.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

A study of the socio-cultural world of the Bara, explaining the particular challenge they present, due to their profound religiosity, in the sense that Christianity could be perceived as nothing more than a foreign religion, threatening their existence, instead of as bearer of the very truth they need. Père Colombi shows that the Bara sacrificial rites constitute a natural contact point.

condominasgeorges 1960Condominas, Georges. 1960. Fokon'olona et collectivités rurales en Imerina. Paris: Berger-Levrault.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

condominasgeorges 1992Condominas, Georges (ed.) 1992. Disciplines croisées. Paris: Editions de l'Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

congregationdelamissionlazaristes 1996Congrégation de la mission (Lazaristes) (ed.) 1996. Le Christianisme dans le sud de Madagascar. Mélanges à l'occassion du centenaire de la reprise de l'évangélisation du sud de Madagascar par la congrégation de la mission (lazaristes) 1896-1996. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French, Malagasy
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Karimbola (Karembola),
Bara,
Tesaka (Antesaka, Antaisaka),
Eastern,
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),

This work gives an up-to-date review of the history of Christianity in the South of Madagascar. One chapter that is particularly relevant to a study of the Tandroy was written by P. Benolo François, entitled: La religion traditionnelle chez les Ntandroy. He describes in detail the content and meaning of Tandroy traditional religion.
There is also a chapter on the history of the Lutheran missions in the South, from 1887 till 1950, written by Rev. James B. Vigen., and many other chapters relating to the history of the different Catholic congregations working in Madagascar.
In the chapter entitled Le Diocèse d'Ihosy, P. Colombi Giovanni Luigi, and P. Razafimamonjy Etienne Emmanuel briefly discuss the evangelisation of the Bara. Areas of Ibara are included in the diocese of Morombe on which P. Rabemanantsoa Benjamin wrote the chapter Le Diocèse de Morombe: les Lazaristes et la première évangélisation d'Ankazoabo-Sud.
The last chapter, entitled Bilan du Christianisme dans le Sud de Madagascar, by Mgr Rakotondravahatra, Jean-Guy, places the current state of Christianity in the South of Madagascar in a challenging context.

conklinharoldc 1964Conklin, Harold C. 1964. Hanunóo color categories. In Language in culture and society: A reader in linguistics and anthropology, 189-192, edited by Dell H. Hymes. New York: Harper and Row.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

copansjean 1996Copans, Jean. 1996. Introduction à l'ethnologie et à l'anthropologie. Paris: Nathan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

coppallea 1911Coppalle, A. 1911. Les Kimos de Madagascar. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache 8:65-67.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Kimosy,
Southern,

coulauddaniel 1973Coulaud, Daniel. 1973. Les Zafimaniry. Un groupe ethnique de Madagascar à la poursuite de la forêt. Antananarivo: Fanotamboky Malagasy.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Zafimaniry,
Eastern,

coulauddaniel 1974Coulaud, Daniel. 1974. Reflexion sur la notion d'ethnie à Madagascar: L'exemple du nord des pays Tanala et Betsileo. Taloha 6:89-116.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,
Zafimaniry,
Eastern,
Tanala (Antanala),

This excellent article on the problem of ethnicity in Madagascar is done in three parts. Coulaud first describes the identities of the following groups, (often misunderstood by the colonial mindset and by a too facile application of the "19 peoples" of Madagascar), namely the groups of Northern Betsileo (Fandriana, Mahazoarivo, Imady); the groups of the forest escarpment (Arivoanala, Zafimaniry); and the groups below the eastern escarpment (Zafindiamanana, Mahasila, Manandriana, Antaiva).
Having briefly differentiated among these different groups, he discusses in part two different aspects concerning the formation of the ethnic group, the life of the ethnic group, and the idea of an ethnic identity. He ends his conclusion with a quotation of the oath of the VVS (= Vy, Vato, Sakélika-Nationalist movement) in 1913, which goals would be achieved for the benefit of Madagascar, "Je jure d'aimer tous les malgaches.Je ne tiendrai compte ni des diverses races ni des tribus: les Malgaches sont un indivisible et inséparable. Un Malgache, c'est un Malgache et c'est tout ce qui compte."

coulonalain 1995Coulon, Alain. 1995. Ethnomethodology. Qualitative research methods series 36. London: Sage Publications.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

cousinswe&parrettj 1871Cousins, W. E., and J. Parrett. 1871. Ny ohabolan'ny Ntaolo. Antananarivo: London Missionary Society Press.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

cousinswe 1963 1931Cousins, W. E. 1963 (1931). Fomba Malagasy. Antananarivo: Trano Printy Imarivolanitra.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Originally written to teach foreigners about Malagasy customs.

cowanwdeans 1881Cowan, W. Deans. 1881. The Bara land: A description of the country and people. Antananarivo: London Missionary Society Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

cowanwdeans 1884Cowan, W. Deans. 1884. The Tanala, country and people. Antananarivo: The Friend's Foreign Mission Association.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

dahlelars 1877Dahle, Lars. 1877. Specimens of Malagasy folklore. Antananarivo: A. Kingdom.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlelars 1984 1877Dahle, Lars. 1984 (1877). Anganon'ny Ntaolo. Antananarivo: Trano Printy Loterana.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlottochr 1951Dahl, Otto Chr. 1951. Malgache et Maanjan. Une comparaison linguistique. Oslo: Egede Instituttet.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlottochr 1968Dahl, Otto Chr. 1968. Contes malgaches en dialecte Sakalava. Texte, traduction, grammaire et lexique. Oslo-Bergen-Tromsö: Universitetsforlaget.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

dahlottochr 1972Dahl, Otto Chr. 1972. Les noms de parenté en malgache. In Approche linguistique. Langues et techniques, nature et société 1, 353-358, edited by Jacques Barrau. Paris: Éditions Klincksieck.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlottochr 1984Dahl, Otto Chr. 1984. Mahomet dans le panthéon malgache. Bulletin des études africaines 4(7):21-30.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlottochr 1988Dahl, Otto Chr. 1988. Bantu substratum in Malagasy. In Linguistique de Madagascar et des Comores. Etudes Océan Indien 9, 91-132, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Selected quotes:

  • Although Madagascar is situated only 400 kilometres from the East African coast, Malagasy, the language of the island, is not an African language (91).
  • It has now been established that Malagasy is a member of the South East Barito subgroup of Austronesian in Kalimantan (Borneo), (Dahl 1951 and 1977) and a hypothesis of migration from Kalimantan to Madagascar about AD 400 (Dahl 1951: 366-369) has received general acceptance among Austronesianists. Besides Malagasy, the best known language of this subgroup is Ma'anyan (91).
  • However, although the bulk of the Malagasy language is Austronesian, there are also Bantu elements in it. Local tradition has it that non-Malagasy (sic) peoples lived in certain parts of Madagascar before the latter (Malagasy) arrived there. They are called Vazimba, which sounds like a Bantu tribes-name. An English witness from the beginning of the 1_th century testifies that they spoke among themselves a language that was not understood by their neighbours (Drury, 1729:279). There are still some clans called Vazimba in Western Madagascar, but now they speak the Malagasy dialect of their neighbours (91).
  • Dahle's hypothesis: wherever a Malagasy word of common occurrence and referring to objects of common life is found, not in Swahili, but also in other African languages, it is almost certain that it has not been introduced into Malagasy through Swahili, but belongs to the original African element in Malagasy (92).
  • Is it possible to determine the phonetic structure of the two languages which met in Madagascar about AD 400? If so it will also be possible to follow the phonetic development which has taken place after that time (109).
  • Malagasy is undoubtedly a member of the south-east Barito subgroup of Austronesian in Kalimantan, and it has been compared with the best known of the other members of that subgroup, Ma'anyan, with great precision (Dahl 1951 & 1977). We therefore know that the immigrants spoke a language with a structure rather similar to that of Ma'anyan (Dahl, 1938) (109).
  • The language of the substratum seems so similar to Comorian forms of Bantu "that we may consider it as a Comorian dialect." This is not difficult to understand as the easiest way from the African continent to Madagascar is to pass through the Comoro islands, especially in the small crafts of those olden times (110).
  • There is thus a great parallelism in the development of voiceless stops in Comorian and Malagasy, and in Malagasy this is the case not only in Bantu words, but also in the words inherited from Austronesian. A substratum nearly related to Comoro, or even being a Comoro dialect, seems to be the only possible explanation (113).
  • (.) Malagasy has eliminated consonantic finals, and this has taken place after the immigration into Madagascar. However, all the final consonants were not eliminated or changed into intervocalic position at the same time. Final nasals reamained in this position longer than other consonants. Still the influence from the substratum is evident. Anyone who has taught French to Malagasy children will have observed how difficult the pronunciation of final consonants is to speakers of a language with only vocalic finals (119).
  • All these changes after the immigration into Madagascar find their simplest explanation in the influence of a Bantu substratum. And both the phonetic development of the Bantu vocabulary in general and the special development of the voiceless stops in AN words show the near affinity of the substratum to the Comoro isolects. Most of the Bantu words in Malagasy have also cognates in Comoro and Swahili. If Comoro had been better known, we should probably have found more of them there (120).

dahlottochr 1991Dahl, Otto Chr. 1991. Migration from Kalimantan to Madagascar. Instituttet For sammenlignende kulturforskning. Serie B: Skrifter 82. Oslo: Norwegian University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlottochr 1992Dahl, Otto Chr. 1992. Zanahary, Andrianahary, Andriamanitra. Désignation des êtres divins en malgache. In Disciplines croisées, edited by G. Condominas. Paris: Editions de l'Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahlottochr 1995Dahl, Otto Chr. 1995. L'importance de la langue malgache dans la linguistique austronésienne et dans la linguistique gnérale. In Cultures of Madagascar: Ebb and flow of influences. Working papers series 2, 39-46, edited by Sandra Evers, and Marc Spindler. Leiden: International Institute for Asian Studies.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahloeyvind 1992Dahl, Øyvind. 1992. Quand le futur vient de derrière: Le concept malgache de temps et d'ordre du monde et conséquences pour le transfert de technologie. In Colloque pour chercheurs en sciences sociales et opérateurs économiques sur "Les changements sociaux dans la région du Vakinankaratra." Antsirabe 6-9 avril 1992. Antananarivo: Trano Printy Loterana.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dahloeyvind 1993aDahl, Øyvind (ed.) 1993a. Language. A doorway between human cultures. Tributes to Dr. Otto Chr. Dahl on his ninetieth birthday. Oslo: Novus Forlag.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

This collection of papers contains some pertinent information on the work of Otto Chr Dahl, as well as on aspects of Malagasy archaeology, history and linguistics (nine out of the total of sixteen). Particularly of interest to us in the context of this survey are the articles by Claude Allibert, and Pierre Vérin (Linguistique, archéologie et l'exploration du passé malgache), by Dina Jeanne (Les débuts de l'évangélisation du Fihereña par les Luthériens Norvégiens 1874-1897), as well the paper by Roger-Bruno Rabenilaina (L'Intégration des différents parlers, signes manifestes de l'unicité de la langue malgache).

dahloeyvind 1993bDahl, Øyvind. 1993b. Malagasy meanings. PhD dissertation. Center for Intercultural Communication, School of Mission and Theology, Misjonshogskolens forlag.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vakinankaratra,
Central,
Merina,

This study has been the one of the greatest treasures found since we started learning about Malagasy history, culture, and language and should be read by everyone involved in cross-cultural work and particularly by those who endeavour to communicate with the Malagasy people. Working through this practical handbook took us on a journey of discovering ourselves and our own worldviews in relation to that of the Malagasy people; and in identifying with the many practical situations described, we could relate and learn to empathise and were alerted to the fact that we need to let go of our own cultural assumptions, if we wish to truly relate to our friends in Madagascar and not be yet another costly, but passing, irrelevance in the long history of cross-cultural interaction.

dahloeyvind 1999Dahl, Øyvind. 1999. Meanings in Madagascar. Cases of intercultural communication. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vakinankaratra,
Central,
Merina,

dandouauandrejean 1911Dandouau, André-Jean. 1911. Catalogue alphabétique des noms malgaches de végetaux. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dandouauandrejean 1924Dandouau, André-Jean. 1924. Dialogues français-Sakalava (dialecte de Nossi-Be et du sambirano). Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache 6:91-157.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Northern Sakalava,
Sakalava,
Western,

dandraderoygoodwin 1981D'Andrade, Roy Goodwin. 1981. The cultural part of cognition. Cognitive Science 5:179-195.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

dandraderoygoodwin 1984D'Andrade, Roy Goodwin. 1984. Cultural meaning systems. In Culture theory: Essays on mind, self, and emotion, 88-119, edited by Richard A. Shweder, and Robert A. LeVine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

dandraderoygoodwin 1995D'Andrade, Roy Goodwin. 1995. The development of cognitive anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

davidrobert 1940David, Robert. 1940. Le problème anthropobiologique malgache. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 23:1-29.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond&castelremy 1941Decary, Raymond, and Rémy Castel. 1941. Modalités et conséquences des migrations intérieures récentes des populations malgaches. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond&faubleejacques 1960Decary, Raymond, and Jacques Faublée. 1960. Contribution au folklore des populations côtières. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 36:273-300.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1926Decary, Raymond. 1926. Le sud-est de Madagascar : Fort-Dauphin - Ifanadiana. Bulletin Economique de Madagascar et Dépendances 54-58:5-27.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,
South-eastern,

decaryraymond 1933Decary, Raymond. 1933. L'Androy. Essai de monographie régionale (2 vol). Paris: Societé d'Editions géographiques, maritimes et coloniales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

decaryraymond 1935Decary, Raymond. 1935. Les tatouages chez les indigènes de Madagascar. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 5:1-39.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1939Decary, Raymond. 1939. La chasse et le piégage chez les indigènes de Madagascar. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 9:3-41.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1940Decary, Raymond. 1940. Carte ethnographique et démographique de Madagascar à l'échelle du 1000000. Note explicative. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1943Decary, Raymond. 1943. Le lac Ihotry. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 25:71-74.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mikea,
South-western,

Concise survey of the lake Ihotry, with much detail about its environment, cycles, salt-content, some history, with an interesting mention made of the "Mikeha," an essentially "ichtyophage" people.

Selected quotes:

  • Les Mikeha, peuplade essentiellement ichtyophage, avaient totalement cessé la pêche et en étaient réduit à se nourrir du produit de pauvres cultures et surtout des tubercules et fruits de la forêt, d'ovy, de fruits de baobab, de sakoa, etc.
    A l'heure actuelle (février 1943) le lac s'est repeuplé, les quelques poissons qui ont résisté à la sursaturation antérieure à 1940 se sont réproduits et les Mikeha s'adonnent de nouveau à la pêche-jusqu'au jour où une nouvelle période de sêcheresse contractera encore le lac en augmentant le taux de salure (73).

decaryraymond 1946Decary, Raymond. 1946. Plantes et animaux utiles de Madagascar. Marseille: Annales du Musée Colonial.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1949Decary, Raymond. 1949. Le crocodile malgache. Ses mours, son rôle dans la vie indigène. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 19(1):195-207.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1950aDecary, Raymond. 1950a. La faune malgache. Paris: Editions Payot.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1950bDecary, Raymond. 1950b. La population de Madagascar. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 28:1-19.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1951Decary, Raymond. 1951. Mours et coutumes des malgaches. Collection de documents et de témoignages pour servir à l'histoire de notre temps. Paris: Payot.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1953Decary, Raymond. 1953. La bouche et les dents dans les coutumes malgaches. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 23(1-2):35-42.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1959Decary, Raymond. 1959. Les ordalies et sacrifices rituels chez les anciens malgaches. Paris: Larose.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1962Decary, Raymond. 1962. La mort et les coutumes funéraires à Madagascar. Paris: Maisonneuve et LaRose.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Much information, arranged according to what Decary calls "tribu." Dense with information, but also full of the unresearched assumptions of his time, e.g. re the Sakalava, or the Betsimisaraka as a unit. One shouldn't be surprised, to the author's amazement, to find such great variety and variation over so large an area. But he doesn't think to question his categories in the light of the same.

decaryraymond 1964Decary, Raymond. 1964. Contes et légendes du sud-ouest de Madagascar. Les littératures populaires de toutes les nations n.s. 11. Paris: G.-P. Maisonneuve et Larose.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
South-western,

decaryraymond 1965Decary, Raymond. 1965. Les anciennes coiffures masculines à Madagascar. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 35:283-316.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

decaryraymond 1970Decary, Raymond. 1970. La divination malgache par le sikidy. Publications du centre universitaire des langues orientales vivantes 6(9). Paris: Librairie orientaliste Paul Geuthner.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

defoortemile 1913Defoort, Emile. 1913. L'Androy: essai de monographie. Antananarivo: Bulletin Economique de Madagascar.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

deganaysolange&lebeufannie&lebeufjeanpaul&zahandominique 1987de Ganay, Solange, Annie Lebeuf, Jean-Paul Lebeuf, and Dominique Zahan (eds.) 1987. Ethnologiques. Hommages à Marcel Griaule. Paris: Hermann.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

delcroixfrancoise&faurouxemmanuel 1992Delcroix, Françoise, and Emmanuel Fauroux. 1992. Les racines cérémonielles du clientélisme et du pouvoir local dans les villages Sakalava du Menabe. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:213-222.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Menabe,

delivrealain 1974Delivre, Alain. 1974. Interprétation d'une tradition orale. L'Histoire des rois d'Imerina. Paris: Klincksieck.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

delormeandree 1936Delorme, Andrée. 1936. L'hazomanga-lava: Une grande fête chez les Mahafales. La Revue de Madagascar 16:79-96.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

Simple, but sensitively-written account of the institution ceremony of a new hazomanga (sacrificial post), symbol of the power of the new king.

delvalraymond 1986Delval, Raymond. 1986. Le résident Besson, médecin, administrateur et humaniste. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 23-24:265-282.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,
Merina,
Central,
Betsileo,
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

delvalraymond 1992Delval, Raymond. 1992. Le pouvoir et les atteintes au pouvoir dans l'ancien droit. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:299-307.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

dennyjpeter 1979Denny, J. Peter. 1979. The 'extendedness' variable in classifier semantics: Universal features and cultural variation. In Ethnolinguistics: Boas, Sapir, and Whorf revisited, 97-119, edited by Madeleine Mathiot. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

deschampshubert&vianess 1959Deschamps, Hubert, and S. Vianes. 1959. Les malgaches du sud-est. Monographies ethnologiques. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Zafisoro,
Tefasy (Antefasy, Antaifasy),
Eastern,
Tesaka (Antesaka, Antaisaka),
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Antambahoaka (Tambahoaka),
Sahavoay,
Sahafatra,
South-eastern,

Very pertinent and detailed information concerning people groups of the South East of Madagascar, not indifferent to the struggles of missionaries in the area.

deschampshubert 1934Deschamps, Hubert. 1934. Les Antaisaka. La Revue de Madagascar 8:25-39.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tesaka (Antesaka, Antaisaka),
Eastern,

Undemanding description of the Tesaka people, not very detailed, but with some important information on the social unit which is the clan, as well as on traditional dancing, the "national art form" of the Tesaka.

deschampshubert 1935Deschamps, Hubert. 1935. Pamosavi Antaisaka. La Revue de Madagascar 11:81-89.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tesaka (Antesaka, Antaisaka),
Eastern,

Deschamps describes lightly, with occasional comparisons drawn with Western culture, the phenomenon of the sorcerer. He sounds much less patronizing and more objective than many of his peers.

Selected quotes:

  • Nous rappelons que les Antaisaka habitent la Côte Sud-Est, que leur capitale est Vangaindrano et qu'ils forment le centre d'émigration le plus important de l'île. Voir la Revue de Madagascar, no 8, octobre 1934, p. 25.

deschampshubert 1936Deschamps, Hubert. 1936. Les Antaisaka. Géographie Humaine, coutumes et histoire d'une population malgache. Antananarivo: Pitot de la Beaujardière.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tesaka (Antesaka, Antaisaka),
Eastern,

deschampshubert 1959Deschamps, Hubert. 1959. Les migrations intérieures passées et présentes à Madagascar. L'homme d'outre-mer 1. Paris: Editions Berger-Levrault.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dewarroberte&wrighthenryt 1993Dewar, Robert E., and Henry T. Wright. 1993. The culture history of Madagascar. Journal of World Prehistory 7(4):417-466.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dezjacques 1971Dez, Jacques. 1971. Au pays Betsimisaraka: Habitat et communications. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 47(1-2):115-145.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsimisaraka,
Eastern,

Selected quotes:

  • Les populations betsimisaraka vivent dans la forêt et de la forêt. (115)

dezjacques 1972Dez, Jacques. 1972. Essai sur le concept de Vazimba. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 49(2):11-20.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vazimba,
Western,

Dez deals with the Vazimba in Imerina. He does not make any mention of Vazimba elsewhere.

dezjacques 1981Dez, Jacques. 1981. Vocabulaire pour servir au déchiffrement des documents Arabico-malgaches. Paris: Département de Recherches Linguistiques, Université de Paris VII.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,

dezjacques 1983aDez, Jacques. 1983a. Essai sur le calendrier Arabico-malgache. Paris: Département de Recherches Linguistiques, Université de Paris VII.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dinajeanne&hoernerjeanmichel 1976Dina, Jeanne, and Jean-Michel Hoerner. 1976. Etude sur les populations Mikea du sud-ouest de Madagascar. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 3-4.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mikea,
South-western,
Masikoro,

Very concise article explaining the problem of the Mikea. No bibliography attached to this copy.

doejohn 1988Doe, John. 1988. Speak into the mirror: A story of linguistic anthropology. Landham, Md.: University Press of America.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

domenichinijeanpierre&poirierjean&raherisoanjatodaniel 1984Domenichini, Jean-Pierre, Jean Poirier, and Daniel Raherisoanjato. 1984. Ny razana tsy mba maty. Cultures traditionnelles malgaches. Antananarivo: Librairie de Madagascar.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

domenichinijeanpierre 1971Domenichini, Jean-Pierre. 1971. Histoire des Palladium d'Imerina d'après des manuscrits anciens. Texte bilingue. Antananarivo: Musée d'Art et d'Archéologie de l'Université de Madagasar.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

domenichinijeanpierre 1974Domenichini, Jean-Pierre. 1974. Une contribution nouvelle à l'histoire du Menabe. Jacques Lombard. Taloha 6:177-182.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Menabe,

domenichinijeanpierre 1981Domenichini, Jean-Pierre. 1981. "La plus belle enigme du monde" ou L'historiographie coloniale en question. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 13-14:57-76.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Jean-Pierre Domenichini refutes some of the assumptions and theories of colonial historians and anthropologists concerning Madagascar. He situates colonialism in the subjective frame it belongs to, in the face of the opposing nationalism, but of which both currents proclaim the profound unity of the Malagasy people. He says that "la colonisation, qui s'attribue le mérite d'avoir mis fin aux guerres tribales et d'unifier politiquement - avec la conquête et la pacification de l'époque de Gallieni - et socialement les populations de la Grande Ile, s'oppose au nationalisme et tout à la fois le rejoint, lorsque celui-ci insiste sur l'unité profonde et ancienne de Madagascar et construit l'unité de l'avenir sur celle du passé." (61). According to Domenichini there has been a Malagasy culture on the great island since at the latest 5AD, when according to a glotttochronological study by Vérin et al the divergence commenced.

Selected quotes:

  • "Pour coloniser, il faut connaître les peuples, leur langue, leurs coutumes, leurs mours, savoir quelles sont leurs origines dans le passé, les affinités qu'ils présentent avec d'autres groupes humains" Gallieni in 1902, cité par Henri Poisson (57).

domenichinijeanpierre 1986Domenichini, Jean-Pierre. 1986. Les dieux au service des rois. Histoire orale des Sampin'Andriana ou Palladiums royaux de Madagascar. Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

domenichiniramiaramananabakoly&domenichinijeanpierre 1979Domenichini-Ramiaramanana, Bakoly, and Jean-Pierre Domenichini. 1979. La tradition malgache, une source pour l'histoire de l'océan Indien. Taloha 8:57-81.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

domenichiniramiaramananabakoly 1968Domenichini-Ramiaramanana, Bakoly. 1968. Hainteny d'autrefois, poèmes traditionnels malgaches receuillis au début du règne de Ranavalona I (1828-1861). Haintenin'ny fahiny, voaangona tamin'ny voalohandohan'ny nanjakan-dranavalona I. Antananarivo: Librairie Mixte.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

domenichiniramiaramananabakoly 1983Domenichini-Ramiaramanana, Bakoly. 1983. Du ohabolana au hainteny. Langue, littérature et politique à Madagascar. Paris: Editions Karthala.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

domenichiniramiaramananabakoly 1985Domenichini-Ramiaramanana, Bakoly. 1985. De quelques aspects du fanjakana Antambahoaka. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 21-22:9-17.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Antambahoaka (Tambahoaka),
Eastern,

doriannancyc 1980Dorian, Nancy C. 1980. Linguistic lag as an ethnic marker. Language in Society 9:33-41.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

Language is seen as an important marker of ethnic identity. Dorian shows that in East Sutherland (Scotland) where the East Sutherland Gaelic mother-tongue is almost the sole marker of fisher folk ethnic identity today, the long-standing component of this ethnicity is a lag in linguistic behaviour in comparison with the rest of the population.

doughertyjanetwd 1985Dougherty, Janet W. D. (ed.) 1985. Directions in cognitive anthropology. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

driverhe 1969Driver, H. E. 1969. Indians of north America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

druryrobert 1896Drury, Robert. 1896. Madagascar or Robert Drurys journal during fifteen years captivity on that island and further description of Madagascar by Abbé Rochon. Ed. S.P. Oliver. London: Seminar Press.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),

druryrobert 1897Drury, Robert. 1897. Madagascar, or, Robert Drury's journal, during fifteen years of captivity on that island. London: T. Fisher Unwin Paternoster Square.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),

duboishenrimarie 1938Dubois, Henri-Marie. 1938. Monographie des Betsileo (Madagascar). Travaux et mémoires de l'institut d'ethnologie 34. Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,

duboishenrimarie 1950Dubois, Henri-Marie. 1950. La religion malgache. Cahiers Charles de Foucauld 21:70-100.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

dundesalan 1964Dundes, Alan. 1964. The morphology of American Indian folktales. Folklore fellows communications 195. Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

dundesalan 1965aDundes, Alan. 1965a. Structural typology in north American Indian folktales. In The study of folklore, 206-215, edited by Alan Dundes. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

dundesalan 1965bDundes, Alan (ed.) 1965b. The study of folklore. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

dundesalan 1972Dundes, Alan. 1972. Untitled letter. Current Anthropology 13:92-93.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

dupuisj 1989Dupuis, J. 1989. Jésus-Christ à la rencontre des religions. Jésus et Jésus-Christ 39. Paris: Desclée.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

durantialessandro 1988Duranti, Alessandro. 1988. Ethnography of speaking: Toward a linguistics of the praxis. In Language: The sociocultural context. Linguistics: The Cambridge survey 4, 210-228, edited by J. Newmeyer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

duttontom 1992Dutton, Tom (ed.) 1992. Culture change, language change. Case studies from Melanasia. Pacific linguistics. Series C: Books 120. Canberra: Australian National University, Dept of Linguistics: Research School of Pacific Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,

dyenisidore 1953Dyen, Isidore. 1953. Review of Otto Dahl, Malgache et Manjaan. Language 29(4):577-590.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

edwardsjohnr 1985Edwards, John R. 1985. Language, society and identity. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

Selected quotes:

  • Environments change, people move, and needs and demands alter; and it is much more natural for language-use to change, or for linguistic contact to emerge and recede, than to have linguistic stasis. The evidence suggests that it is more reasonable to consider group and individual identity altering, in the face of changing social (and linguistic) environments, than it is to see the abandonment of original or static positions as decay or loss (86).

eggertkarl 1979Eggert, Karl. 1979. Mahafaly as misnomer. Paper prepared in advance for participants in Burg Wartenstein symposium, no 83: human adjustment in time and space in Madagascar, August 18-27, 1979.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

In this paper Karl Eggert discusses eight kinds of social groups that the people living in the Mahafaly region identify with, namely traño, foko, tariha, karazana, ziva, then what he calls cultural groups: local and intra-regional, and gasy. He then discusses the name Mahafale in terms of the meaning and the value of the concept where the people themselves do not relate to it in the way "outsiders" view it. The following quotation sums up his thinking:
"The literature classifies the Mahafaly Region's predominant population as Mahafaly. However, the region's contemporary residents neither call themselves Mahafaly nor claim to be members of an all-encompassing Mahafaly group. They describe themselves, instead, as many different people with membership in many different groups." (20).
His paper provides interesting insights, but some of the main points, such as a group being given a name by outsiders, while the internal consciousness of the group is totally different, could be applied to many other populations of Madagascar.

eggertkarl 1981Eggert, Karl. 1981. Who are the Mahafaly? Cultural and social misidentifications in southwestern Madagascar. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 13-14:149-176.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

This is certainly the best of the three papers by Eggert available on the subject of the cultural identity of the people who live in the Mahafaly region. He enlarged the bibliography and organised the contents of his paper in a more logical way. He restated the "Gasy" identity that he found to exist in the region, by situating it within the larger Malagasy context. This paper comes across as less sectarian than the other two.
On page 166, he says in a footnote by the phrase "Gasy, by their own definition, speak a different language than the rest of Madagascar's people."
"The people's claim stands in contrast to the common assumption that is made in the literature that all of Madagascar's people speak the same language, or at least regional dialects of it (e.g. Deschamps 1965:19, and Rajemsa-Raolison 1966:184). Yet, in an objective, linguistic sense there may be more to what the people say than at first meets the eye. Vérin, Kottak, and Gorlin (1969), using a one hundred item basic word list, found that four major Malagasy "dialects" spoken in the section of Madagascar that Gasy believe to be their homeland, have a shared cognate rate of only 60 to 70% with the Merina dialect of Malagasy, the island's official dialect. Since many linguists draw the line at which different dialects diverge enough to become different languages at a 70% rate of shared cognates (Dyen 1965:18), the language that Gasy speak may indeed be another language." (166).
This quote reflects on the purpose of our study, namely to try and assess degrees of intelligibility among Malagasy "ways of speaking."
However, Eggert's paper does seem a bit naïve in some ways and in particular concerning the issue of "Gasy" as a "cultural group." It is as though his study grant was used up before he could get to the bottom of things and then he was perhaps too quick to document his unverified findings.

eggertkarl 1986Eggert, Karl. 1986. Mahafaly as misnomer. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 321-335, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

This paper is the exact replica of the 1979 unpublished paper by the same author and has been slightly altered since the version published in "Omaly sy Anio" (1981).

ehretrebekka 1997Ehret, Rebekka. 1997. Language attitude and the linguistic construction of ethnic identity: The case of the Krio in Sierra Leone. In Language choices: Conditions, constraints, and consequences. Impact: Studies in language and society 1, 327-337, edited by Martin Pütz. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

eliadem 1977Eliade, M. 1977. Traité d'histoire des religions. Paris: Payot.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

elleb 1928Elle, B. 1928. Notes sur les tribus de la province de Farafangana. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache 4:126-123.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Zafisoro,
Tefasy (Antefasy, Antaifasy),
Eastern,
Betsileo,
Central,
Tanala (Antanala),

ellenr 1993Ellen, R. 1993. The cultural relations of classification: An analysis of Nuaulu animal categories from central Seram. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

elliluigi 1988Elli, Luigi. 1988. Dizionario Bara-Italiano. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
Bara Malagasy, Italian
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

The most recent dictionary of the Bara language. A comparison with that of Jensenius (1908) and Peressutti (1969) might reveal some interesting language development.

elliluigi 1993Elli, Luigi. 1993. Une civilisation du bouf: Les Bara de Madagascar. Difficultés et perspectives d'une évangélisation. Collection "Gasikarako". Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

This publication of Luigi Elli's Mémoire de Maîtrise, June 1991, Institut Catholique de Paris, covers many aspects of the Bara civilisation in detail and then discusses, in a second part, certain issues relating to the evangelisation of the Bara.
This work provides an excellent insight into Bara culture, especially as far as culture involves the Zébu. And as the Zébu is involved in every aspect of Bara life, this book covers a large part of it. A quick scanning of the bibliography reveals that most writing concerning the Bara was done in and before the first half of the twentieth century.
Elli introduces his manuscript with an account of "La mort de Rebozaky: un phénomène social total" which is an excellent rencontre with the realities of Bara life and custom. He gives other such accounts, such as "le bilo."
For the purposes of our study, the author's remarks on the importance of the Bara dialect are essential. He mentions that although the people are mostly illiterate, they are deep thinkers. He says that official Malagasy is nothing else but the Merina dialect that was enriched by words from dialects "of the coast" and that although many Bara know it, they don't speak it and consider their own way of speaking to be "real Malagasy." Like French, the Merina way of speaking is that of a stranger.
It is clear that the author knows the Bara people and can be seen as an authority on their way of life.

Selected quotes:

  • Nous avons vu qu'une des raisons qui montrent la religion chrétienne sous un jour défavorable aux yeux des Bara, c'est le fait qu'elle est la religion de ceux qui détenaient et qui détiennent le pouvoir, le 'fanjakana' (.). Les missionnaires, même aujourd'hui, (.) sont souvent pris par les Bara pour des fonctionnaires: 'Hanareo fanjaka' (Vous, du Gouvernement), dit-on à l'adresse du missionnaire, et cela s'entend encore très souvent. Mais les gens du 'fanjakana' ont une mauvaise renommée chez les Bara, à cause de leur corruption (163).
  • Parmi les attitudes qui frappent le plus positivement les Bara il faut compter le respect. Nous avons vu comment ils sont méprisés par les 'civilisés' et par les chrétiens (.). Ce respect, cette sympathie et amitié doivent s'exprimer surtout par un effort de connaissance approfondie et scientifique de leur langue et de leurs us et coutumes (164).
  • Une des tfches les plus importantes pour un missionnaire sera l'étude approfondie et scientifique du dialecte bara (.). Le missionnaire arrivé à Madagascar apprend le malgache officiel (malagasy iombonana), qui n'est pas autre chose que le dialecte merina enrichi de mots provenants des dialectes dits 'côtiers' (165).
  • Le malgache officiel est assez aisément compris par tout le monde dans la Grande Ile, donc aussi par les Bara. Mais très peu parmi eux le parlent. La langue de tous les jours c'est bien le dialecte. Qui parle le 'malagasy iombonana' se présente comme un étranger, et est perçu comme tel par les gens (.). Pour les Bara, comme pour les autres ethnies du sud, c'est leur dialecte qui est la vraie langue malgache (165).
  • (.) mais dès mes premières tournées parmi les Bara je me suis nettement aperçu que la langue officiel que je parlais était un obstacle de plus à la communication (165).
  • (.) un étranger parlant ou s'efforçant de parler leur dialecte les rendait heureux; les portes des maisons, et les cours des personnes, s'ouvrent plus facilement au missionnaire qui parle comme eux, et ils perçoivent cette attention comme une marque d'estime et de respect (165).
  • Ce qu'il faut savoir sur les Bara:
    -le'tatara raza' du clan ou du lignage: l'origine, les noms des chefs les plus représentatifs, les migrations;
    -la structure socio-politique, la place du patriarche;
    -la signification de l'hazomanga;
    -les fomban-draza (naissance, circoncision, mariage, socialisation des enfants, bilo, les rites funéraires); le système religieux;
    -les proverbes et les contes;
    -le bouf et sa place dans la culture bara (166).
  • le lien indissoluble entre le religieux et le social (167).
  • ce serait demander le suicide social que d'exiger d'un chrétien de s'abstenir de la participation à ces rites (168).
  • Sur plus de onze millions d'habitants, la Grande Ile compte aujourd'hui à peu près six millions de chrétiens, toutes confessions confondues, dont plus de la moitié sont catholiques. Les chrétiens sont assez inégalement répartis: si les Merina et les Betsileos des Hauts-Plateaux sont chrétiens presque à 100%, les tribus du sud (Bara, Tandroy, Mahafaly), au contraire, le sont peut-être à 10%, et les Bara le sont moins que les Tandroy (133).
  • Il n'y a pas à proprement parler, un peuple Bara ou une tribu Bara. Ceux qui s'appellent aujourd'hui Bara sont les membres de clans qui ont des origines très disparates, dans l'espace comme dans le temps. Les Bara, avec raison, ne se reconnaissent pas une origine commune. Les Bara actuels sont en grande partie les descendants des sujets des rois de famille Zafimanely. Un autre élément de cohésion d'un peuple c'est la langue. Malgré des différences locales inévitables, la langue bara, avec ses variations régionales, par rapport au malgache officiel, surtout au niveau du lexique et de la prononciation, se distingue assez nettement de la langue parlée par les autres ethnies de la région. Avec un peu de pratique on distingue aisément, à la façon de parler, un Bara d'un Tandroy, d'un Mahafaly, d'un Sakalava, d'un Betsileo, d'un Tesaka ou d'un Tanôsy. Les Bara ont aussi en commun un patrimoine de coutumes (.) (136).
  • Les Tandroy montent vers le nord, qui est mieux arrosé que leur pays. A l'est les Tesaka, les Tanala, les Tanôsy progressent. Les riziculteurs Betsileo ont envahi le nord du pays bara et aujourd'hui on les trouve partout, là o- les conditions géographiques permettent d'avoir de belles rizières. Si plus aucune frontière géographique ne sépare les Bara des autres ethnies, des frontières, assez nettes, d'une autre espèce, existent quand même toujours. Ces frontières sont moins précises dans l'unité de tout le sud de Madagascar (seules la langue, l'histoire et certaines coutumes distinguent les Bara des autres ethnies du sud); elles sont beaucoup plus marquées entre les Bara et les Betsileo (137).
  • L'attachement farouche que les Bara ont pour la tradition ancestrale les fait se méfier de toute nouveauté(.) méfiance envers l'Etat moderne et ses représentants les fonctionnaires et les gendarmes, appellés 'vazaha', c'est-à-dire Blancs, Européens, donc étrangers; mais l'enseignement se heurte également à la méfiance des gens, surtout parce qu'il enlève les jeunes au travail des champs et les empêche d'aller aux pfturages avec les boufs. Même pour ce qui a trait à l'agriculture ou à l'élevage, ils restent attachés à la tradition (.) aussi, (.) la religion chrétienne (.) La vie, et donc la survie du groupe sont liées indissolublement à la fidélité aux 'fomban-draza' (les coutumes ancestrales). Toute atteinte à ces coutumes est une atteinte à la vie du groupe (.) (138).
  • Cinquante ans après (Faublée: la cohésion.) je peux dire que si un affaiblissement de la tradition s'est produit, il est minime et les fomban-draza continuent à régler la vie des Bara (139).
  • Les Bara pensent avoir une responsabilité morale vis-à-vis des générations passées et des générations à venir. Les générations actuellement vivantes ne considèrent pas les fomban-draza comme une propriété dont elles pourraient disposer à leur guise, mais comme un héritage reçu des ancêtres et à transmettre aux générations à venir (139).

elliluigi 1999Elli, Luigi. 1999. Fomba Bara. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

ellisstephen 1985Ellis, Stephen. 1985. The rising of the red shawls. A revolt in Madagascar 1895-1899. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

elliswilliam 1859Ellis, William. 1859. Three visits to Madagascar during the years 1853-1854-1856. London: John Murray.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Religion,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

elliswilliam 1867Ellis, William. 1867. Madagascar revisited. London: John Murray.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

elmendorfwilliamw 1951Elmendorf, William W. 1951. Word taboos and lexical change in coast Salish. International Journal of American Linguistics 17:205-208.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,

emphouxjeanpierre&ramiandrisoaclara 1991Emphoux, Jean-Pierre, and Clara Ramiandrisoa. 1991. Archéologie du sud malgache. Aombe 4. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern,

emphouxjeanpierre 1981Emphoux, Jean-Pierre. 1981. Archéologie de l'Androy. Deux sites iimportants: Andranosoa et le manda de Ramananga. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 13-14:89-97.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Bara,
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

The author presents a report of archaeological research done at two sites. The second, the "manda de Ramananga," dating back to about the 15th-16th century is supported by an interesting tradition found 20Kms from the site, where a Tanala king, Retsiombe told the author that the site was the a fortress built by a Tanala king, Ramananga to defend himself from his enemies the Zafimanely.

esoavelomandrosofaranirinav 1976Esoavelomandroso, Faranirina V. 1976. Langue, culture et civilisation à Madagascar: Malgache et français dans l'enseignement officiel (1916-1940). Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 3-4:105-155.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1986cEsoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1986c. Milieux naturel et peuplement de l'Androy. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 121-131, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

Esoavelomandroso discusses the relationship between the natural milieu of the arid Androy region and the people who live there. He points out that there is no agreement on the name "Androy" and its derivatives, most authors being convinced that the name "roy" refers to the "thorns" that abound there, another seeing no other meaning in the name Androy than that of it being the homeland of the Tandroy people. The name has only been used since end of the seventeenth century. Northern Androy is a humid region, an area of vast pasturelands and little populated, whereas the area south of the Tsihombe-Ambovombe road is much dryer and suffers from a lack of good water, but contains a relatively larger population than the northern area, because of a more fertile soil. This is the area rich in chalky soil and limestone. The Karimbola and Mahandrovato, who live south of the Ambovombe-Tsihombe-Beloha line claim to be the first inhabitants of the area. Different clans were added to these groups, among which the Zafimanara, who subdued the Mahandrovato, obtained control of the Karimbola and then favoured the immigration of different groups from the east, west and north: Sakalava, Bara and others. The author, who is of Tañalaña origin, ends his discussion on the different immigrations with the following statement: "L'étude de ce peuplement montre aussi que les Antandroy qui tirent leur spécificité de leur histoire et du milieu naturel dans lequel ils vivent, proviennent d'une série de métissages ou de mélanges pluri-séculaires. Est-il encore besoin de préciser la profonde unité du sud qui a contribué au peuplement de l'androy, et par-delà ce sud, l'unité de la culture malgache?" (130).

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1989aEsoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1989a. Notes sur les espaces economiques du Mahafale occidental à la fin du XIXe siècle. Cahiers du Centre de Recherches Africaines 7:147-152.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

Manassé Esoavelomandroso is convinced of the homogeneity of the Tokobeitelo, a confederation of three clans in Western Mahafale, the Tevondrone, Temitongoa and Temilahehe, which he describes in this paper in terms of their mainly agrico-pastoral activities at the end of the nineteenth century. He also describes other resources tapped by these people, such as the sea and the forest and their interaction with slave traders which also shows their community spirit.
The author clarifies terminology which is important for understanding Tokobeitelo society:
raza: this term indicates the grand parents, the ancestors, the group that descends from a common ancestor which is the clan, the hazomanga (post for religious ceremonies) the vilo (earmark of the group's cattle).
famosora: different lineages within a raza or clan.

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1989bEsoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1989b. Territoires et troupeaux des Temitongoa. In Histoire et organisation de l' espace à Madagascar. Cahiers du Centre de Recherches Africaines 7, 47-56, edited by Jean Fremigacci. Paris: CRA.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

A very instructive paper on aspects of Mahafale culture, not referred to as such, but referred to as "Temitongoa," a traditional clannic subgroup among the inhabitants of the Mahafale region. The author gives insightful definitions of terminology used in clear footnotes. Even though the main focus here is on habitat and cattle herding traditions, one acquires a better understanding of human relations in the South.

Selected quotes:

  • Mais depuis quelques décennies, des communautés importantes de Mahafale, dont des Temitongoa, sont implantées hors de l'aire historique: le long de la nationale 7 entre Ankororoke et Andranovory, dans la région d'Ankazoabo, et sur la route de Morombe, entre Manja et Ankililoake. Dans ces enclaves, où elles se trouvent au contact des Tanôsy, des Bara et des Masikoro, elles ont réussi et réussissent encore à assurer la sécurité à leurs troupeaux. Elles ont résisté victorieusement aux voleurs et, dans les zones où les malaso (=cattle rustlers) font ou faisaient la loi, leurs troupeaux étaient préservés. Faut-il voir là un réflexe d'éleveurs ou le résultat d'une cohésion sociale vivante? J'opterai, pour ma part, pour la deuxième possibilité. En effet, les Bara et les Masikoro sont aussi des éleveurs et pourtant, ils n'ont pas eu la même réaction que ces Mahafale émigrés ou les Tandroy.
    Mahafale et Tandroy se sont pris en charge pour défendre leurs troupeaux. Pour cela ils ont puisé dans leur histoire, dans leur culture, les éléments pour renforcer leur cohésion, gage de leur réussite. Sauront-ils ou pourront-ils préserver, sauvegarder et utiliser cette cohésion pour en faire des fondements de leur stratégie, afin d'affronter le monde moderne qui ne semble pas vouloir les prendre comme des partenaires à part entière mais paraît les voir comme obstacles au développement? (56).

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1991aEsoavelomandroso, Manassé (ed.) 1991a. Cohésion sociale, modernité et pression démographique. L'exemple du Mahafale. Aombe 3. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

This edition of Aombe contains as the title indicates, a series of articles pertaining to Mahafale country and the people who live there. It covers the demographic situation, archaeology, rites, the ecology, religion, social organisation and other issues.

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1991bEsoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1991b. La cohésion sociale dans le Mahafale à la fin du xixè siècle. In Cohésion sociale, modernité et pression démographique. Aombe 3, 27-39, edited by Manassé Esoavelomandroso. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

The author describes Mahafale society at the end of the nineteenth century. There was then, according to him "considerable" social cohesion among them. He describes social entities like the raza, discusses the fact that the Mahafale are more like a mosaic of peoples than a united group and that such "unity" is a label made by others, by outsiders. He affirms that the Mahafale have never known a centralised organisation of state.

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1992Esoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1992. Les souverains du Menarandra dans la deuxième moitié du xixe siècle. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:287-298.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

Manassé Esoavelomandroso has cleared up many an assumption regarding the Mahafaly, and in this paper he discusses the history of the southern part of this territory and in particular the fact that European sources have often represented southern Mahafale as the kingdom of the Menarandra, submitting to the authority of one man. The author shows how there was one dominant raza, the Befira, whose cohesion is represented by the mpisoro, who played both a ritual and political role. This dominance did not signify a united kingdom, but rather a loose confederation of interrelated but autonomous entities.

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1995Esoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1995. Les formations politiques dans le Mahafale au xixe siècle. Talily 2:19-27.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

The author discusses the political structures that existed in Mahafale country in the nineteenth century, where there coexisted three or four different kingdoms with a number of autonomous lineage communities (clans), who had their own territories and related independently with these kingdoms, never submitting to any of them. Some alliances existed, but there was no central political cohesion among the inhabitants of Mahafale, perhaps as the author suggests, due to the strong cohesion of each separate lineage. Instead of a more or less harmonious cohabitation among different powers operating in equilibrium for the common good, one finds the affirmation of powers and counter-powers in conflict. This was then easily exploited by the French colonial power, who found the political structures of Mahafale weakened through division.

estradejeanmarie 1985Estrade, Jean-Marie. 1985. Un culte de possession à Madagascar: Le tromba. Paris: L'Harmattan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
South-western,

everssandra&spindlermarc 1995Evers, Sandra, and Marc Spindler (eds.) 1995. Cultures of Madagascar: Ebb and flow of influences. Working papers series 2. Leiden: International Institute for Asian Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

fagerengedvin 1971Fagereng, Edvin. 1971. Une famille de dynasties malgaches. Zafindravola, Maroseraña, Zafimbolamena, Andrevola, Zafimañely. Instituttet For sammenlignende kulturforskning. Serie B: Skrifter 56. Oslo-Bergen-Tromsö: Universitetsforlaget.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Andrevola,
Masikoro,
South-western,
Zafindravola,
Bara,
Southern,

fagerengemile 1947Fagereng, Emile. 1947. Contribution à l'histoire de Madagascar. Histoire de la dynastie Zafindravola. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 26:49-54.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Andrevola,
Masikoro,
South-western,
Zafindravola,
Bara,
Southern,
Zafimanely,
Tsienimbalala,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),

Selected quotes:

  • On n'est pas au clair sur lequel de ces chefs conduisit une partie des Zafindravola, suivis de leurs sujets, les Tsienimbalala, vers leurs nouvelles habitations, mais il semble que les deux frères se soient d'abord établis à Lamatihy, au bord du Fiherena, à environ 120km de Tulear. Andrianomby est enterré à Bevato, au sud de Manera, dans cette même région. Tsimizetse poursuivit l'exode en remontant la rivière Manandone pour se fixer définitivement dans le Mikoboke, à l'ouest de la chaîne d'Analavelona. Il rencontra, à Trokomby, le chef Andrevola Faony. Un autre chef, Redrakake, était déjà partie pour Andakato, près de Manera, Tsimizetse occupa sa résidence vacante, près de Soatana.
    Tsimialo sétait d'abord tabli aux bords de Sakondry, non loin de Tongobory, et il y est enterré. Son fils, Manananto (ou Renanto) partit ensuite pour Mikoboke, il est reconnu comme roi des zafindravola émigrés(par qui-my question). Il occupe en même temps le poste de chef de canton.
    Les zqfindravola émigrés dans le Mikoboke ont toujours vécu en bons termes avec leurs voisins dans l'Ouest, les andrevola, et s'alliaient fréquemment avec eux pour se défendre contre les zafimanely, lorsque ces derniers envahirent le Bara-Imamono.
    Ils ont gardé leur indépendence jusqu'à l'arrivée des troupes françaises d'occupation. A ce moment, ils ont pris le parti de se sauver dans l'Analavelona, mais n'ont pas tardé à faire leur soumission.

fagerengemile 1950aFagereng, Emile. 1950a. Dynastie Andrevola. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 28:136-159.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Masikoro,
South-western,
Bara,
Southern,

Fagereng combines different sources to compile a very insightful history of the Andrevola, complete with a genealogy of the Andrevola chiefs until the turn of the last century. In the process, he draws links with other relevant groups of the time and fills in an essential chronology in the development of the population of Southwest Madagascar. He ends this article with a paragraph that might have suited the audiences of his time, but which sounds grotesque now: "Ainsi se termine le règne, peu glorieux; de la dynastie Andrevola (.). Il était donc temps qu'une grande nation civilisée se substituât à cette dynastie décadente, permettant aux forces civilisatrices et morales de la vieille Europe de réparer les dommages causés jusqu'alors par des trafiquants sans scrupules, et ouvrant à cette contrée une ère nouvelle de prospérité et de progrès" (158).
Sadly, the Southwest of Madagascar is still waiting for this new era of prosperity and progress.

fagerengemile 1950bFagereng, Emile. 1950b. Histoire des Maroseranana du Menabe. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s 28.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Menabe,
Western,

fagerengemile 1981Fagereng, Emile. 1981. Origine des dynasties ayant régné dans le sud et l'ouest de Madagascar. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 13-14:125-140.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Bara,
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

A very sketchy paper, difficult to follow, recounting the traditional origins of four Southern dynasties, all of whom claim "vazaha" ancestry.

fanonyfulgence 1986Fanony, Fulgence. 1986. A propos des Mikea. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 133-142, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mikea,
South-western,
Masikoro,

faridanonana 1978Faridanonana. 1978. Traits caractéristiques du dialecte Tsimihety. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 54(1-2):23-26.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tsimihety,
Northern,

faubleejacques&urbainfaubleem 1964Faublée, Jacques, and M. Urbain-Faublée. 1964. Quelques interdits 'fali' du sud-ouest de Madagascar. In Civilisation malgache. Série sciences humaines 1, 25-42, edited by Jean Poirier, and Siméon Rajaona. Antananarivo: Université de Madagascar, Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
South-western,

faubleejacques 1941aFaublée, Jacques. 1941a. Dans le sud de Madagascar. Deux ans chez les Bara. In Compte rendu des séances de l'Académie des sciences coloniales, 344-354, edited by Académie des Sciences coloniales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1941bFaublée, Jacques. 1941b. L'élevage chez les Bara du sud de Madagascar. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 11:115-123, pl. IV-V.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1942aFaublée, Jacques. 1942a. L'alimentation des Bara (sud de madagascar). Journal de la Société des Africanistes 12:157-201, pl. IV-VII.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1942bFaublée, Jacques. 1942b. La prière sacrificielle chez les Bara. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 12:259.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1943Faublée, Jacques. 1943. Démographie de Madagascar. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 13:209-213.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

faubleejacques 1946Faublée, Jacques. 1946. Ethnographie de Madagascar. Paris: Ed. de France et d'Outre-Mer - La Nouvelle Edition.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

faubleejacques 1947aFaublée, Jacques. 1947a. L'évolution des sociétés malgaches. La Revue de Madagascar 1947:73-81.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

faubleejacques 1947bFaublée, Jacques. 1947b. Récits Bara. Travaux et mémoires de l'institut d'ethnologie 48. Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1948aFaublée, Jacques. 1948a. A Madagascar: Les villages Bara, site, migration, évolution. Revue de géographie humaine et d'ethnographie 1:36-53.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1948bFaublée, Jacques. 1948b. Villages Bara. Revue de géographie humaine et d'ethnographie 1:36-53.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1950Faublée, Jacques. 1950. Les esprits helu et leur rôle dans les religions malgaches. Les esprits de la vie à Madagascar. PhD dissertation. Université de Paris.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1950Faublée, Jacques. 1950. La cohésion des sociétés Bara. PhD dissertation. Université de Paris.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1951aFaublée, Jacques. 1951a. L'équilibre d'une société malgache traditionnelle: Les Bara. Cahiers Charles de Foucauld 6(21):165-175.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1951bFaublée, Jacques. 1951b. Techniques divinatoires et magiques chez les Bara de Madagascar. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 21:127-138.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

faubleejacques 1952Faublée, Jacques. 1952. Sources de la littérature malgache. La Revue Française de l'Elite Européenne 36:81-83.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

faubleejacques 1954aFaublée, Jacques. 1954a. La cohésion des sociétés Bara. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

Jacques Faublée reports here on his very thorough research of the Bara people. It seems that he included every conceivable aspect of their existence. Even though this work was published in 1954, much of his insight into the Bara culture and way of life is still useful and extremely valuable to anyone interested in this people. Faublée is still widely quoted in more recent publications.
He does refer to the "perméabilité" of the Bara society, which suggests that some aspects may have changed since he wrote and which emphasizes the need for updating research on the Bara.

Selected quotes:

  • La société Bara ne différent pas des autres sociétés du Sud de Madagascar. Mais les représentations collectives opposent les Bara de vie traditionnelle aux immigrés venant du Nord, riziculteurs, commerçants et chrétiens (130).
  • Les Bara sont définis par le respect des représentations, collectives de leurs ancêtres. Ceci les intègre dans la civilisation de tout le Sud de Madagascar, qui respecte les normes traditionnelles et se méfie des innovations (142).
  • Les normes établies et respectées par les Bara de jadis, suivies encore en 1941 par leur descendants, survivront-elles à l'afflux d'immigrés chrétiens vivant en symbiose avec les pasteurs Bara? (142).
  • Tandruy et Mahafali venant du Sud sont proches des Bara, pasteurs aimant leurs boufs par-dessus tout (.). Souvant des Tanandru (ou Betsiléo) craignant les razzias des autochtones confient leurs troupeaux à des pasteurs bara (129).
  • Les Bara gardent nombre de représentations collectives: pour tous, l'agriculture, indispensable, reste méprisée, il est mieux d'accroître son troupeau et de laisser les terres à des immigrés. Tous dédaignent les travaux techniques et l'artisanat. Le commerce mercantile déshonore, et les Bara l'abandonnent aux émigrés. Ils répugnent à l'école et aux travaux administratifs, étrangers aux usages ancestraux.
    Les Bara attribuent une faible importance au lieu d'habitat qui ne forme que des liens temporaires, l'essentiel est l'origine de la grande famille raza (.).
    L'individu n'existe pas, il n'y a que des personnages éléments du groupe, inséparables de la collectivité familiale (.).
    Le respect de la coutume caractérise la société bara (.).
    Les Bara méprisent les contingences matérielles, s'intéressant avant tout aux éléments idéologiques (.). Dans cette société à base religieuse 'les morts gouvernent les vivants' (.) (136 -7).

faubleejacques 1954bFaublée, Jacques. 1954b. Les esprits de la vie à Madagascar. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Vazimba,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Bara,
Merina,
Central,
Betsileo,

faubleejacques 1959Faublée, Jacques. 1959. Les sociétés malgaches. Origine, formation et évolution. L'année sociologique 3:322-328.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

faubleejacques 1964Faublée, Jacques. 1964. Langue et dialectes malgaches. In Communications et rapports du premier Congrès International de Dialectologie Générale, edited by A. J. van Windekens. Louvain.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

faubleejacques 1965Faublée, Jacques. 1965. Notes sur quelques points de droit coutumier du sud de Madagascar. In Etudes de droit africain et de droit malgache. Etudes malgaches 16, 27-48, edited by Jean Poirier. Paris: Cujas.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern,

faubleejacques 1984Faublée, Jacques. 1984. Les etudes littéraires malgaches de Jean Paulhan. Journal des Africanistes 54(1):79-93.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

faubleejacques 1987Faublée, Jacques. 1987. Le crocodile et l'animal sauveur interdit. In Ethnologiques: Hommages à Marcel Griaule, 111-118, edited by Solange de Ganay, Annie Lebeuf, Jean-Paul Lebeuf, and Dominique Zahan. Paris: Hermann.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

faubleejacques 1992Faublée, Jacques. 1992. Notes sur un clan du sud-est de Madagascar. Journal des Africanistes 62(2):155-160.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,

Some information on the inhabitants of Savan and three neighbouring villages, Satra, Manarivu and Seranambari; research from 1956 - Antemuru, Antetsimetu, Anakara (re: the work of Suzy Bernu: origins of the Antetsimetu clan).

faubleemarcelle&faubleejacques 1950Faublée, Marcelle, and Jacques Faublée. 1950. Pirogues et navigation chez les Vezo du sud-ouest de Madagascar. L'Anthropologie 54:432-454.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,

faurouxemmanuel 1975Fauroux, Emmanuel. 1975. La formation Sakalava ou l'histoire d'une articulation ratée. PhD dissertation. Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

faurouxemmanuel 1987Fauroux, Emmanuel. 1987. Le bouf dans la vie économique et sociale de la vallée de la Maharivo (édition provisoire). Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

faurouxemmanuel 1989Fauroux, Emmanuel. 1989. Le bouf et le riz dans la vie économique et sociale de la vallée de la Maharivo. Aombe 2. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

faurouxemmanuel 1992Fauroux, Emmanuel. 1992. Les structures invisibles du pouvoir dans les villages Sakalava de la vallée de la Maharivo. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:61-74.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

fauveauvincent&fauveauclaire 1984Fauveau, Vincent, and Claire Fauveau. 1984. Mayotte, coutumes et traditions. A la découverte des mahorais. Collection Anchaing. Sainte-Suzanne, Réunion: Editions UDIR.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

feeleyharnikgillian 1978Feeley-Harnik, Gillian. 1978. Divine kinship and the meaning of history among the Sakalava of Madagascar. Man n.s. 13:402-417.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

feeleyharnikgillian 1986Feeley-Harnik, Gillian. 1986. Ritual and work in Madagascar. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 157-174, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

feeleyharnikgillian 1991Feeley-Harnik, Gillian. 1991. A green estate: Restoring independence in Madagascar. Smithsonian series in ethnographic enquiry. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava Analalava,
Sakalava,
Western,

Very insightful work on the Sakalava of the Analalava region.

Selected quotes:

  • The French conquered Madagascar in 1895, or more accurately, subdued diverse Malagasy polities over a period of several years beginning in 1895 (xix).
  • Monarchies flourished in several parts of Madagascar during the precolonial period, encompassing various groups of conquered peoples as well as slaves from Madagascar and Africa. The French abolished the highland monarchy when they conquered the island in 1895, while using members of other royal groups to govern some areas of the provinces through indirect rule. The Analalava region of the northwest coast was such an area. People there included migrants from all over the island who had come at different times for different purposes: the descendants of the Southern Bemihisatra branch of the Zafinimena (Grandchildren of Gold) or Maroserana dynasty, which had once dominated the west coast, as well as descendants of their former followers and slaves. The domains of the 'Sakalava', as they called themselves collectively, were founded in the course of migrations and conquests that lasted from the late 16th through the 19th century. By the early 20th century, Sakalava-the term for one of the eighteen officially recognized ethnies-were not known for moving about like Tsimihety, Merina, or Betsileo, ethnies identified with remnants of other pre-colonial polities. On the contrary, French ethnographers since the turn of the 20th century described the Sakalava as dying out in the face of more vigorous competitors for their land (2).
  • (.) the 'commotion' (rotaka) of 1972, widely seen as a second independence movement toward 'Malgachization' nationwide(2).
  • I conclude in this book that contemporary Malagasy preoccupations with ancestors, attributed to age-old tradition, are a reletavely recent development. The realm of the dead has expanded primarily because, in a complex way involving many different kinds of 'corpses', it has become the hidden abode of production. It is currently the principal place where still unresolved-perhaps unresolvable-struggles over labor and loyalty continue to be carried on, largely outside the law as any of the participants would define it (3).

fergusoncharlesa 1968bFerguson, Charles A. 1968b. St Stefan of perm and applied linguistics. In Language problems of developing nations, 253-265, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fernandezjamesw 1991Fernandez, James W. (ed.) 1991. Beyond metaphor: The theory of tropes in anthropology. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fernandezmf 1970Fernandez, M. F. 1970. Contribution à l'étude du peuplement ancien du lac Alaotra. Taloha 3:3-55.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sihanaka,
Central,

fettermandavidm 1997Fetterman, David M. 1997. Ethnography. Applied social research methods series 17. London: Sage Publications.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fieldingnigelg 1999Fielding, Nigel G. 1999. The norm and the text: Denzin and Lincoln's handbooks of qualitative method. British Journal of Sociology 50(3):525-535.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Research methodology,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Linguistics,

fielouxmichele&lombardjacques 1987Fieloux, Michèle, and Jacques Lombard. 1987. Elevage et société. Etude des transformations socio-économiques dans le sud-ouest malgache: L'exemple du couloir Antseva. Aombe 1. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Sakalava,
Masikoro,
South-western,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Bara,

firingamichaelignace 1971Firinga, Michaël Ignace. 1971. La dynastie des Maroseranana. Taloha 4:87-97.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

Very interesting observations on the origins of the Sakalava people. This article is a reprinted version of a study that first appeared in the "Revue de Madagascar," Sept 1901, pp. 658-672.

firingamichaelignace 1990Firinga, Michaël Ignace. 1990. Anthropologie vetero-testamenta et vision malgache de l'homme. Recherches et Documents 8:32-53.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

fischerann 1970Fischer, Ann (ed.) 1970. Current directions in anthropology. Washington, DC: American Anthropological Association.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

fishmanjoshuaa&gertnermichaelh&lowyestherg&milanwilliamg 1984Fishman, Joshua A., Michael H. Gertner, Esther G. Lowy, and William G. Milan. 1984. The rise and fall of the ethnic revival: Perspectives on language and ethnicity. Contributions to the sociology of language 37. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fishmanjoshuaa 1968bFishman, Joshua A. 1968b. Nationality-nationalism and nation-nationism. In Language problems of developing nations, 39-51, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

Selected quotes:

  • Thus the sociocultural nationality and the politico-geographic nation are rarely in phase with each other (42).
  • There are both direct and indirect ties between language and nationism as well as between language and nationalism (43).
  • It is nationalism that views self-identity, group-identity, and self-identity through group-identity as impossible (unthinkable) without a particular language rather than merely without a common language. For nationism, language questions are initially not questions of authenticity (identity) but of efficiency (cohesion) (44).
  • Linguists recognise language differences (whether in phonology, morphology, or syntax) that millions of native speakers consciously or unconsciously ignore (44).
  • Wolff claims that mutual intelligibility is largely a function of intergroup attitudes (44).
  • Differences do not need to be divisive. Divisiveness is an ideologised position and it can magnify major differences; indeed it can manufacture differences in languages as in other matters almost as easily as it can capitalize on more obvious differences. Similarly, unification is also an ideologized position and it can minimize seemingly major differences or ignore them entirely, whether these be in the realm of language, religion, culture, race, or any other basis of differentiation (45).

fishmanjoshuaa 1972Fishman, Joshua A. 1972. Language and ethnicity in minority sociolinguistic perspective. Multilingual matters 45. Clevedon, Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fishmanjoshuaa 1977Fishman, Joshua A. 1977. Language and ethnicity. In Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations, 15-57, edited by Howard Giles. London: Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fishmanjoshuaa 1991bFishman, Joshua A. 1991b. Reversing language shift. Clevedon, Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fishmanjoshuaa 1997Fishman, Joshua A. 1997. Bloomington, summer 1964: the birth of American sociolinguistics. In The early days of sociolinguistics. Memories and reflexions. SIL International: Publications in sociolinguistics, 87-95, edited by Christina Bratt Paulston, and G. Richard Tucker. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fishmanjoshuaa 1998Fishman, Joshua A. 1998. Language and ethnicity: The view from within. In The handbook of sociolinguistics. Blackwell handbooks in linguistics 4, edited by Florian Coulmas. Oxford: Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

foleywilliama 1997Foley, William A. 1997. Anthropological linguistics: An introduction. Language in society 24. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

fontoynont&roamandahy 1937Fontoynont, and Roamandahy. 1937. La grande Comore. Mémoires de l'Académie malgache 23. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

Interesting information on Malagasy incursions in the Comores.

fontoynont 1910Fontoynont. 1910. La légende des Kimosy. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache 7:51-59.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Kimosy,
Southern,
Bara,

fouchetmp 1981Fouchet, M.-P. 1981. Les peuples nus. Paris: Buchet/Chastel.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

freedleroyo 1977Freedle, Roy O. (ed.) 1977. Discourse production and comprehension. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,

freres 1958Frère, S. 1958. Madagascar. Panorame de l'Androy. Paris: Editions Aframpe.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

freudenbergerkarenschoonmaker 1999aFreudenberger, Karen Schoonmaker. 1999a. Course pour le corridor: Une étude sur l'économie familiale et la gestion de ressources naturelles dans la commune d'Ikongo, Madagascar. Une étude de cas basée sur la recherche MARP, effectuée du 12 au 19 juin 1999. Report, LDI. Fianarantsoa.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

galindodletticia 1995Galindo, D. Letticia. 1995. Language attitudes toward Spanish and English varieties: A Chicano perspective. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 17(1):77-100.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gallaghercharlesf 1980Gallagher, Charles F. 1980. North African problems and prospects: Language and identity. Language Problems and Language Planning 4(1):129-150.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gaoge&schmidtkarenl 1994Gao, Ge, and Karen L. Schmidt. 1994. Strength of ethnic identity and perceptions of ethnolinguistic vitality among Mexican Americans. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 16(3):332-342.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

Selected quotes:

  • The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between strength of ethnic identify and perceived group vitality. Mexican Americans in the Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan are perceived English and Anglos as more vital than Spanish and Mexican Americans. Ethnic identity had a significant influence on perceived in-group vitality but not on perceived out-group vitality. Respondents who strongly identified their ethnic group, perceived their group's vitality to be higher than did those who identified less strongly with their ethnic group. First language did not influence vitality perceptions.

gardenierwilliamjg 1986Gardenier, William J. G. 1986. Divination and kinship among the Sakalava of west Madagascar. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 337-351, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

gardmmdu 1934Gard, M. M. du. 1934. Le voyage de Madagascar. Paris: Flammarion.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gaulmefrancois 1992Gaulme, François. 1992. Tribus, ethnies, frontières. Afrique Contemporaine 164:43-49.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

A discussion of the terms "tribu," "ethnie," and how these have changed over time. Interesting exposure of the prejudice that calls the problems of the South African Zulu nation "tribalism," whereas the problems of the Slovaks and the Croats in Eastern Europe are in the league of "nationalism." Some good arguments in the light of the term 'ethnie,' "being one of the least theorised notions in the anthropological and ethnological discipline" (43).

geertzc 1963Geertz, C. 1963. Old societies and new states: The quest for modernity in Asia and Africa. Glencoe, Illinois: Free Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

geffrec 1984Geffre, C. 1984. Théologie et choc des cultures. Colloque de L 'institut Catholique de Paris. Cogitatio Fidei 121. Paris: Cerf.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

geffrec 1988Geffre, C. 1988. Le Christianisme au risque de l'interprétation. Cogitatio Fidei 120. Paris: Cerf.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

genetteg 1980Genette, G. 1980. Narrative discourse: An essay in method. Translated by J.E. Lewin. New York: Cornell University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,

genetteg 1982Genette, G. 1982. Figures of literary discourse. Translated by 1. Sheridan. New York: Columbia University.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,

genetteg 1988Genette, G. 1988. Narrative discourse revisited. Translated by J E Lewin. New York: Cornell University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Applied linguistics,
Linguistics,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,

genetteg 1992Genette, G. 1992. The architext. Translated by J E Lewin. Berkeley: University of California Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Research,
Linguistics,

gennepavan 1904Gennep, A. van. 1904. Tabou et totémisme à Madagascar. Etude descriptive et théorique. Paris: E. Leroux.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gernboecklotte 1958Gernböck, Lotte. 1958. Die Krankheiten bei den Eingeborenen Madagaskars ethnologisch und ethno-medizinisch betrachtet. PhD dissertation. Universität Wien.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gernboecklotte 1961aGernböck, Lotte. 1961a. Bericht Über Eine Studienreise nach Madagaskar von März bis Oktober 1961. Wiener Völkerkundliche Mitteilungen 9(1-4):69-71.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

gernboecklotte 1961bGernböck, Lotte. 1961b. Zur Frage der Kleinwüchsigen in Madagaskar. Archiv für Völkerkunde 16:23-28.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gernboecklotte 1962aGernböck, Lotte. 1962a. Dringende Forschungsaufgaben in Madagaskar. Bulletin of the International Committee on Urgent Anthropological and Ethnological Research 5:45-47.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Research,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gernboecklotte 1965aGernböck, Lotte. 1965a. Beiträge Zur Kennttnis von Ehe- und Familiensitten in Madagaskar. Mitteilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft 95:49-54.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gernboecklotte 1965bGernböck, Lotte. 1965b. Die Vazimbafrage. Anzeiger der philosophisch-historischen Klasse der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 102:86-92.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vazimba,
Western,

gernboecklotte 1966aGernböck, Lotte. 1966a. Im unerforschten Madagaskar. Wien-Munchen: Jugend und Volk.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gernboecklotte 1966bGernböck, Lotte. 1966b. Quelques observations dans un village Mahafaly-Karimbola. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 42(2):25-28.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,
Karimbola (Karembola),

gernboecklotte 1967aGernböck, Lotte. 1967a. Die Vazimba. Bulletin of the International Committee on Urgent Anthropological and Ethnological Research 9:27-30.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vazimba,
Western,

gernboecklotte 1967bGernböck, Lotte. 1967b. Vorläufiger Bericht Über Eine Völkerkundliche Forschungsreise nach Madagaskar. Anzeiger der philosophisch-historischen Klasse der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 104:8-l2.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gileshoward&bourhisrichardyvon&taylordonaldm 1977Giles, Howard, Richard Yvon Bourhis, and Donald M. Taylor. 1977. Towards a theory of language in ethnic group relations. In Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations, 307-349, edited by Howard Giles. London: Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gileshoward&couplandnikolas 1991Giles, Howard, and Nikolas Coupland. 1991. Language: Contexts and consequences. Buckingham: Open University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gileshoward&johnsonp 1981Giles, Howard, and P. Johnson. 1981. The role of language in ethnic group relations. In Intergroup behavior, 199-243, edited by J. C. Turner, and Howard Giles. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gileshoward&johnsonp 1987Giles, Howard, and P. Johnson. 1987. Ethnolinguistic identity theory: A social psychological approach to language maintenance. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 68:69-99.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gileshoward 1977Giles, Howard (ed.) 1977. Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations. London: Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gintzburgeralphonse 1982Gintzburger, Alphonse. 1982. Accommodation to poverty: The case of the Malagasy peasant communities. Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines 23:419-442.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

An attempt to explain the accommodation of poverty in Malagasy peasant communities, as an oral-sadistic fixation in Freudian terms. Some interesting thoughts on the existence of e.g. the mpaka-fo myth and on the importance of firaisana and the occurrence of witchcraft as a means to check progress, as well as on the rituals and beliefs concerning the ancestors.

giveletnoel 1978Givelet, Noël. 1978. The fokonolona of Madagascar or the expression of a collective spirit. Ceres 63:31-37.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

goedefroitsophie 1992Goedefroit, Sophie. 1992. Analyse des coutumes d'ensevelissement des corps chez les Sakalava du Menabe: Manifestations d'ordre lignager et affirmation d'une hierarchie sociale. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:223-234.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Menabe,

goedefroitsophie 1998Goedefroit, Sophie. 1998. A l'ouest de Madagascar: Les Sakalava du Menabe. Collection "hommes et sociétés". Paris: Editions Karthala.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern Sakalava,
Sakalava,
Western,
Sakalava Menabe,
Vezo,
Masikoro,
South-western,

graeberdavid 1997Graeber, David. 1997. Painful memories. Journal of Religion in Africa 27(4):374-400.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

grandidieralfred&grandidierguillaume 1891Grandidier, Alfred, and Guillaume Grandidier. 1891. Funeral ceremonies among the Malagasy. The Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine 15:304-320.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

grandidieralfred&grandidierguillaume 19081928Grandidier, Alfred, and Guillaume Grandidier. 1908-1928. Ethnographie de Madagascar. 4 vols. Histoire physique, naturelle et politique de Madagascar 4. Paris: Societé d'Editions géographiques, maritimes et coloniales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

grandidierguillaume 1899Grandidier, Guillaume. 1899. Mours des Mahafaly. La Revue de Madagascar 1(3):175-185.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

grandidierguillaume 1902Grandidier, Guillaume. 1902. Dans le sud de Madagascar. Mission Grandidier. La Revue de Madagascar 4(3):219-224.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern,

grandidierguillaume 1956Grandidier, Guillaume. 1956. Histoire politique et coloniale: Histoire des Merina (1861-1897). Histoire physique, naturelle et politique de Madagascar 5. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

grilloralph 1989aGrillo, Ralph. 1989a. Anthropology, language, politics. In Social anthropology and the politics of language. The sociological review 36, 1-24, edited by Ralph Grillo. London and New York: Routledge.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

grilloralph 1989bGrillo, Ralph (ed.) 1989b. Social anthropology and the politics of language. The sociological review 36. London and New York: Routledge.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

Selected quotes:

  • In their different ways, linguistic anthropologists, 'sociolinguists' (such as Labov in the United States and Trudgill in Britain) and 'sociologists of language' (outstandingly Fishman and Haugen) have each helped rescue language from the transformationalists (3).

grimesbarbaraf 1986Grimes, Barbara F. 1986. Evaluating bilingual proficiency in language groups for cross-cultural communication. Notes on Linguistics 33:5-27.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,
Anthropology and ethnology,

grottanellivl 1965Grottanelli, V. L. 1965. Ethnologica. L'uomo e la civilità. 3 Vol. Milano: Labor.

language(s):
Italian
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

gudykunstwilliamb&hallb&schmidtkarenl&tingtoomeys 1989Gudykunst, William B., B. Hall, Karen L. Schmidt, and S. Ting-Toomey. 1989. Language and intergroup communication. In Handbook of international and intercultural communication, 145-162, edited by M. Asante, and William B. Gudykunst. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gudykunstwilliamb&schmidtkarenl 1988Gudykunst, William B., and Karen L. Schmidt. 1988. Language and ethnic identity: An overview and prologue. In Language and ethnic identity, 1-14, edited by William B. Gudykunst. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gudykunstwilliamb 1988Gudykunst, William B. (ed.) 1988. Language and ethnic identity. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

guerinmichel 1969Guérin, Michel. 1969. Les transformations socio-économiques de l'Androy. Antananarivo: Université de Madagascar.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

guerinmichel 1977Guérin, Michel. 1977. Le défi: L'Androy et l'appel à la vie. Collection "Gasikarako". Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

Anyone interested in the Tandroy people of Madagascar, should read this work. Michel Guérin wrote about his experiences in Androy with understanding and with respect. This is not an academic work, but is an excellent source.

gueuniernoeljacques&raharinjanaharysolo 1993Gueunier, Noël Jacques, and Solo Raharinjanahary. 1993. Vocabulaire médical d'après l'enquête de l'Académie malgache de 1912. Atlas linguistique et ethnographique de Madagascar. Travaux préliminaires 3. Strasbourg: Université des Sciences Humaines.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gueuniernoeljacques&raharinjanaharysolo 1998Gueunier, Noël Jacques, and Solo Raharinjanahary. 1998. Raki-pandihana: Etudes de linguistique, d'anthropologie et de littérature malgaches offertes au Professeur Siméon Rajaona. Fianarantsoa: Editors.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gueuniernoeljacques&raharinjanaharysolo&rasoamalalavaoclaire 1992Gueunier, Noël Jacques, Solo Raharinjanahary, and Claire Rasoamalalavao. 1992. Une enquête sur les noms des parties du corps. Atlas linguistique et ethnographique de Madagascar. Travaux préliminaires 1. Strasbourg: Université des Sciences Humaines.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gueuniernoeljacques 1985Gueunier, Noël Jacques. 1985. Contes de la côte ouest de Madagascar. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Makoa,
Masikoro,
South-western,

gueuniernoeljacques 1986Gueunier, Noël Jacques. 1986. Lexique du dialecte malgache de Mayotte (comores). Etudes Océan Indien 7. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,

gueuniernoeljacques 1992aGueunier, Noël Jacques. 1992a. La genèse de l'homme blanc. Récits d'origine du sud-ouest de Madagascar. In Le scribe et la grande maison. Etudes Océan Indien 15, 227-244, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
South-western,

gueuniernoeljacques 1993aGueunier, Noël Jacques. 1993a. "Aucune langue n'est indigne de louer Dieu". Poèmes Musulmans malgaches en dialecte Sakalava (deuxième recueil). Transcrits et traduits par NJ Gueunier. In Religions. Etudes Océan Indien 16, 87-103, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

Some interesting remarks in the introduction to the poems.

Selected quotes:

  • D'ailleurs on se moque de ceux dont la conversion n'est que superficielle en les appelant des "Silamo kofia, " des "Musulmans seulement par le bonnet" (.) (88).
  • A Madagascar comme dans bien d'autres contrées, l'islam populaire est mêlée de pratiques magiques diverses: astrologie, divination, commerce des amulettes, etc. Les Musulmans partout qu'une toute petite minorité, se voient attribuer par la superstition populaires des pouvoirs extraordinaires de guérisseurs et de magiciens (88).
  • L'emploi du malgache pour des chants religieux a besoin d'une justification. Il se heurte en effet à une vive opposition des musulmans traditionalistes: toute traduction en langue vulgaire est dès l'abord ressentie comme un risque de trahison du message divin, exprimé de manière parfaite et inimitable dans le Coran, révélé "en claire langue arabe. " (89).
  • Les Malgaches musulmans zanatany, les "enfants de la terre," ou "enfants du pays" forment aujourd'hui une communauté qui a ses institutions-précisément la confrérie shadhuli, implantée en terre malgache depuis les dernières années du XIXe siècle par le sheikh Ahmad al-Kabir. Quant à la langue, elle n'a rien d'indigne en elle-même (.). On peut et on doit en user pour "mikosifo Ndranahary" "faire la louange de Dieu. " (89).

gueuniernoeljacques 1993bGueunier, Noël Jacques. 1993b. L'arche de Noë dans l'Océan Indien, un thème d'origine de l'homme dans les contes malgaches et Comoriens. In Religions. Etudes Océan Indien 16, 145-169, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

gueuniernoeljacques 1994Gueunier, Noël Jacques. 1994. Les chemins de l'Islam à Madagascar. Paris: L'Harmattan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana),
Northern,
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,
Anjoaty,

gueuniernoeljacques 1995Gueunier, Noël Jacques. 1995. La maladie et la guérison chez les Masikoro de la région de Tulear (sud-ouest de madagascar) diagnostiquer et guérir. Thèse de Bertin Ramamonjisoa. In Diagnostiquer et guérir à Madagascar. Etudes Océan Indien 19, 115-119, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Masikoro,
South-western,

gumperzjohnj 1982Gumperz, John J. 1982. Language and social identity. Studies in interactional sociolinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

haarmanharald 1986Haarman, Harald. 1986. Language in ethnicity. A view of basic ecological relations. Contributions to the sociology of language 44. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

Selected quotes:

  • As language is involved in interethnic relations, it is only a language-oriented view of ecology which can provide the key for understanding ethnicity and its place in the network of ecological relations (2).
  • Language ecology is not specified as a special subject or area of language sociology. The ecology of language is not a field of research with a limited sphere of application or of objects investigated. Rather it is based on principles of sociolinguistic analysis. Thus language ecology is valuable as a methodology in the sociology of language dealing as it does with the principles underlying the sociological study of language (2).
  • One can view language ecology as an attempt to find ecological principles applicable to the social study of language, an attempt to construct models of ecological relations for the purpose of elaborating a general theory about such relations. With such a theory, language ecology could serve as an integrating research perspective, one which promises progress in reaching the general goal of sociolinguistic studies. If one shares the view of Grimshaw that this general goal is the examination of the interaction of language structure and social structure and of the interimplications of speech behavior and social behavior (1971:93) then the application of ecology related principles is likely to become a favoured methodology for sociologists (3).
  • Language ecology should cover the whole network of social relations which control the variability of languages and their modal speakers' behavior (3).

halle 1976Hall, E. 1976. Beyond culture. New York: Doubleday.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

hameljacques 1993Hamel, Jacques. 1993. The case study in sociology: The contribution of methodological research in the French language. Canadian Review of Sociology & Anthropology 30(4).

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

A very clear, convincing argument for the appropriateness of the case study approach in sociology, on condition that the objectives of the study are clearly formulated.

hatchmaryjo 1996Hatch, Mary Jo. 1996. The role of the researcher: An analysis of narrative position in organization theory. Journal of Management Inquiry 5(4):359-375.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Social sciences - other,
Research,
Linguistics,

Explores the role of the researcher in terms of "narrative position," showing how traditional ethnography and modernist organizational theory has placed the researcher on the outside of the study object.

hatfielddeborah&lewismpaul 1996Hatfield, Deborah, and M. Paul Lewis. 1996. Surveying ethnolinguistic vitality. Notes on Literature in Use and Language Programs 48:34-47.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,
Anthropology and ethnology,

haugeneinar 1968Haugen, Einar. 1968. The Scandinavian languages as cultural artifacts. In Language problems of developing nations, 267-284, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

haugeneinar 1972mHaugen, Einar. 1972m. Semicommunication: The language gap in Scandinavia. In The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen. Language science and national development series, linguistic research group of Pakistan, 215-236, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Research,
Anthropology and ethnology,

hebertjeanclaude 1958Hébert, Jean-Claude. 1958. Couleurs et robes de boufs dans l'Ambongo. Bulletin de Madagascar 36:223-240.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

hebertjeanclaude 1960Hébert, Jean-Claude. 1960. Quelques notes sur les Marques d'oreilles de boufs. Naturaliste Malgache 12:167-179.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

hebertjeanclaude 1965Hébert, Jean-Claude. 1965. La cosmographie ancienne malgache suivie de l'enumeration des points cardinaux et l'importance du nord-est. Taloha 1:83-195.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,

hebertjeanclaude 1971aHébert, Jean-Claude. 1971a. Madagascar et Malagasy. Histoire d'un double nom de baptême. Bulletin de Madagascar 302-303:583-613.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

hebertjeanclaude 1971bHébert, Jean-Claude. 1971b. Notes sur les Vazimba du Betsiriry. Bulletin de Madagascar 304:721-733.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vazimba,
Western,

hebertjeanclaude 1992aHébert, Jean-Claude. 1992a. Le droit et le crochu: Les concepts de "droit" et de "justice" en malgache d'après la sémantique diachronique. In Le scribe et la grande maison. Etudes Océan Indien 15, 69-92, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

hebertm 1960Hébert, M. 1960. Les calendriers provinciaux malgaches. Bulletin de Madagascar 172:809-820.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

heckeledouard 1910Heckel, Edouard. 1910. Les plantes utiles de Madagascar. Marseille: Annales du Musée colonial de Marseille.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

heurtebizegeorges 1981Heurtebize, Georges. 1981. Les progressions démographique et spatiale chez les Antandroy vues à travers le clan des Afomarolahy. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 13-14:113-121.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Afomarolahy,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

George Heurtebize presents here an excerpt from his very detailed study on the Afomarolahy, published later in book form. He explains very clearly the hierarchy among Tandroy lineages, giving examples to illustrate. He points out that the Afomarolahy form part of the Renivave (or Renive) group of Antandroy and constitutes, together with the Afondriambita and the Afomilaha, the three main subgroups of Renivave. In marriage, a man may take a wife from his own lineage or from a different Afomarolahy line, or from a different clan within the Renivave or, more rarely, from a non-Renivave group, but always respecting the rule of belonging to the same generation from the furthest ancestor. The author makes interesting applications from his detailed studies, such as the calculation that based on information collected and present numbers of Afomarolahy, one can project that three centuries before, there were very few of them (a small family) who started off the migratory process from the South (well known in oral traditions), by the mouth of the Manabovo River and later, when the population increased, moved further northwards in search of open land.
It should be feasible to record the full history of the Tandroy and other peoples, working backwards, as this researcher has done with one group.

Selected quotes:

  • Le territoire dénommé Androy ne correspond pas à une unité géologique ou géographique; à ces points de vue il présente au contraire des caractères fort diversifiés. La définition de l'Androy est purement humaine: c'est la patrie des Antandroy. Aussi ses limites ne sont-elles pas absolument fixes, mais tendent-elles à s'écarter toujours davantage en suivant l'expansion de la population antandroy. Actuellement ces limites s'établissent sensiblement à l'ouest le long de la rivière Menarandra, à l'est au pied des chaînes anosyennes à partir de l'embouchure du fleuve Mandrare, au nord suivant une ligne sinueuse passant à Bekily et au sud de Beraketa; non que, au nord de cette ligne, il n'y ait plus d'Antandroy, mais ils n'y sont plus seuls. Pour un habitant des environs d'Antanimora, au centre de la région envisagée, la limite nord de l'Androy se situe une vingtaine de kilomètres au sud de Beraketa. Pourtant, s'il doit faire un voyage vers le sud, vers Tsihombe ou Beloha, il dira: "Nous partons dans l'Androy"; ce qui sous-entend qu'en fait, il ne considère pas la région qu'il occupe comme faisant partie de l'Androy véritable.
    C'est qu'en effet toute la région centrale de l'Androy actuel est d'occupation récente. On peut même dire qu'elle reste encore maintenant en voie de colonisation ou d'appropriation, car d'année en année on y voit apparaître de nouveaux villages. L'histoire des déplacements récents peut être étudiée et précisée à partir d'un groupe bien défini (.)(113).
  • Les Afomarolahy font partie du groupe des Renivave, ou Renive, le plus important sans doute des divers groupes antandroy, au moins par son extension géographique. Les Renivave occupent en effet une région allongée en Sud-Nord sur 70km environ, commençant 20 à 30 km au nord de Tsihombe et allant au nord presque jusqu'à la limite de l'Androy. Les Renivave se divisent en plusieurs sous-groupes dont les trois plus importantes sont les Afomarrolahy, les Afondriambita et les Afomihala. Les Afomarolahy sont les plus nombreux. L'effectif des Afondriambita est plus réduit, celui des Afomihala davantage encore (115).
  • Les Afomarolahy occupent la partie sud du territoire des Renivave. Leurs derniers villages ne dépassent guère au nord la latitude d'AndalaTanôsy. Ils s'étendent donc sur une bande de terrain longue d'une cinquantaine de kilomètres, et dont la largeur est d'une vingtaine de kilomètres entre la rivière Manambovo à l'ouest et la grande route de Fort-Dauphin à l'est.
    Le premier arbre généalogique (.) concerne le village d'Analamahery, situé 20km au nord-ouest d'Antanimora. Il s'étend sur huit générations. Il comporte, en plus des noms des maillons de la chaîne familiale, les noms des conjoints ou des conjointes avec le clan et le village d'origine, et l'emplacement des tombeaux. Cet arbre génalogique recouvre la totalité d'un groupe qui se dénomme les Maromainty. La filiation se faisant en ligne patrilinéaire, à chaque génération les femmes nées d'un père maromainty sont elles-mêmes maromainty, mais leurs enfants, si elles se marient en dehors du groupe, ne le sont pas eux-mêmes: ils n'apparaissent donc pas dans l'arbre généalogique des Maromainty, mais dans les arbres généalogiques des groupes voisins (.).
    La première génération (de Maromainty) est représentée par un homme unique, Tsimiantoa, qui a dû naître vers 1800; la deuxième génération par ses trois fils, (.) (115).
  • (.) Actuellement les Maromainty, hommes et femmes, sont environ 300, vivant tous dans le village d'Analamahery, à l'exception, bien entendu, des femmes mariées dans d'autres villages et de ceux qui sont partis chercher du travail dans de lointaines régions de Madagascar (émigration en général temporaire, mais dans certains cas cependant quasi définitive) (116).
  • (.) Tsimiantoa avait trois frères qui ont fait souche de la façon que lui. Leur descendants peuplent plusieurs agglomérations qui forment le long village d'Antanandava, 4km à l'ouest d'Analamahery. De même que Tsimiantoa est l'ancêtre unique des Maromainty, Tsimagnola est l'ancêtre unique des Marofoty, Taindraza l'ancêtre unique des Marotsontsa, et Voriay l'ancêtre unique des Tebagnake. Le père des quatre frères est donc, lui, l'ancêtre unique des quatre branches, que recouvre le nom général de Tandranatelo. Tous les Tandranatelo, au nombre de 1000 environ, sont donc des cousins plus ou moins éloignés. C'est bien ainsi qu'ils se ressentent, comme des parents proches (.). Les Tandranatelo possèdent pour eux tous un seul poteau sacré hazomanga.
    (.) Mais revenons maintenant aux Afomarolahy. Les Tandranatelo sont en effet un de la quinzaine de lignages qui constitue le clan des Afomarolahy. Certains de ces lignages sont plus importants que celui des Tandranatelo, d'autres moins (.). Un des lignages les plus fournis est celui des Marokobo (.) (qui) peuplent quatre gros villages dispersés du sud au nord de l'aire couverte par les Afomarolahy. De même que les Tandranatelo sont divisés en quatre sous-lignages, les Marokobo, et aussi les autres lignages des Afomarolahy, sont également subdivisés. Mais quel que soit le nombre de ses membres et la dispersion actuelle de ses implantations, chaque lignage ne possède qu'un seul poteau sacré hazomanga (sauf accident temporaire provenant par exemple de querelle à l'intérieur d'un lignage) devant lequel tout le monde se retrouve pour le Savatse,la cérémonie préparatoire à la circoncision (117).
  • Tous les Afomarolahy ont conscience d'être apparentés, alors que l'appartenance au groupe plus vaste des Renivave avec les Afondriambita et les Afomihala ne paraît pas susciter à l'égard de ces derniers un sentiment de réelle parenté. Tous, disent-ils, ont un ancêtre commun. Le nom d'Andriamarolahy est souvent prononcé, mais le souvenir des filiations entre Andriamarolahy et les ancêtres situés à la racine de chaque lignage s'est perdu. Sauf peut-être chez un vieil homme (né vers 1890), habitant près de Jafaro et nommé Fanambinae, ou plus couramment Imbina. Il est dépositaire d'une tradition orale qui donne ce qui serait le fond généalogique commun à tous les Afomarolahy. Andriamarolahy serait un Bara Zafemaroza venu avec cinq fils de la région de Vangaindrano. Tous ont été accueillis par le roi antandroy des Temagnorikandro, qui habitait la région de Faralambo, à l'embouchure de la Manambovo. Les cinq fils se sont mariés là, et sont à l'origine des Afomarolahy (.) (117).
  • (.) Il faut cependant noter que deux lignages, même s'ils se considèrent comme entièrement Afomarolahy, se sont adjoints aux descendents d'Andriamarolahy sans en descendre eux-mêmes. Il s'agit des Tandranatelo et des Tantsaha. L'ancêtre des Tandranatelo est en réalité un Bara qui, avec son cousin, l'ancêtre des Tantsaha, est venu prendre femme parmi les Afomarolahy. Les descendants de ces deux hommes se sont intégrés complètement au clan. Mais pour les calculs de progression démographique, il faut donc soustraire ces deux lignages de la descendance réelle d'Andria marolahy-encore qu'ils en descendent cependant, mais par les femmes (118).
  • (.) dès (l'époque de Tsimiantoa) existait la complète liberté de choix qui préside encore maintenant à la conclusion des mariages. C'est-à-dire qu'un homme peut prendre comme épouse dans son propre lignage une parenté très proche (cousine germaine) ou une cousine plus éloignée; ou bien une parenté plus lointaine dans un autre lignage des Afomarolahy; ou bien une fille d'un autre clan que les Afomarolahy à l'intérieur des Renivave; ou bien enfin, plus rarement, une "étrangère" appartenant à un autre groupe, non Renivave. La seule règle, qui est et a toujours été respectée, est que les conjointes doivent appartenir à la même génération à partir de l'ancêtre commun, si éloigné soit-il. C'est d'ailleurs un excellent moyen de contrôler les uns par les autres les arbres généalogiques des différents lignages, en vérifiant que les multiples mariages qui y apparaissent de l'un et de l'autre n'enfreignent pa cette règle (119).
  • (.)Le village d'Analamahery a été créé vers 1920, en terrain libre, ce qui ne veut pas dire que personne auaravant n'avait occupé ces parages. Sans remonter au peuplement très ancien qui n'apparaît dans aucune tradition orale, mais dont on trouve de nombreuses traces archéologiques, une vague antandroy au moins avait précédé dans cette région les actuels occupants. Il s'agissait de forgerons qui ont laissé de nombreux témoins de leur travail et que la tradition dit avoir été des Tebekitro, qui sont ensuite partis vers l'ouest, ou ils ont fondé le village de Bekitro.
    Les parents et grands-parents des vieillards actuels avaient connu plusieurs étapes avant d'arriver à Analamahery, la plus importante de beaucoup étant celle d'Andragnanivo, 30 km au sud d'Antanimora. Tous les lignages afomarolahy, qui à cette époque ne s'étaient pas encore dispersés, ont fait en commun une longue station à Andragnanivo, et ce lieu est considéré par tous comme la "terre des ancêtres" par excellence (.) (119).
  • (.) Les noms des diverses étapes sont restés dans la mémoire de beaucoup (.) Successivement: Antsera, puis Kobaignabo, (.) puis Lahabe, 8 km au sud-est d'Andragnanivo, où beaucoup d'ancêtres ont leur tombeaux, enfin Andragnanivo (.). Tous les Afomarolahy sont restés groupés jusqu'à Andragnanivo. La dispersion des divers lignages à partir d'Andragnanivo a commencé un peu avant 1900, pour cause de pression démographique (.). Les hameaux créés il y a 40 à 60 ans sont devenus autant de villages, et l'on comprend pourquoi chacun de ces villages, encore maintenant, constitue une seule grande famille dont tous les individus trouvent place sur un arbre généalogique unique (120).
  • En résumé, les Afomarolahy, initialement petite famille habitant près de la mer à l'embouchure de la Manambavo, ont progressivement remonté vers le nord, en restant groupés, jusqu'à Andragnanivo. C'est de là qu'après une longue station s'est faite vers 1900, sous la poussée démographique qui imposait à chaque groupe d'aller plus loin chercher de nouvelles terres, la dispersion des lignages sur le vaste territoire (.).
    (.) les voisins des Afomarolahy ont connu des cheminements comparables, c'-est-à-dire qu'ils sont partis de l'embouchure de la Manambovo pour remonter vers le nord. C'est en particulier le cas des Afondriambita (dont l'ancêtre est venu de l'Anosy) et des Afomihala, Renivave comme les Afomarolahy, et qui ont habité Andragnanivo avec ces derniers. C'est aussi le cas des Milahe, les voisins actuels des Afomarolahy de l'autre côté de la Manambovo, qui ont été longtemps des ennemis contre qui se livraient des batailles meurtrières (120).

heurtebizegeorges 1986aHeurtebize, Georges. 1986a. Histoire des Afomarolahy (clan Tandroy, extrème-sud de madagascar). Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Afomarolahy,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Karimbola (Karembola),

Georges Heurtebize produced an easy-to-read ethnographic reference work of the Tandroy, referring to history, and describing their customs, their way of life, etc., with an analytical index for quick reference. Although, as the title indicates, this work concerns mainly the Afomarolahy clan, one gains from it an excellent understanding of the Tandroy people in general.

heurtebizegeorges 1986cHeurtebize, Georges. 1986c. Quelques aspects de la vie dans l'Androy. Travaux et documents 24. Antananarivo: Musee d'art et d'archeologie, Universite de Madagascar.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

heurtebizegeorges 1997Heurtebize, Georges. 1997. Mariage et deuil dans l'extrème-sud de Madagascar. Collection repères pour Madagascar et l'océan Indien. Paris: L'Harmattan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

hoernerjeanmichel 1982Hoerner, Jean-Michel. 1982. Les vols de boufs dans le sud malgache. Madagascar. Revue de Géographie 41:85-105.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern,

hoernerjeanmichel 1986Hoerner, Jean-Michel. 1986. Géographie régionale du sud-ouest de Madagascar. Antananarivo: Association des Géographes de Madagascar.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
South-western,

More than a handbook on Geography, this study is a discovery of the southwest of Madagascar in terms of population, history, development, and way of life. It is the result of more than ten years' experience of the region. Hoerner answers many questions one might have on the South and its people.

hoernerjeanmichel 1988Hoerner, Jean-Michel. 1988. L'espace migratoire des Mahafale, facteur de cohésion et de développement. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 28:113-121.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

The Mahafaly people have a remarkable faculty to adapt and although they were traditionally herdsmen and farmers, are now becoming craftsmen and traders. This, argues Hoerner, does not destroy the social cohesion they have known, but shows cohesion in the transition they experience.

hoggmichaela&rigolininetta 1996Hogg, Michael A., and Ninetta Rigoli. 1996. Effects of ethnolinguistic vitality, ethnic identification, and linguistic contacts on minority language use. Journal of language and social psychology 15(1):76-90.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

hoggmichaela 1995Hogg, Michael A. 1995. Intra group processes, group structure and social identity. In Social groups and identities, edited by W. P. Robinson. Oxford: Butterworth-Heineman.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

horvathbarbaram&vaughanpaul 1991Horvath, Barbara M., and Paul Vaughan. 1991. Community languages: A handbook. Multilingual matters 67. Clevedon, Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

The chapter on sociolinguistic profiles represents very relevant reading for sociolinguistic surveyors in that the author gives clear and succinct definitions of different sociolinguistic profiles that are found in language/speech communities. The term "community languages" is the Australian term for what the Canadians call "heritage languages," replacing terms like "migrant" language or "foreign" language, indicating a shift from assimilationist to multiculturalist attitudes on the part of language politicians.

houkjames 1996Houk, James. 1996. Anthropological theory and the breakdown of eclectic folk religions. Journal for the scientific study of religion 35(4):442-448.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

houlderja 1881Houlder, J. A. 1881. Madagascar and its proverbs. The Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine 2:58-75.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

houlderja 1894Houlder, J. A. 1894. Ohabolana, or wit and wisdom of the Hova of Madagascar. The Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine 18:188-204.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

houlderja 1960Houlder, J. A. 1960. Ohabolana ou proverbes malgaches. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Luthérienne.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

An excellent collection of proverbs, with a very interesting introduction by this missionary of the LMS who holds the traditional prejudice that the Merina "are intellectually superior to the other peoples of Madagascar" (III).

houtmanfrederickde 1603Houtman, Frederick de. 1603. Spraeckende woord-boeck inde Maleysche ende Madagascarsche talen met vele Arabische ende Turcsche woorden. Amsterdam: Jan Evertsz.

language(s):
Dutch
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

huebschbruno&bethazgiustino 1987Hübsch, Bruno, and Giustino Bethaz. 1987. Ny tantaran'ny Fiangonana. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

huebschbruno&raliberadaniel 1994Hübsch, Bruno, and Daniel Ralibera. 1994. Pour une histoire oecuménique du Christianisme à Madagascar. Recherches et Documents 17:21-32.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

huebschbruno 1993Hübsch, Bruno. 1993. Madagascar et le Christianisme. Histoire Ocuménique. Antananarivo: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

This excellent and well-researched work covers a wide range of topics relating to the religious and cultural history of the Malagasy people and their ancestors, as well as to church history, in general. It is essential background study-material for any student or researcher of Madagascar. Pertinent facts and tremendous insights blend together to present life in Madagascar as it was, in the nineties, explaining all the complicated relationships between churches and state and among churches, showing the importance of the church in Malagasy life. It analyses some of the divisions that exist and presents some of the problems in achieving the unity that seems so important to this nation. One would wish for a similar work to be written for every nation on the face of the earth!
This team effort to describe Christianity in Madagascar has produced an excellent bank of information, which should be read by anyone with an interest in the country, especially by Christian workers. It takes decades to understand Malagasy culture a little, especially if one comes from a different background, but this scholarly work provides insights that can go a long way as an introduction to many aspects of worldview, history, anthropology, origins, and many other subjects. With more than twenty different authors participating, the problem of reflecting a particular bias is side-stepped, at least to an extent.

Selected quotes:

  • Many quotes worth mentioning, but one in particular, namely:
  • Comment Madagascar pourrait-il avoir un texte biblique commun, alors que l'on prononce différemment le nom du Seigneur? On reste en effet marqué par les habitudes laissées par l'enseignement des missionnaires, et qui divisent les chrétiens; elles ont conduit les protestants a employer 'Jesosy' a partir de la prononciation anglaise, les catholiques a user de 'Jeso' ou 'Iezo' proche du français, et les anglicans a utiliser 'Iesosy' plus près du grec(415).

hudsonab&hudsonjm 1967Hudson, A. B., and J. M. Hudson. 1967. Telang: A Ma'anyan village of central Kalimantan. In Villages in Indonesia, 90-114, edited by Koentjaraningrat. New York: Cornell University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,

hudsonab 1966Hudson, A. B. 1966. Death ceremonies of the Padju Epat Ma'anyan Dayaks. Sarawak Museum Journal 13:341-416.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,

hugotbernard 1973Hugot, Bernard. 1973. Etudes des facteurs humains de la production agricole de trois périmètres hydro-agricoles Behara-Andratsay-Belamoty. Tome 2: Belamoty. Report, Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer. Antananarivo.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

huntingtonwilliamrichard&metcalfp 1979Huntington, William Richard, and P. Metcalf. 1979. Celebrations of death. The anthropology of mortuary ritual. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

huntingtonwilliamrichard 1973Huntington, William Richard. 1973. Death and the social order: Bara funeral customs (madagascar). African Studies 32(1):65-84.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

huntingtonwilliamrichard 1974Huntington, William Richard. 1974. Religion and social organisation of the Bara people of Madagascar. PhD dissertation. UMI.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

The author reports on field research carried out in Anosibe village, in Bara country, where he stayed for fifteen months with his wife and year-old son. Much can be learnt from this study regarding Bara customs and life style. He gives a historical overview of Madagascar, in general, and carefully places the Bara in socio-cultural context. Although some of the facts have changed during the thirty-odd years since this account was written, the basic message still holds.

huntingtonwilliamrichard 1978Huntington, William Richard. 1978. Bara endogamy and incest prohibition. Bijdragen Tot de Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde 134:30-62.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

huntingtonwilliamrichard 1986aHuntington, William Richard. 1986a. Bara pastoral kingdoms (19th century). Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 23-24:179-185.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

In this short paper, Huntington mainly revises what is known about Bara history from eyewitness accounts, dating from the 1870's. He also addresses Kent's work in this respect, asserting that Kent tends to force the African origins of the Bara people, especially that these cannot be proved and because of inconsistencies in his theories. As, "all published oral traditions from the Bara stress a south-eastern origin for the Bara, followed by a westward expansion" (179) it seems that Raymond Kent ignores these sources and prefers western and African origins for the Bara people. In Huntington's words, he "looks at nineteenth century Bara events through fifteenth century spectacles."
After explaining the different Bara migrations according to his sources, Huntington concludes that "nobody, not even the Zafimanely themselves, can be said to have been Bara in the eighteenth century, since the term "Bara" did not come into use until the early nineteenth century" (quoting Kent, 1968:183) and has come to refer to all peoples who came under Zafimanely rule during that time.
Huntington's use of the term Baralahy, to exclusively designate the Bara in the Iantsatsa region, is not convincing, as we have found it to be used all over Ibara by Bara of different origins to refer to themselves and their language, male and female, adult and child alike.

Selected quotes:

  • Today all of the peoples in the Iantsantsa region refer to themselves as Bara-lahy, male Bara are in some sense superior to the Bara-be whose name is said to mean not "great Bara," but to be derived from "be tambatra" meaning "many came together." (183). Unconvincing.

huntingtonwilliamrichard 1986bHuntington, William Richard. 1986b. The transformation of the Bara rural economy. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 299-319, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,
Merina,
Central,
Betsileo,

Richard Huntington presents here an interesting case study of the area of his field work during 1970-1974, namely the village of Anosibe, consisting of 14 small Bara hamlets. He discusses social relationships and interaction, economic and cultural activities, and emphasises the changes he had perceived in the four years of close contact with this population, mainly change brought about by external governmental factors and controls, resulting in a self-sufficient and independent economy becoming reliant on outside control and becoming increasingly vulnerable to the evils of organised cattle-stealing.
The author describes the self-containedness of Bara society, the impermeability to Western thought and ideology, such as a total disinterest in the Christian faith. They had (to a measure) opened up to the idea of education during the years the author describes, after the opening of the first school in Anosibe in 1975. Another factor of change is in the main road between Ihosy and Ranotsara, which passes by Anosibe, facilitating contact with the "outside world."
Having discussed a number of adjustments that the author has observed over time among the population of Anosibe, he says in closing that "it may well be that the most important period of human adjustment for the Bara is now upon them" (318).

Selected quotes:

  • European-derived attitudes and institutions have had a minimal influence on customs, perceptions and aspirations (314).
  • As one example, consider Christianity. Not one person at Anosibe is even nominally Christian or has ever attended a Christian worship service. In a country where it is often claimed that a large majority of its people are Christian, the Bara stand as a firm exception. There are Protestant and Catholic churches in Ranotsara, Ivohibe, and Ihosy, but they are filled with people of other ethnic groups. The Bara are simply not interested. The contrast between this Bara situation and the rapid and early conversion of the Betsileo is striking and would provide an interesting subject for further investigation (314-5).

huntingtonwilliamrichard 1988Huntington, William Richard. 1988. Gender and social structure in Madagascar. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

hymesdellh&bittlewe 1967Hymes, Dell H., and W. E. Bittle (eds.) 1967. Studies in southwestern ethnolinguistics. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

hymesdellh 1964aHymes, Dell H. (ed.) 1964a. Language in culture and society: A reader in linguistics and anthropology. New York: Harper and Row.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

hymesdellh 1964bHymes, Dell H. 1964b. The ethnography of speaking. In Readings in the sociology of language, 99-138, edited by Joshua A. Fishman. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

ignace 1901Ignace. 1901. Tantara nampitondrain'olona avy any amin'ny Bara. Vaovao frantsay-malagasy 5(240):961-962.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

isajiwww 1974Isajiw, W. W. 1974. Definitions of ethnicity. Ethnicity 1:111-124.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

istpm 1997ISTPM. 1997. Madagascar, églises instituées et nouveaux groupements religieux. Collection ISTA 7. Ambatoroka, Antananarivo: Institut Supérieur de Théologie et de Philosophie de Madagascar.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

jacobguy 1992Jacob, Guy. 1992. L'armée et le pouvoir dans le royaume de Madagascar au temps du premier ministre Rainilaiaravony (1864-1895). Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:381-402.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

jaomanorodavid 1995Jaomanoro, David. 1995. Mieux connaître le nord pour le développer. Recherches et Documents 20:3-12.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Northern,

jaovelodzaorobert 1987Jaovelo-Dzao, Robert. 1987. Anthropologie religieuse Sakalava. Essai sur l'inculturation du Christianisme. Antsiranana: Institut Supérieur de Théologie et de Philosophie de Madagascar.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

jaovelodzaorobert 1990Jaovelo-Dzao, Robert. 1990. La conception de la mort chez les Sakalava du nord-ouest de Madagascar. Recherches et Documents 8:1-32.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

jaovelodzaorobert 1992Jaovelo-Dzao, Robert. 1992. La logique malgache. Recherches et Documents 12:4-19.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

jaovelodzaorobert 1993Jaovelo-Dzao, Robert. 1993. Fihavanana et economie à Madagascar. Recherches et Documents 15:3-25.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

jaovelodzaorobert 1995Jaovelo-Dzao, Robert. 1995. La culture, facteur incontournable de développement. Recherches et Documents 20:13-27.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

jaovelodzaorobert 1996Jaovelo-Dzao, Robert. 1996. Mythes, rites et transes à Madagascar. Angano, Joro, et tromba Sakalava. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

jenseniuso 1910Jensenius, O. 1910. Dictionnaire Bara-Hova. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache 7:163-194.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

joleaudl 1924Joleaud, L. 1924. Le bouf de Madagascar. Son origine. Son rôle dans les coutumes Sakalaves. L'anthropologie 34(1-2):103-107.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

jorgensense 1885Jorgensen, S. E. 1885. Notes on the tribes of Madagascar. The Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine 9:51-59.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

juliengustave 1921aJulien, Gustave. 1921a. Charmes thérapeutiques et séducteurs. Les Tabake. Revue d'ethnographie et des traditions populaires 2(7):161-165.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

juliengustave 1921bJulien, Gustave. 1921b. Fate-dra ou fraternisation par le sang chez les malgaches du sud-ouest. Revue d'ethnographie et des traditions populaires 2(5):1-12.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
South-western,

juliengustave 1926Julien, Gustave. 1926. Notes et observations sur les peuplades sud occidentales de Madagascar. Revue d'ethnologie et des traditions populaires 7(25):1-20.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
South-western,

jullyantony 1898Jully, Antony. 1898. L'habitation à Madagascar. Notes. Colonie de Madagascar. Notes, Reconnaissances, Explorations 2(4):899-934.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

jullyantony 1901Jully, Antony. 1901. Manuel des dialectes malgaches. Comprenant sept dialectes: Hova, Betsileo, Tankarana, Betsimisaraka, Taimorona, Tanôsy, Sakalava (mahafaly) et le Soahély. Paris: Librairie Africaine et Coloniale.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Swahili,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Hova,
Merina,
Central,
Sakalava,
Western,
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,
Betsileo,
Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana),
Northern,
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,
Betsimisaraka,

jullyantony 1974Jully, Antony. 1974. Les immigrations Arabes à Madagascar. Taloha 6:143-149.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Antalaotra,
North-western,
Tsimihety,
Northern,

Interesting information on the Antalaotra, a group of immigrants of Arabic origin to Madagascar, who settled on the West Coast. "Antalaotra" means "people from over-seas." According to popular history recorded by the author, the town of Boina was founded by the Antalaotra, Arabs who came from an island near the Comores. Their settlement was destroyed by the Sakalava in the first half of the eighteenth century.

kashimaemikos&kashimayoshihisa 1998Kashima, Emiko S., and Yoshihisa Kashima. 1998. Culture and language. The case of cultural dimensions and personal pronoun use. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 29(3):461-487.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

kaufmanhowardk 1975Kaufman, Howard K. 1975. Attitude research: The theoretical basis of some problems of application in rural Thailand. In Linguistics and anthropology. In honor of CF Voegelin, 351-385, edited by M. Dale Kinkade, Kenneth L. Hale, and Oswald Werner. Lisse: Peter de Ridder Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,
Anthropology and ethnology,

Good background reading for anyone interested in Attitude Research. Case study from Thailand.

keenanedwardlouis&ochselinor 1979Keenan, Edward Louis, and Elinor Ochs. 1979. Becoming a competent speaker of Malagasy. In Languages and their speakers, 112-157, edited by Timothy Shopen. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Winthrop.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Excellent overview of the Malagasy language and comparison with Western European conventions.

keenanelinorochs 1973Keenan, Elinor Ochs. 1973. A sliding sense of obligatoriness: The poly-structure of Malagasy oratory. Language in Society 2:225-243.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vakinankaratra,
Central,
Merina,

keenanelinorochs 1976Keenan, Elinor Ochs. 1976. The universality of conversational postulates. Language in Society 5:67-80.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vakinankaratra,
Central,
Merina,

Keenan deals in this paper with cross-cultural issues of communication, with a Malagasy speech community as ethnographic case study. The handling of information by the Malagasy of the Vakinankaritra shows that information is an important commodity to them and underlines the need to be aware of potential misunderstandings due to differences in conversation ethics.

keenanelinorochs 1989Keenan, Elinor Ochs. 1989. Norm-makers, norm-breakers: Uses of speech by men and women in a Malagasy community. In Explorations in the ethnography of speaking, 125-143, edited by Richard Bauman, and Joel Sherzer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vakinankaratra,
Central,
Merina,

An excellent article on Malagasy speech culture, written from experiences in the village of Namoizamanga in the Vakinankaratra. A learning experience for a vazaha (foreigner) to read this article-du savoir-vivre.

kentraymond 1968aKent, Raymond. 1968a. Madagascar: 2. Journal of African History 9(4):517-546.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

The author mentions five features that define the Sakalava: dialect, the cult of the Dady, the fitampoha (royal bath) and tromba, the dynastic family of the Maroserana and the traditional history of the Sakalava. The author describes briefly the history of this group.

kentraymond 1969Kent, Raymond. 1969. Madagascar: 3. Journal of African History 10(1):45-65.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,

In this article, the author discusses the origins of the Antemoro according to him a cohesive group. He touches on the issue of the Antalaotra clans (Arabico-Malagasy communities), on the scribal tradition of Sora-be, on the possible link with a vanished race in Ethiopia, or Somalia, named Temur (Semur/Temur). The Antemoro may once have been zealous Muslims.

kindellgloriae&lewismpaul 2000Kindell, Gloria E., and M. Paul Lewis (eds.) 2000. Assessing ethnolinguistic vitality: Theory and practice. Selected papers from the third International Language Assessment Conference, 1997. SIL International: Publications in sociolinguistics. Dallas, Texas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Research,
Anthropology and ethnology,

kinkademdale&halekennethl&werneroswald 1975Kinkade, M. Dale, Kenneth L. Hale, and Oswald Werner (eds.) 1975. Linguistics and anthropology. In honor of CF Voegelin. Lisse: Peter de Ridder Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

kirchgaessneralfons 1962Kirchgässner, Alfons. 1962. La puissance des signes: Origines, formes et lois du culte. Tours: Mame.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

klemherbertv 1982Klem, Herbert V. 1982. Oral communication of the scripture. Pasadena, California: William Carey Library.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Religion,
Linguistics,
History,

klossheinz 1968Kloss, Heinz. 1968. Notes concerning a language-nation typology. In Language problems of developing nations, 69-85, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

koechlinbernard 1972Koechlin, Bernard. 1972. Atlas ethnolinguistique de Madagascar. Asie du Sud-Est et Monde Insulindien 3(1):71-83.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

koechlinbernard 1975Koechlin, Bernard. 1975. Les Vezo du sud-ouest de Madagascar. Contribution à l'étude de l'éco-système de semi-nomades marins. Cahiers de l'homme n.s. 15. Paris: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,

koentjaraningrat 1967Koentjaraningrat (ed.) 1967. Villages in Indonesia. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,

kottakconradphillip&rakotoarisoajeanaime&southallaidan&verinpierre 1986Kottak, Conrad Phillip, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin (eds.) 1986. Madagascar: Society and history 38. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

See under individual authors.

kottakconradphillip 1971Kottak, Conrad Phillip. 1971. Social groups and kinship calculation among the southern Betsileo. American Anthropologist 73:178-193.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,

kottakconradphillip 1977Kottak, Conrad Phillip. 1977. The process of state formation in Madagascar. American Ethnologist 4(1):136-155.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Bara,
Southern,
Merina,
Central,
Betsileo,
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,

kottakconradphillip 1980Kottak, Conrad Phillip. 1980. The past in the present. History, ecology, and cultural variation in highland Madagascar. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,
Merina,
Central,
Betsileo,
Tesaka (Antesaka, Antaisaka),
Eastern,

kottakconradphillip 1986Kottak, Conrad Phillip. 1986. Kinship modeling: Adaptation, fosterage, and fictive kinship among the Betsileo. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 277-298, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,

lacarriere 1897Lacarriere. 1897. D'Ihosy à Tamotamo. Colonie de Madagascar. Notes, Reconnaissances, Explorations 1(2):40-43.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

lahadypascal 1979Lahady, Pascal. 1979. Le culte Betsimisaraka et son système symbolique. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsimisaraka,
Eastern,

lahaj 1988Laha, J. 1988. Fomba amam-panaon'ny Bara Marovola. Dia Raiky 4-7.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Marovola,
Bara,
Southern,

laitindavidd 2000Laitin, David D. 2000. What is a language community? American Journal of Political Science 44(1):142-156.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

lambekj&lambekmichael 1981Lambek, J., and Michael Lambek. 1981. The kinship terminology of Malagasy speakers in Mayotte. Anthropological Linguistics 23:154-182.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Kibushi (Shibushi),
Other,

lambekmichael&breslarjonh 1986Lambek, Michael, and Jon H. Breslar. 1986. Funerals and social change in Mayotte. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 393-410, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

lambekmichael&walshandrew 1997Lambek, Michael, and Andrew Walsh. 1997. The imagined community of the Antankaraña: Identity, history, and ritual in northern Madagascar. Journal of Religion in Africa 27(3):308-333.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tsimihety,
Northern,
Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana),

Excellent for insight into Antankarana group identity.

lambekmichael 1980Lambek, Michael. 1980. Spirits and spouses: Possession as a system of communication among the Malagasy speakers of Mayotte. American Ethnologist 7(2):318-331.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Kibushi (Shibushi),
Other,

lambekmichael 1988Lambek, Michael. 1988. Spirit possession/spirit succession: Aspects of social continuity among Malagasy speakers in Mayotte. American Ethnologist 15(4):710-731.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Kibushi (Shibushi),
Other,

lambekmichael 2001Lambek, Michael. 2001. Reflections on the "ethno-" in Malagasy ethnohistory. Ethnohistory 48(1-2):301-308.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

In this short paper, Michael Lambek summarizes the contributions of the different participants to the 48th volume of Ethnohistory dedicated to Madagascar. He also does not clear up the fuzziness surrounding ethnicity in Madagascar, but calls for boldness among Malgachisants to make comparisons with African and insular Southeast Asian situations, to apply common paradigms, analyse and make statements, ready to be taken on for those by others. Lambek makes a convincing point for ambiguity being central to social life. He says that "the ambiguity inherent in social life and the unrationalized and multiple forms of personal and collective identity throw into question what is meant by ethnos and ethnicity" (304) and challenges the assumption "that at some level identity is not simply articulated contextually, but categorically" (304).

Selected quotes:

  • One answer may be that ethnic groups and boundaries are clarified by distinct languages, or at least that mutually unintelligible languages can readily serve as the signs to realize ethnicity. In this respect, Madagascar is different from the states of continental Africa. Even tiny Mayotte has mutually distinct languages, though not distinct ethnic groups, I have argued (Lambek 1995) (304).

landryrodrigue&bourhisrichardyvon 1997Landry, Rodrigue, and Richard Yvon Bourhis. 1997. Linguistic landscape and ethnolinguistic vitality. Journal of language and social psychology 16(1):23-50.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language ecology,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

lanehartsonjal 1996Lanehart, Sonja L. 1996. The language of identity. Journal of English linguistics 24(4):322-332.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

larsonpierm 1996Larson, Pier M. 1996. Desperately seeking 'the Merina' (central Madagascar): Reading ethnonyms and their semantic fields in African identity histories. Journal of Southern African Studies 22(4):541-560.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

In this paper the building blocks of ethnic identity are discussed against a background of ethnological theory. The clear argument of the author lends itself to application to many ethnic identity-related situations.

Selected quotes:

  • Ethnic identities rarely come full-blown, they are made, often from the building blocks of named, pre-existing identities. The nature of named identities shifts over time (.).Shallowly read, then, identity names are empty vessels designating bounded and classified sets of people in local cultural taxonomies yet offering few immediate clues to the nature of the collective consciousness they contain. The signifier is of less social and historical significance than the signified (.).
    'Ethnonyms', therefore, are not always ethnonyms. They may designate full-blown identities, nascent ones or even point to identities of an altogether different nature (.) (558).
  • The fact that the meaning of identity signifiers constantly shifts raises the simple but all too often ignored question of what ethnic identity actually is and when a shifting identity crosses the border into a consciousness that we can confidently label as ethnic. Historians are unlikely to come to agreement on this issue, not least because borders of identity are never neatly drawn and ethnicity is an elusive abstraction to define with precision or in a universally applicable manner (.). What, for example, really differentiates Merina political consciousness from Merina ethnic consciousness?(559).
  • Consciousness itself derives from the cognitive capacity of humans to reflect on themselves, their behaviour, and their relationship to other humans and their environment. Collective consciousness therefore becomes a sort of corporate self-concept as the group's reflection is moulded and articulated from within and without, ever in an interested fashion.The content and character of consciousness within what Bill Bravman calls 'communities of belonging' (1994) are neither unproblematically ascertained nor neatly differentiated along political, ethnic, religious, social, clan or national lines. Ethnic belonging (ethnicity), however, normally entails a purposeful, interested collective consciousness of common descent and kinship, a claim to 'natural' belonging on the basis of certain linguistic, cultural or physical characteristics, or even on a set of attitudes and behaviours. A political consciousness (i.e. that which designates the sense of belonging to a polity) may express itself through a similar set of articulating institutions-such as through collective ritual, versions of corporate history, visual and verbal imagery, or clothing-and is similarly imagined and moralized, but its referent identity should not be analytically equated with ethnicity. Political identities channel loyalty toward administrative communities; ethnic identities toward communities of imagined kinship that assume a certain independence from formal structures of power and politics. When political identities successfully draw diverse peoples into a synthesized cultural/symbolic system they tend to generate an emergent ethnic or national consciousness(559).
  • While communities of belonging are relevant to the everyday lives of their members, whether scholars characterize that 'belonging' as ethnic or political might seem of little import. Yet the attempt to discern differences and shifts in the nature of belonging change as the type of belonging itself shifts, hence influencing the social relationships people entertain, expect or can mobilize (559).
  • Investigating the semantic fields of 'names of belonging' is the single most effective tool for determining such qualitative identity shifts (560).
  • Finally, the Merina case demonstrates that ethnic identity can be created and transformed outside of a colonial context. Ethnogenesis is not simply a function of colonial rule (560).

lavondesh 1967Lavondes, H. 1967. Bekoropaka. Quelques aspects de la vie famliale et sociale d'un village malgache. Cahiers de l'homme. Ethnologie-géographie-linguistique 6. Paris-La Haye: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,

lebigrejeanmichel 1997Lebigre, Jean-Michel (ed.) 1997. Milieux et sociétés dans le sud-ouest de Madagascar. Iles et archipels 23. Bordeaux: CRET.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Sakalava,
Menabe,
Masikoro,
South-western,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,
Bara,

Very good source for more than geography and environment!

leblondmariusary 1935Leblond, Marius-Ary. 1935. Première impression du sud Malgache. La Revue de Madagascar 11:69-78.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),

Very flowery description of the "deep south" of Madagascar from the triumphalistic heart of a true colonialist, a man of his times - some interesting facts mentioned in passing, but probably it is most valuable for the grotesquely theatrical closing paragraph singing odes to the virtues of France.

Selected quotes:

  • Mais le français est venu. De sa foreuse il a fouillé aux profondeurs des pelouses, fait jaillir les puits aussi fameux dans ces déserts que les Puits de Moïse parmi les sables d'Orient, puis installé les éoliennes. Le climat est si pur que les phtisiques y guérissent rapidement. La terre est libre et riche. Les femmes viennent qurir dans des calebasses la vie des potagers et des vergers. Par reconnaissance elles enguirlandent de fleurs les constructions de notre science. Des espaces immenses attendent la colonisation, l'organisation, ce merveilleux humain d'où jailliront le salut et la fécondité (78).

lecoeurcharles 1939le Cour, Charles. 1939. Le rite et l'outil. Essai sur le rationalisme social et la pluralité des civilisations. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

ledwellbrownjane&diaspatrickx 1994Ledwell-Brown, Jane, and Patrick X. Dias. 1994. The way we do things here: The significance of narratives in research interviews. Journal of Business and Technical Communication 8(2):165-186.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Linguistics,

leenhardtmaurice 1947Leenhardt, Maurice. 1947. Do Kamo. La personne et le mythe dans le monde mélanésien. Paris: Gallimard.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Austronesian,

levinehalb 1999Levine, Hal B. 1999. Reconstructing ethnicity. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 5(2):165-181.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

levybruehllucien 1949Lévy-Brühl, Lucien. 1949. Carnets. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,

lintonralph 1928Linton, Ralph. 1928. Culture areas in Madagascar. American Anthropologist 30(3):363-390.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Tsimihety,
Northern,
Betsimisaraka,
Eastern,

There has been much back-and-forth about uniformity in Madagascar, and as can be seen from this article, from the earliest times. Linton points out that there are "three fairly well-marked culture areas in Madagascar, with the usual marginal tribes of mixed culture (.) which agree in a general way with the main geographic and climatic divisions of the island" (363).
He draws comparisons among three main areas of Madagascar, namely 1. the East Coast, which to the North includes the Betsimisaraka and to the South a "number of small tribes commonly, but incorrectly, grouped under the term Antaimorona" (363); 2. the "Plateaux, occupied by the Betsileo, Imerina (commonly called Hova) and Sihanaka," and 3. the "West Coast and Extreme South, occupied by the Sakalava, Mahafaly, Antandroy, and Bara."
The Tanala and Bezanozano tribes are intermediate in culture between areas 1 and 2, while the Tsimahety and Antankarana in the extreme north and the Tanôsy in the southeast seem to be intermediary between areas 1 and 3" (365).
The most interesting phenomenon of this article is the division into three areas, later taken up by linguists in connection with language. Linton makes no mention of language in this article, nor does he indicate his sources for postulating the three areas or the anthropological data he proposes. Other notable points are his sorting of a number of groups under the term "Sakalava" without specifying which, as well as the spelling of Tsimahety and the omission of the Tanôsy migration towards the Onilahy.
His argument is for cultural diversity in Madagascar, uniformity seemingly an assumption of his time, but he argues the point using terms like "tribe," "gens" and "gentes," indicative of the longstanding confusion concerning Malagasy cultures.
The main fault of this historical work is the lack of references: one does not know where the author got his information from. Researchers in Madagascar often present their specific area of research as representative of Malagasy culture as a whole. Linton was aware of this problem.

lintonralph 1933Linton, Ralph. 1933. The Tanala, a hill tribe of Madagascar. Anthropological series 12. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

lojacomofrancois 1986Lo Jacomo, François. 1986. Plurilinguisme et communication. Paris: Société d'Etudes Linguistiques et Anthropologiques de France.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

lombardjacques 1985Lombard, Jacques. 1985. Le fitampoha. Cahiers Ethnologiques 1(6):51-58.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

lombardjacques 1986Lombard, Jacques. 1986. Le temps et l'espace dans l'idéologie politique de la royauté Sakalava-Menabe. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 143-156, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Menabe,

lombardjacques 1988Lombard, Jacques. 1988. Le royaume Sakalava du Menabe. Essai d'analyse d'un système politique à Madagascar. 17È-20è. Travaux et documents: Institut français de recherche scientifique pour le développement en coopération 214. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vazimba,
Western,
Sakalava,
Mikea,
South-western,
Bara,
Southern,
Merina,
Central,

For more than four years, Jacques Lombard worked among the Sakalava people in Western Madagascar. He presents here an analysis of Sakalava society from the perspective of Sakalava political and economic systems. To achieve this, he did a field study collecting oral material on how the Sakalava people themselves explain their society. The analysis of this material constitutes the bulk of his contribution, with which he also integrates a wide reading of related literature. He explains the Maroseraña-Zafimbolamena dynasties and presents the history and development of Sakalava political units in the Boeny and Menabe during the 16th and 17th centuries until their decline in the 19th century.
Contrary to the opinion of some authors, Lombard holds that the Sakalava kingdoms of Menabe and Boeny were formed independently and in spite of the arrival of the first Europeans on the coast, but in interaction with their input-the Sakalava kings merely used the outsiders to affirm their position of power. He points out the economic importance of this interaction. It was, however, only with the French conquest of Madagascar that an external (European) power became a direct agent in the destiny of these dynasties.
The author deals with many related issues in working through the main parts of this study, which are 1. the historical stages of the constitution of the Sakalava kingdoms; 2. Sakalava economy, and 3. Sakalava royalty. These include general Malagasy history, interaction among the different peoples of Madagascar, anthropological and geographical details, and an analysis of the basic Sakalava worldview in the Boeny and Menabe.
His work analyses the factors leading to the establishment of Sakalava kingdoms, and shows how the decline of these occurred. To conclude, the author describes the present state of Sakalava royalty since its collapse with French colonialism. He mentions the interesting fact that the rise and establishment of Sakalava royalty coincided with the Mercantile period of European Nations, whereas, the Industrial period of these economies and the abolition of slavery sounded its decline. In comparison the ideologies of the Industrial period can be seen as advantageous for the rise of the Merina Kingdom, finally leading to total political control by a European power.
Jacques Lombard describes with clarity the ideological elements of Sakalava society, the underlying philosophy or worldview that determines their interpretation of life and death, the interaction of the natural world and the world of spirits, their view of God and mankind, and the two-way intervention possible between them.
He also describes, with insight, the rites of bilo and tromba and the fitampoha and fanompoha ceremonies.

lulingv 1983Luling, V. 1983. Human spirits: A cultural account of trance in Mayotte, by Michael Lambek, Cambridge university press, 1981, pp 218. Azania 18:200-201.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Kibushi (Shibushi),
Other,

lupopietro 1987Lupo, Pietro. 1987. Témoignage sur la religion malgache de Nosy Be au XIXe siècle. Une lettre du Rév. Père Finaz. Communication au colloque internationale d'histoire de Madagascar (Diego suarez). In Colloque International d'Histoire. Antsiranana.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

lupopietro 1993Lupo, Pietro. 1993. Un culte dynastique à Madagascar, le fitampoha (bain des reliques royales). In Religions. Etudes Océan Indien 16, 31-59, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

The author gives here an eye-witness account of his personal experience with, rather than a scientific analysis of, the Fitampoha, written during his attendance of the ceremony with a group of colleagues and students of the University of Tulear, between 18-27 August 1988. The celebration takes place every ten years in the little village of Belo, 550 Km north of Tulear. He relates his experience under the following headings:
Les ancêtres de l'eau. Mythe fondateur.
Fitampoha et histoire.
Tromba.
Moments de densité religieuse.
- La joie.
- La communion.
- La rupture de l'ordre.
Espace, lumière, pureté.
The author draws several interesting parallels with Christianity and other religions.

luporaveloarimananamonique 1995Lupo-Raveloarimanana, Monique. 1995. Pauvreté et culture dans le faritany de Tulear. Talily 1:91-100.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

This paper summarises some of the findings made by a pluridisciplinary group of researchers on cultural and economic aspects in the region. They were reporting to the World Bank and to various NGO's who are interested in working in the area. The summary given here contains many interesting facts, confirming the people's continued attachment to tradition and the intensity of community life, pointing out tendencies towards change, especially where education has been involved. Traditions pertaining to ancestral religion are a heavy economic load, especially when it concerns burial. Mentioning costs calculated for 1992-1993, the average burial would cost between four million and ten million Fmg (between four hundred and one thousand dollars) and if someone was really poor, the cost was at least two bulls and about ten goats totalling about two million Fmg(two hundred dollars). According to the report, some people, especially among the poorest, have converted to Christianity to escape this heavy burden in a dignified manner.
Some of the fady have counter-productive significance, e.g. the fady of the pike (faly manao pike-drying sweet potatoes) among the Tandroy. While they may consume it dry, they are not themselves allowed to ever dry their abundant harvest of sweet potatoes which doesn't keep for long, and consequently have to sell it cheaply to resellers (mpanao kinanga) who will dry it and sell it back to them at a higher cost. This taboo seems like a mockery in an area where famine is a constant threat and where food supplies are generally insufficient.

luporaveloarimananamonique 1996aLupo-Raveloarimanana, Monique. 1996a. L'eau dans le grand sud. Talily 3-4:113-126.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern,

This article is an analysis of the problem of water in the south of Madagascar and deals with four main themes, namely: problems with water and the insecurity of food supplies; the relationship between drought and migration; the importance of customs and beliefs; and infrastructures for water-distribution in the south.

lyauteylouishubertgonzalve 1935Lyautey, Louis-Hubert Gonzalve. 1935. Lettres du sud de Madagascar, 1900-1902. Paris: A. Colin.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern,

mackjohn 1986Mack, John. 1986. Madagascar: Island of the ancestors. London: British Museum Publications Limited.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Easy reading; interesting ethnographic information. Divided into two parts:
1. The ancestors of the Malagasy (history).
2. The living and the dead (anthropology).

mackjohn 1990Mack, John. 1990. The ways of the ancestors. In Madagascar: A world out of time, 74-81, edited by Frans Lanting. New York: Aperture.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

mahajobom 1992aMahajobo, M. 1992a. Jean Paulhan: Hain-teny Merina. Poésies populaires malgaches, recueillies et traduites par J. Paulhan. Antananarivo: Foi et justice, 1992, 239p. In Le scribe et la grande maison. Etudes Océan Indien 15, 287, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

mahajobom 1992bMahajobo, M. 1992b. Leonard Fox: Hainteny. The traditional poetry of Madagascar (.) Lezisburg: Bucknell university press, 1990, 464p. In Le scribe et la grande maison. Etudes Océan Indien 15, 285-286, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

malzacvictorin 1930Malzac, Victorin. 1930. Histoire du royaume Hova depuis ses origines jusqu'à sa fin. Tananarive: Imprimerie Catholique.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

mangalazaeugeneregis 1979Mangalaza, Eugène-Régis. 1979. Essai de philosophie Betsimisaraka. Sens du famadihana. Tuléar: Université de Madagascar, Centre Universitaire Régional.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsimisaraka,
Eastern,

mangalazaeugeneregis 1981Mangalaza, Eugène-Régis. 1981. Un aspect du fitampoha, le valabe (essai d'interprétation). Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 13-14:307-318.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

mangalazaeugeneregis 1998Mangalaza, Eugène-Régis. 1998. Vie et mort chez les Betsimisaraka de Madagascar. Essai d'anthropologie philosophique. Paris: L'Harmattan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Northern Betsimisaraka (Antavaratra, Tavaratra),
Betsimisaraka,
Eastern,

Selected quotes:

  • (.) cette forme de domination merina, mal acceptée est restée présente dans la conscience populaire jusqu'à l'époque actuelle. En témoignent ces signes idéologiques comme l'interdiction de mariage avec des Merina (fady manambady hova) ou encore l'interdiction d'utiliser le dialecte merina dans des espaces consacrés comme certaines vallées, certaines embouchures ou enfin certaines grottes (31-32).

manjakaherybarthelemy ndManjakahery, Barthélémy. n.d. Bara Zafimarozaha. Histoire d'Andriamanely.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Zafimarozaha,
Bara,
Southern,

manjakaherybarthelemy 1986Manjakahery, Barthélémy. 1986. Les vallées de l'ltomampy dans l'histoire des hautes terres méridionales. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 23-24:169-178.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

Manjakahery discusses here the history of the Itomampy valleys, known as the Eastern limit of Ibara. He clarifies the historical role of the Ivondro, where life is centred around the Itomampy river, the land of the Bara Antevondro. The term Tevondro or Antevondro is a geographical indication, meaning the Bara people who settled in the Tevondro region and includes the Manambia, Zafimarosoa, Zafimarozaha and many others. Concerning language, the author refutes the notion that the Antevondro are separate from the other Bara people because their dialect is close to that of the Antesaka and so differs from Bara "mikaty". He believes that these linguistic differences cannot be seen as ethnic markers, because, according to him "un Bara est avant tout Zafindrendriko, Zafimarosoa, Zafimagnely ou Zafimarozoha avant d'être Bara Antevondro, Bara-Be, Bara Vinda ou Bara Imamono" (171). This idea confirms what we have found during field research, namely that language variety and ethnic identity are sometimes at variance with each other. It is clear from history that the names Bara Vinda, Bara Imamono, etc are secondary to Bara identity.
Manjakahery then describes what is known concerning the role of the Itomampy area in the ancient migrations from the fifteenth century onwards, nothing being known on the issue before that time. He is certain that the ancestors of the Zafimagnely passed through the Ivondro region, staying there for an extended period of time before they took on their final migration towards the prairies of the West. There is also evidence for the establishment of the Bara Manambia in the area, originally from the mouth of the Menarandra. One branch of Manambia in the Ivondro at one stage was the Zafipanolaha. The Zafindravola were also established in the Itomampy before emigrating westwards There is oral evidence about the Zafimarozaha who came from Matsakafasy in Karianga, east of Ivohibe, the Zafipanolaha at Bekifafa, and the Zafimarosoa at Tanandava. The Zafimarozaha, before coming to the Itomampy, lived on the banks of the Mananara at Besavoa.
During the 19th century the Manambia, Zafimarosoa, Zafimarozaha are mostly found in the vast western prairies, beyond the Ivakoany for reasons of better pastures and perhaps also because of Merina penetration of the Ivondro, from the north.

Selected quotes:

  • Pour en revenir aux Antevondro, il est encore un fait qui ne manque pas de nous laisser perplexe c'est que d'aucuns associent le terme d'Antevondro ou Tevondro à une notion ethnique, voire tribale. A vrai dire, celle-ci est une simple notion géographique sans plus, pour désigner ceux des Bara qui sont restés dans l'Ivondro, voire ceux qui continuent d'entretenir des relations avec les parents qui sont restés là-bas. C'est à ce titre par exemple qu'on appelle Antevondro les Manabia, les Zafimarosoa, les Zafimarozaha et beaucoup d'aautres encore. D'autre part, dans la même perspective, au niveaux du parler, on a cherché à distinguer l'Antevondro (comme étant une entité ethnique) des autres Bara par le fait que, parlant un dialecte proche de l'Antesaka, il est donc foncièrement différent du Bara "mikaty," c'est-à-dire avec un parler dans lequel le phénomène "TS" (interdentale spirante sourde) donne dans bien des cas "T" (occlusive dentale sourde). Exemple: ATSIMO (Bara antevondro) donne ATIMO (Bara mikaty). Toutefois, l'argumentation linguistique n'est qu'un leurre et ne fait que masquer une réalité qui est toute autre, car le parler n'est pas un élément distinctif de l'ethnie. De ce fait, on peut aisément passer de l'un à l'autre dialecte ("mikaty" et "non mikaty") car un Bara est avant tout Zafindrendriko, Zafimarosoa, Zafimagnely ou Zafimarozaha avant d'être Bara Antevondro, Bara-Be, Bara Vinda ou Bara Imamono (171).

manjakaherybarthelemy 1997Manjakahery, Barthélémy. 1997. La Trañobe: Demeure du patriarche Bara et son environnement. L'organisation de l'habitat chez les Bara. Talily 5-6:97-107.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

Clear and concise descriptions of the role of the hazomanga in relation to the social organisation of the Bara people, the village structure, hierarchical setting and ceremonies. This brief account is based on field research done for a doctoral thesis and on personal experience, as the author is Bara himself.

Selected quotes:

  • (.) l'organisation sociale du groupe (.)basée essentiellement sur la patrilinéarité (.) l'existence du 'tariky' est régie par des règles immuables qui persistent grâce au pouvoir centripète du 'hazomanga'(.) témoin véritable de la cohésion des descendants d'ancêtres communs vivant dans un même village, sous la responsabilité du 'lonaky', le patriarche ou le 'pita hazomanga', l'intermédiaire entre les morts et les vivants.
    'tariky'-les habitants d'un même village; 'foko'-les gens d'un même foko peuvent avoir des villages distincts (97).
  • Le village Bara est une unité patrilinéaire et familiale groupant les descendants d'ancêtres communs sous la direction d'un patriarche que l'on appelle LONAKY, habitant la 'trañobe'.
    Pour R.Huntington; le village regroupe le TARIKY, "agnatic lineage: 'the agnatic lineage is a small (four generations) corporate group whose members generally reside together in one hamlet and share a common tomb for their dead. Most importantly, they are patrilineally connected to the world of the ancestors through the same patriarch who alone is empowered to perform sacrifices on their behalf.' (99).
  • L'ensemble hazomanga, trañobe, lonaky constitue l'essence de l'unité villageoise. Le village où se trouve le hazomanga est appelé 'tanambe' (103).
  • Les totr'aomby sont des villages secondaires. A proprement parler, ce ne sont pas des villages car ils ne possèdent pas de hazomanga. Ce sont des lieux d'habitation temporaire pour la transhumance (103).

manncharlesc 2000Mann, Charles C. 2000. Reviewing etholinguistic vitality: The case of anglo-Nigerian pidgin. Journal of Sociolinguistics 4(3):458-474.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

mannonio 1964Mannoni, O. 1964. Prospero and Caliban. The psychology of colonization. New York: Frederick A. Praeger.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

mantauxchg 1992Mantaux, Ch G. 1992. Islam noir et blanc de la côte des zenj à Madagascar. Recherches et Documents 12:1-95.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

marchaljeanyves 1974Marchal, Jean-Yves. 1974. La colonisation agricole au moyen-ouest malgache: La petite région d'Ambohimanambola (sous-préfecture de betafo). Atlas des structures agraires à Madagascar. Paris-La Haye: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vazimba,
Western,
Bara,
Southern,
Vakinankaratra,
Central,
Betsileo,

Some historical information on the people movements in the area of Betafo during the previous centuries.

marikandiamansarelouis 1987Marikandia, Mansaré-Louis. 1987. Contribution à la connaissance des Vezo du sud-ouest de Madagascar: Histoire et société de l'espace littoral du Fiherena au XVIII et XIXe siècles. PhD dissertation. Université de Lille III.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,

marikandiamansarelouis 1995Marikandia, Mansaré-Louis. 1995. Une approche de l'histoire du fiherana au xviiie et xixe siècle: Les Vezo. Talily 1:15-27.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,

mathiotmadeleine 1979Mathiot, Madeleine (ed.) 1979. Ethnolinguistics: Boas, Sapir, and Whorf revisited. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

maussmarcel 1931Mauss, Marcel. 1931. La cohésion sociale dans les sociétés polysegmentaires. Bulletin de l'Institut française de sociologie I:49-68.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

maussmarcel 1947Mauss, Marcel. 1947. Manuel d'ethnographie. Paris: Payot.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

mbembea 1988Mbembe, A. 1988. Afriques indociles. Christianisme, pouvoir et etat en société postcoloniale. Paris: Editions Karthala.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

mcleodn 1964McLeod, N. 1964. The status of musical specialists in Madagascar. Ethnomusicology. Journal of the society of ethnomusicology 8(1):278-289.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

mcnamaratf 1988McNamara, T. F. 1988. Language and social identity: Israelis abroad. In Language and ethnic identity, 59-72, edited by William B. Gudykunst. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

michelandrianarahinjakalucienx 1986Michel-Andrianarahinjaka, Lucien X. 1986. Le système littéraire Betsileo. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,

michellouis 1957Michel, Louis. 1957. Mours et coutumes des Bara. Mémoires de l'Académie malgache 40. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

middletonkaren 1999Middleton, Karen. 1999. Who killed 'Malagasy cactus'? science, environment and colonialism in southern Madagascar (1924-1930). Journal of Southern African Studies 25(2):215-249.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Karimbola (Karembola),

millercarolynp 2000Miller, Carolyn P. 2000. Modifying language beliefs: A role for mother-tongue advocates? In Assessing ethnolinguistic vitality: Theory and practice. Selected papers from the third International Language Assessment Conference, 1997. SIL International: Publications in sociolinguistics, 167-187, edited by Gloria E. Kindell, and M. Paul Lewis. Dallas, Texas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

moizobernard 1997Moizo, Bernard. 1997. Des esprits, des tombeaux, du miel et des boufs: Perception et utilisation de la forêt en pays Bara Imamono. In Milieux et sociétés dans le sud-ouest de Madagascar. Iles et Archipels, 43-66, edited by Jean-Michel Lebigre. Bordeaux: CRET.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Manonga,
Bara,
Southern,
Imamono,

moletlouis 1953Molet, Louis. 1953. Le bouf dans l'Ankaizinana, son importance sociale et économique. Mémoires de l'Institut scientifique de Madagascar. Série C, Sciences humaines. 2. Mémoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. Série C, Sciences humaines 2. Tananarive: IRSM.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern,

moletlouis 1954Molet, Louis. 1954. Les statuettes Bara de Iakora. Naturaliste Malgache 6:109-120.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

moletlouis 1956Molet, Louis. 1956. Le bain royal à Madagascar. Explication de la fête malgache du fandroana par la coutume disparue de la manducation des morts. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Luthérienne.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

moletlouis 1958Molet, Louis. 1958. Aperçu sur un groupe nomade de la forêt épineuse des Mikea. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 36.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mikea,
South-western,

moletlouis 1966Molet, Louis. 1966. Les Mikea de Madagascar ou vivre sans boire. La Revue de Madagascar 36:11-16.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mikea,
South-western,

moletlouis 1972Molet, Louis. 1972. Origine et sens du nom des Sakalava de Madagascar. In Etudes de géographie tropicale offertes à Pierre Gourou, 341-355, edited by Marc Michel. Paris-La Haye: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

moletlouis 1979Molet, Louis. 1979. La conception malgache du monde, du surnaturel et de l'homme en Imerina. 2 Vol. Paris: L'Harmattan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

mondaingustave 1925Mondain, Gustave. 1925. Rôle religieux de la femme malgache. Paris: Société des Missions Evangéliques.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,
Merina,
Central,
Betsileo,

muntheludvig 1985Munthe, Ludvig. 1985. La tradition Arabico-malgache et l'influence Indonesienne. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 21-22:57-59.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,

Selected quotes:

  • (.) je pense qu'il est important pour trouver l'identité malgache, de tourner maintenant le regard en direction de l'Est (59)
  • Le Sorabe étant une écriture phonétique, il permet de connaître la language malgache parlée autrefois. Si nous nous rappelons que le manuscrit sorabe le plus ancien connu a été enregistré en Europe au début du XVIIIè siècle, et qu'il peut être considérée comme une "bande magnétique" de la langue parlée à Madagascar au XVIIè siècle sinon au XVIè siècle, nous en comprenons l'importance (58).
  • Mes récentes études en Indonésie m'ont persuadé qu'on devrait s'y rendre pour trouver des réponses à certaines questions sur l'ancienne religion malgache (59).
  • A propos de l'Indonésie, on peut aussi poser la question de savoir si l'ancien nom donné à l'écriture arabico-malgache: sorabe, ne correspond pas à une soratra kely, plus ancienne, apportée d'Indonésie à Madagascar (59).

murdockgp 1959Murdock, G. P. 1959. Africa, its people and their culture history. New York: McGraw-Hill.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

museedethnographiedeneuchatel 1973Musée d'ethnographie de Neuchâtel (ed.) 1973. Malgache qui es-tu? Neuchâtel: Musée d'ethnographie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

nakanypierre ndNakany, Pierre. n.d. Histoire des Bara.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

Interesting summary of the Bara: customs, history, politics. Reads like a summary from Faublée (sometimes quoted directly) and others. There is no date and no bibliographical information.

navonegabriele 1977Navone, Gabriele. 1977. "Ny atao no miverina" ou ethnologie et proverbes malgaches. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

ndemajean 1973Ndema, Jean. 1973. Fomba Antakay. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bezanozano,
Central,
Antakay,

nekitelotto 1992Nekitel, Otto. 1992. Culture change, language change: The case of Abu'Arapesh, Sandaun province, Papua new Guinea. In Culture change, language change. Case studies from Melanasia. Pacific linguistics. Series C: Books 120, 49-58, edited by Tom Dutton. Canberra: Australian National University, Dept of Linguistics: Research School of Pacific Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Diachronic linguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

nerinebotokekyeleonore 1983Nerine Botokeky, Eleonore. 1983. Le fitampoha en royaume Sakalava. Bains des reliques royales. In Les souverains de Madagascar. Collection "hommes et sociétés", 211-222, edited by Françoise Raison-Jourde. Paris: Editions Karthala.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

nielsenlundj 1888Nielsen-Lund, J. 1888. Travels and perils among the wild tribes in the south of Madagascar. The Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine 12:440-457.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern,

njengaj 1983Njenga, J. 1983. Autour du mariage traditionnel ou coutumier. Telema 9(34):25-32.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

noiretfrancois 1993Noiret, François. 1993. Le mythe d'Iboina. Angano Malagasy. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

oberlep 1976Oberlé, P. 1976. Tananarive et l'Imerina. Paris: Présence Africaine.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

oberlep 1979Oberlé, P. 1979. Provinces malgaches. Paris: Editions Kintana.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

olsenm 1929Olsen, M. 1929. Histoire des Zafindiamanana, tribu Tanala du nord d'Ambohimanga du sud. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 12:37-60.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Zafindiamanana,
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

oniberesg 1985Onibere, S. G. 1985. Aperçus de l'inculturation de la foi. Telema 11(42):49-56.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

ottinopaul 1971Ottino, Paul. 1971. Placing the dead: Tombs, ancestral villages, and kinship organization in Madagascar. Maurice Bloch. Taloha 4:197-199.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

ottinopaul 1982Ottino, Paul. 1982. Myth and history: The Malagasy "Andriambahoaka" and the Indonesian legacy. History in Africa 9:221-250.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Andriambahoaka,
Eastern,

A complicated, "meta-philosophical" treatment of the "Andriambahoaka cycle" to which the "historical" legends of Imerina seem to belong, itself "scattered fragments" of the Malay myth of origin.

ottinopaul 1986Ottino, Paul. 1986. L'étrangère intime. Essai d'anthropologie de la civilisation de' l'ancien Madagascar 1-2. Paris: Editions des archives contemporaines.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

ottinopaul 1992Ottino, Paul. 1992. Les discours oratoires kabary et les "joutes de paroles" hain-teny. In Le scribe et la grande maison. Etudes Océan Indien 15, 93-104, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

padenjohnn 1968Paden, John N. 1968. Language problems of national integration in Nigeria, the special position of Hausa. In Language problems of developing nations, 199-213, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

paesc&paesmc&rabedimyjeanfrancois&rajaonarimanananarivelo&velonandro 1991Paes, C., M.-C. Paes, Jean-François Rabedimy, Narivelo Rajaonarimanana, and Velonandro. 1991. L'origine des choses. Récits de la côte ouest de Madagascar. Antananarivo: Centre Foi et Justice.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Western,

palmergaryb 1996Palmer, Gary B. 1996. Toward a theory of cultural linguistics. Austin: University of Texas Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

paolybe 1969aPaoly Be. 1969a. Ny foko Bara. Lakroan'i Madagasikara 29 June-13 July.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

paolybe 1969bPaoly Be. 1969b. Ny "Hako" no niandohan'ny Bara. Lakroan'i Madagasikara 22 June.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

pearsonmikeparker 1992Pearson, Mike Parker. 1992. Tombs and monumentality in southern Madagascar: Preliminary results of the central Androy survey. Antiquity 66. Antiquity 66:941-948.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

In the author's own words, this article "reports the initial results of a joint multidisciplinary project (.) which has concentrated on the investigation of the social and economic significance of the tombs that are an outstanding landscape feature in an area of southern Madagascar" (941). There are a number of interesting geographical and historical facts in the article.

peelmana 1988Peelman, A. 1988. L'inculturation. L'Eglise et les cultures. L'horizon du croyant 8. Paris: Desclée.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Anthropology and ethnology,

peressuttiu 1969Peressutti, U. 1969. Petit Dictionnaire Bara (Madagascar). Torino: Copisteria Magenta.

language(s):
Bara Malagasy, French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

perrierdelabathiehenri 1931Perrier De La Bathie, Henri. 1931. Le salariat indigène à Madagascar. In Congrès international et intercolonial de la société indigène (5-10 octobre 1931), edited by Exposition coloniale internationale de Paris. Paris: Exposition Coloniale Internationale.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

peslenicolas 1986Pesle, Nicolas. 1986. Belamoty: Village Tanôsy de l'Onilahy (madagascar). Tulear: CEDRATOM.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,

pizarromarc&veraelizabethm 2001Pizarro, Marc, and Elizabeth M. Vera. 2001. Chicana/o ethnic identity research: Lessons for researchers and counselors. Counseling Psychologist 29(1):91-118.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

poiriercharles 1939Poirier, Charles. 1939. Notes d'ethnographie et d'histoire malgaches. Mémoires de l'Académie malgache 28. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

poiriercharles 1950aPoirier, Charles. 1950a. Ethnographie malgache. 2 Vol: 1. Sorcellerie médicale-magie-art, 2. aperçu sur la représentation de la femme et du bouf. Mémoires de l'Académie malgache 38. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Sakalava,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Bara,

Mixed with valuable information, almost unbearable colonialist propaganda, and opinionatedness which make this hard to read.

poiriercharles 1950bPoirier, Charles. 1950b. Généalogie des rois Maroseranana du sud de l'Onilahy. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 28:28-39.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,
Western,

poiriercharles 1950cPoirier, Charles. 1950c. Le damier ethnique du pays côtier Sakalava. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 28:23-28.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

The name "Sakalava" has been and still is used to classify many different clans and identities, as well as ways of speaking and customs practised across Western Madagascar. This paper provides some insight into who all are thrown into the Sakalava basket-forty-nine different principal clans are inventoried here, representing North and North-West Sakalava.

Selected quotes:

  • Tableau des quarante-neuf principaux clans aborigènes ou allogènes englobés sous la dénomination de Sakalava, tels qu'ils ponctuaient en 1916, la région côtière du nord de Madagascar, plus particulièrement celle de l'ancienne province d'Analalava (.).
  • A l'homogénéité de la population sakalava pure qui peuple la côte centre-ouest, du Fiherenana à la Betsiboka, s'oppose la composition clanique hétérogène des habitants de la côte Nord-Ouest (.).

poirierjean&dezjacques 1963Poirier, Jean, and Jacques Dez. 1963. Les groupes ethniques de Madagascar.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

This provisional report on a survey of ethnic groups in Madagascar mentions forty-eight groups having been found according to the subjective criterion of an informants' own idea of belonging. Even though the information provided represents only the first step in a study that for some reason was never followed up nor completed, it makes a very clear statement against the idea of the eighteen "tribes" of Madagascar. This study does not advance the idea of 48 "tribes," but was aiming to complete the initial results with field research, to verify whether these groupings represent fractions of larger, well-known groups or whether they can be seen as a truer representation of ethnic identity. The authors present an introduction to define and set out the perimeters of the initial research and then provide an inventory of the groups identified, with a short description of each, an estimation of their number, and their location concluding each description with a short bibliography. In three Annexes, the reader finds examples of groups that are mentioned in literature, but that have since disappeared, group names that do not indicate ethnic groupings, and thirdly, a listing of the elements that characterise Malagasy ethnic groups.

poirierjean 1964Poirier, Jean. 1964. La relation de l'homme au sol à Madagascar. Annales de l'Université de Madagascar, Série Lettres et Sciences Humaines 2:57-71.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

poirierjean 1974Poirier, Jean. 1974. Les groupes ethniques de Madagascar. Revue Française d'Etudes Politiques Africaines 100:31-40.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Professor Poirier speaks with insight of the Malagasy people among whom he spent many years. Though dating back substantially, he raises some issues in this paper that have still not been settled concerning ethnicity and ethnic groupings in Madagascar. The article paints in large strokes, some typifying characteristics of the different large group divisions of Malagasy people. A useful calculation of the population numbers Poirier quotes can be made by extrapolating his figures to the 1993 census, which found that the Malagasy population had doubled over the twenty-five years prior to that.

Selected quotes:

  • 'Il n'y a que des Malgaches'; c'est ce qu'on entend dire souvent à Madagascar aujourd'hui. Voux pieux, ou expression d'une unité nationale pleinement assumée'.
    En effet, il est nécessaire de marquer que les problèmes de "tribalisme" qui déchirent encore trop de pays africains n'existent pas, à ce niveau, à Madagascar: la Grande Ile est la seule des quelques quarante nations qui ont accédé à l'indépendance au cours des deux dernières décennies qui puissent se prévaloir d'une triple unité: géographique, linguistique et culturelle. C'est par rapport à cette unité que doivent être appréciées les disparités que tout le monde connaît, mais dont on évite de parler. Il serait vain, cependant, de sous-estimer l'importance des originalités locales: les ethnies (qu'on appelait autrefois très improprement "races"-du temps de l'ère coloniale-puis "tribus") sont nombreuses, beaucoup plus nombreuses que l'énumération officielle ne le laisserait croire: on compte vingt groupes qui servent de cadres aux comptages démographiques (voir infra l'inventaire). Mais en réalité, la population est différenciée en une cinquantaine d'ethnies, qui-on soulignerait le fait-présentent entre elles moins de divergences culturelles que les ethnies françaises du XIXe siècle (les Antandroy sont plus proches des Tsimihety et des sakalava que les Gascons ne l'étaient-ou ne le sont-des Bretons et des Alsaciens).
    L''analyse culturelle de ces groupes est loin d'être achevée; il faut espérer qu'elle pourra l'être avant l'effacement des caractères originaux qui font la richesse et la complexité de la civilisation malgache traditionnelle. Sur le plan ethnologique, on pourrait montrer facilement que les groupes ethniques constituent parfois-mais non toujours-une réalité subjective plus qu'une réalité objective : ils sont en effet diversifiés en sous-groupes, en familles culturelles façonnées par l'histoire de telle sorte qu'il arrive par exemple que deux sous-groupes d'une ethnie donnée soient plus proches entre eux que chacun d'eux ne l'est de son propre groupe. D'autre part, si l'on essaie de faire une typologie, on constate que les groupes se répartissent de manière différente selon que l'on considère la langue, l'habitation, les systèmes de parenté, les rituels funéraires . Il existe donc une osmose profonde faite de multiples imbrications et recouvrements, qui, là encore, traduit une situation très différente de celle de l'Afrique (31-2).

poirierjean 1992aPoirier, Jean. 1992a. Le fato-dra: Aspects de la fraternité par le sang chez les Bezanozano. In Le scribe et la grande maison. Etudes Océan Indien 15, 217-226, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bezanozano,
Central,

poirierjean 1992bPoirier, Jean. 1992b. Pouvoir politique, pouvoirs traditionnels et ordre villageois. Les fondements du contrôle social en pays Bezanozano. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:75-85.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bezanozano,
Central,

polomeedgar 1968Polomé, Edgar. 1968. The choice of official languages in the democratic republic of the Congo. In Language problems of developing nations, 295-311, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

pourcetguy 1993Pourcet, Guy. 1993. Antananarivo, la "ville des mille". Afrique Contemporaine 168:23-40.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

pratorcliffordh 1968Prator, Clifford H. 1968. The British heresy in TESL. In Language problems of developing nations, 459-476, edited by Joshua A. Fishman, Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and Charles A. Ferguson. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

profitapietro 1978Profita, Piétro. 1978. La société malgache et ses valeurs ancestrales. Essai Ethno-Pastoral. Ambatondrazaka: Académie Malgache.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

profitappietro 1972Profita, P. Piétro. 1972. La fonction transculturelle des coutumes malgaches. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 48(1-2):33-40.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

profitappietro 2000Profita, P. Piétro. 2000. Malgaches et malgachitude. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,
Sihanaka,
Central,
Merina,
Betsileo,

proschanfrank 1997Proschan, Frank. 1997. "We are all Kmhmu, just the same": Ethnonyms, ethnic identities, and ethnic groups. American Ethnologist 24(1):91-113.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

rabbeliere 1930Rabbelier, E. 1930. Folklore Bara Imamono. Capricorne 1-3:39-44, 71-75, 125-134.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Imamono,
Bara,
Southern,

rabemananjararw 1990Rabemananjara, R. W. 1990. Le culte des ancêtres à Madagascar. Madagascar Ocean Indien 1:79-99.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rabenilainarogerbruno 1970Rabenilaina, Roger-Bruno. 1970. Ny takahotsy eo anivon'ny karazan-dahateny Bara. Tahiry sy Remby 3(30):192-200.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

rabenilainarogerbruno 1987bRabenilaina, Roger-Bruno. 1987b. Les takahotsy, contes Bara des origines. In Contes et mythes de Madagascar et des Comores. Etudes Océan Indien 8, 57-95, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

raberegis 1995 1928Rabe, Régis. 1995 (1928). Fitsimbinan'ain'ny razana hohatsarain'ny taranany. In Diagnostiquer et guérir à Madagascar. Etudes Océan Indien 19, 139-148, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

radimilahychantal 1981Radimilahy, Chantal. 1981. Migrations anciennes dans l'Androy. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 13-14:99-111.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

This paper contains much historical detail and information on Androy and its people, clans, migrations, and history. Archaeological discoveries during the latter half of the 1970's indicate that the area was inhabited since the tenth to eleventh centuries, by people with a particular culture.
The researchers were able to find precise information on two groups of Antandroy, namely the Andriamanary and the Afomarolahy - the first consisting of Andriamanary plus thirteen other groups, the second consisting of ten groups. For the rest, their list was already quite substantial for names of clans and sub-clans, but still incomplete. They obtained the information from mpisorona, i.e. the guardians of the hazomanga, since each different group identifies with their own hazomanga.
From what the researchers were told, all of these groups of Tandroy came from elsewhere, the unwritten memory dating migration to around the beginning of the 19th century, but the genealogies given pointing to the second half of the 17th century, when these migrations would have pushed the tompontany towards the North. Most groups presently living in the North and interior of Androy affirm their southern and south-eastern origin: Ranopiso-Fort Dauphin; some (the Tebekitro) say they came from the Midongy; others (the Antesomahy) from Betsileo. The inhabitants these migrants found were Tsihenimbalala, Bara and Tanala. (The Bara at a later date than the others). Some groups remained living in the area, but regrouped somewhere else, as in the case the author mentions of the Tanala of Antanandava-Ambiromena, who consider themselves Tandroy, but have kept their cultural identity.
The author mentions that the reasons for these migrations remain obscure, but that sometimes these were sociopsychological, where the people were fleeing evil spirits which are mentioned in traditions and ritual songs, such as the myths of the fanany (multi-headed serpent) and the kokolampo (a bad spirit which persecutes the people).
According to informants, the migrations were meant to be temporary, but circumstances forced them to establish themselves in the new areas, other than their place of origin. They retain a symbolical relationship through rites and customs, which, continues to influence them, even to the point that it produces in them an inner conflict between the desire to return to their land of origin and being forced to remain on "foreign" soil.
The sources of information for this study were mainly of an oral nature, undergirded in some instances by archaeological evidence, but the author stresses that written sources on ancient migrations are mostly insufficient or non-existing.

Selected quotes:

  • A l'heure actuelle, le pays antandroy forme un quadrilatère limité à l'ouest par le fleuve Menarandra, à l'est par une ligne partant de Tsivory vers Tranomaro et Ranopiso. La ligne passant par les villes Bekily-Beraketa-Tsivory constitue la limite nord.
    Les Antandroy divisés en de nombreux clans et sous-clans dont le nom est lié à l'histoire de l'entité, se regroupent selon trois grandes régions:
    -les Tahandrefa (à l'Ouest du Manambovo);
    -les Reneve (à l'Est du Manambavo);
    -les Tatimo (au sud) (100).
  • Les Andriamanary comprennent les Andriamanary à proprement parler, et 13 autres groupes: Tefanomboke, Tekonda, Tebelampy, Telanja, Temangaike (qui se divisent en deux: les Temangaikefoty et les Temangaikemainte), Tandavake, Terano, Telane, Tehelakelake, Tanandapary, Tsitaila, Tambanekile, Temaromena.
    Quant aux Afomarolahy, nous avons décompté 10 groupes: Antemafe, Zazafoty, Takobo, Temarokobo, Tsibontsoa, Tafakatse, Afondriatehake, Tezantelo, Tandaza.
    A part ces deux groupes, nous allons nous contenter de donner une liste des autres clans ou sous-clans avec, si possible, la région où ils sont installés. Nous espérons que des renseignements sur leurs subdivisions internes nous seront bientôt fournis. Ce sont:
    -dans la région d'Antanimora: les Tanalave, Afondriambata, Afomihala, Tananilahy, Tedoho, Tantsaha, Temafy;
    -dans le nord du pays: les antesomahy, Antedodo, Tandemby, Tafondratôke, Tefanoroke, Zafindravola, Tambanditse, Tsihenimbalala, Temanasa, Zafindratsiloke;
    -dans la région d'Ambovombe: les Tesevohitse, Tamparehitsy, Tezaha, Lamitihy, Teampoly, Temalaky, Sihanamena, Tanandrove, Tetsila, Temahatomotsy, Tezaha, Tetsimanato, Tambahy, Temarosiha, Tambotake, Tesampona, Temaroaloka, Tambaninato.
    Par ailleurs, un certain nombre de noms de groupes antandroy nous ont été cités sans que l'on ait pu nous indiquer leur localisation. Ce sont: les Tambolovohitra, Tambonitratroke, Tsimihina, Tebefeno, Sanameloke, Tampototse, Tebekitro, Sanamahie, Takitre, Antevahy, Anteady, Antekibo, Tandringy, Tampany, Antevato, Antandramenatse, Lavaheloke, Manitsine, Marolabo, Tsitemanindry, Fenovahoaka, Tambato, Tsihatrika, Tambohitse, Tanantampohitse, Zatomotry, Antesatry, Maroakalo, Befangitse, Hazoangatse, Sanamaka, Antetsimena, Mahaitampoe, Tevahe, Tevondro, Namotoa, Tamonto, Tambahy, Tesonona, Talomborona, Tambinany, Teafo, Tevahazo, Tananfindravoay, Tamboroho, Tsimanata, Tanalavondrove, Afondraosa, Afondralambo, Afondrasiloke, Anasosa, Milahea, Tsirangoto, Tanjeke, Tezano, Tsimihina, Tsirandrany, Tanatampoty, Antsesatry, Antekibo, Zatoafo.
    Ces différents groupes se reconnaissent à leur hazomanga-D'ailleurs, ces renseignements nous ont été donnés par les mpisorona, gardiens de hazomanga (101).
  • Ces différents groupes se reconnaissent à leur 'hazomanga' (101).
  • En plus, les traditionnistes disparaissent petit à petit et sont plus ou moins remplacés par des successeurs qui, à l'heure actuelle, nous communiquent ou interprètent les traditions selon leurs options politiques ou selon ce qu'ils pensent et croient être la nôtre (101).
  • Bien sûr, les Antandroy ou ceux qui habitent la région comme tous les autres Malgaches sont hospitaliers mais nous discernons quand même une certaine méfiaance vis-à-vis de nous qui ne faisons que passer et prétendons leur soutirer des informations concernant l'histoire de leur groupe, informations dont, somme toute, l'utilisation les laisse sceptiques (101).
  • En dernier lieu, insistons sur le caractère précieux mais relatif des données orales dont la crédibilité ne sera vérifiée que quand elles seront confrontées avec d'autres données, ou quand on sera certain des modes d'interprétation qui lui conviennent (101).
  • Les premiers occupants 'tompon-tany' de la région que ces groupes auraient trouvés seraient les Tsihenimbalala, les Bara, et les Tanala. Le refoulement de ces derniers vers le nord est chose certaine, car les traces de leur occupation sont attestées autant dans les traditions que par la présence de tombes anciennes.
    Il semble que les Bara soient venus après les Tsihenimbalala. En effet, en ce qui concerne la culture matérielle et en se basant sur les traditions orales, la présence des Bara semblerait bien plus proche des temps actuels.
    D'autres groupes considérés comme les premiers occupants par les Tandroy 'nouvellement' installés, vivent encore dans la région bien qu'ils aient été aussi refoulés par ces mêmes Tandroy et soient cantonnés dans certains villages. C'est le cas par exemple dans le Nord des Tanala regroupés dans le village d'Antanandava-Ambiromena. Ils se considèrent comme Tandroy mais gardent toutefois leur 'identité' culturelle.
    Ces mouvements de population auraient obéi à une loi de groupe et ne prennent jamais un aspect individuel.
    Les affirmations des Tandroy Tebekitro de Marovaho nous font savoir qu'ils ne sont pas d'origine Tanôsy mais que deux groupes ayant vécu ensemble ont quitté à peu près à la même époque la région de l'Anosy.
    Les groupes se sont déplacés en masse poussés par des raisons qui nous restent encore obscures.
    Les raisons évoquées sont souvent économiques, mais nous nous rendons compte qu'elles sont récentes. Quelquefois elles sont d'ordre socio-psychologique: fuir des esprits malveillants. Ainsi, nous en trouvons la trace dans les traditions et dans les cantiques: le mythe du 'fanany' (serpent à plusieurs têtes) et le mythe du 'kokolampo', un esprit maléfique qui persécute les populations (103).
  • Les résultats actuels montrent alors que l'intérieur et surtout la partie nord de l'Androy forme une zone de convergence de divers groupes ethniques: autrefois Tandroy, Bara, Tanôsy surtout, actuellement Betsileo et également Merina. Quoi qu'il en soit, la prédominance antandroy est chose évidente (103).
  • Au début, il semble que les migrants aient conçu leurs déplacements comme essentiellement temporaires. Mais les faits les ont obligés à s'établir loin de leur pays d'origine. Ce cas est vraiment indéniable pour le groupe des Antesomahy. Leur itinéraire forme une boucle. D'aiileurs, la tradition affirme qu'ils ont voulu revenir dans leur pays d'origine (les Hauts-plateaux). Ce désir n'a pu être satisfait. Serait-ce le même cas qui se serait produit pour les autres groupes? En effet, on ressent comme un déchirement chez les groupes, déchirement entre le désir toujours entretenu de revenir dans le pays d'origine et l'obligation de demeurer sur une terre "étrangère," entre la fidélité aux sources et les contraintes du pays natal.
    Le pays d'origine continue de rester, même symboliquement, en relation avec la terre d'origine. Toutefois, le fait de ne pouvoir ramener les parents et d'enterrer sur place rattachent à la terre d'immigration.
    L'"identité" est donc maintenue. C'est le cas des Tebekitro de Marovaho qui considèrent la terre où ils sont comme la leur, bien qu'ils avouent ne pas en être originaires.
    La persistance, le souvenir des coutumes et l'absence de relations autres que symboliques avec la terre d'origine ou les membres de la grande famille, nous laissent supposer que les migrations donc se sont effectuées depuis une époque très lointaine( 104-5).
  • Toutes les informations disent en effet que seuls les Tanôsy-Tatsimo savent forger depuis longtemps. D'autres moins sûres en attribuent la connaissance aux Tanala et aux Bara. Le groupe des Tebekitro de Marovaho reste alors un énigme. Ils se disent forgerons deouis leurs ancêtres. Ils viennent d'Anosy mais ne seraient pas Tanôsy. Leurs affirmations peuvent-elles être retenues? (105).
  • Les recherches sont donc à pousser du côté des Bara ou des Tsihenimbalala qui auraient autrefois peuplé l'Androy (105).
  • Le groupe des Temaroalaka d'Ambovombe nous posent un problème dont la situation peut nous aider à comprendre les autres groupes. En effet, ce groupe est antandroy par le parler mais Tanôsy par les us et coutumes. Et pourtant il se considère antandroy. Les données sociologiques et ethnographiques pourraient alors peut-être nous aider (106).
  • Le contacte entre les Antandroy nouveaux-venus et les groupes 'tompon-tany' qui s'est d'abord manifesté d'une manière violente, belliqueuse par affrontements, puis ensuite par un ralliement des anciens occupants, laissent supposer que les Tandroy avaient une organisation de groupe cohérente et solide par rapport à leurs adversaires.
    A l'heure actuelle, le groupe antandroy constitue un des groupes migrateurs les plus actifs. Avec les gens du Sud-Est, ils forment la majorité des travailleurs dans les régions de l'île qui demandent beaucoup de main-d'ouvre comme, par exemple, dans les plantations et les sucreries du Nord-Ouest de l'île.
    Ces migrations temporaires, une dizaine d'années tout au plus, peuvent prendre différents aspects: soit individuels, soit familiaux, soit claniques.
    La principale cause en est la recherche de l'argent qui permettra de regrouper un important troupeau de zébus lors du retour au pays, qui permettra aussi d'avoir du prestige et ainsi de construire des tombeaux grandioses. Il faut aussi noter l'existence des migrations plus durables, migrations qui concernent des groupes entiers de Tandroy qui ont voulu peut-être revenir au pays d'origine mais n'en ont pas eu la possibilité.
    Le genre de vie pour ces derniers peut changer de visage. De nomades, ces Antandroy sont devenu sédentaires. C'est le cas d'un groupe de Tandroy regroupés dans un village dans la région de Belo-sur-Tsiribihina et qui sont devenus riziculteurs (106).

rahajarizafyantoinedepadoue 1969Rahajarizafy, Antoine de Padoue. 1969. Ny kabary. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rahajarizafyantoinedepadoue 1970aRahajarizafy, Antoine de Padoue. 1970a. Filozofia Malagasy. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rahajarizafyantoinedepadoue 1970bRahajarizafy, Antoine de Padoue. 1970b. Hanitra nentin-drazana. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rahajarizafyantoinedepadoue 1998Rahajarizafy, Antoine de Padoue. 1998. Ny ohabolana Malagasy. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rahamefyramarolahyadolphe 1995Rahamefy-Ramarolahy, Adolphe. 1995. Une thérapeutique ambiguë: Apprivoiser les ancêtres ou exorcer les démons? In Diagnostiquer et guérir à Madagascar. Etudes Océan Indien 19, 71-76, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

raharijaonas 1957Raharijaona, S. 1957. Les populations de la haute vallée de l'Imady (district d'Ambositra, province de Fianarantsoa). ORSTOM.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,
South-eastern,

raharilalaohilaireaurelienmarie 1991Raharilalao, Hilaire Aurélien-Marie. 1991. Eglise et fihavanana à Madagascar. Une herméneutique malgache de la réconciliation Chrétienne selon Saint Paul, 2 co 5, 17-21. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,

Raharilalao reports on his research of the Malagasy ethic of fihavanana and its meaning in the context of Malagasy society, in particular in Betsileo, as well as how this concept finds theological meaning in the light of the Gospel of Reconciliation in Christ. This is a study on aspects of inculturation in the context of Madagascar.
The author presents this study in two parts: First, a "Malagasy reading of Reconciliation according to Saint Paul," and secondly, a "Malagasy interpretation of Christian Reconciliation."

raharinirinarabaovololonarazanajohanylucie 1987Raharinirina-Rabaovololona, Razanajohany Lucie. 1987. Ny fehezan-teny sy ny fehezan-teny fototra. Dinika sy Karoka Haiteny 1.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

raharinjanaharylala&velonandro 1995Raharinjanahary, Lala, and Velonandro. 1995. Proverbes malgaches en dialecte Masikoro. Collection repères pour Madagascar et l'océan Indien. Paris: L'Harmattan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Masikoro,
South-western,

Excellent source on Masikoro culture; useful introduction.

raharinjanaharysolo 1992Raharinjanahary, Solo. 1992. L'AnTanôsy: Parler témoin de l'histoire de la langue malgache. In Le scribe et la grande maison. Etudes Océan Indien 15, 49-58, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,

raherisoanjatodaniel 1984Raherisoanjato, Daniel. 1984. Origines et évolutions du royaume de l'Arindrano, jusqu'au xixe siècle. Ronéo. Travaux et documents 22. Antananarivo: Musée de l'Université.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rainandriamampandry 1874 1971Rainandriamampandry. 1874 [1971]. Tantarany Madagascar. Documents Historiques de Madagascar 25-30. Fianarantsoa: Centre de Formation Pédagogique Ambozontany.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rainihifinaj 1975Rainihifina, J. 1975. Lovantsaina. 3 Vol: 1. Tantara betsileo, 2. fomba betsileo, 3. fitenenana betsileo. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rainisoamanana&rainiamboazafy 1877Rainisoamanana, and Rainiamboazafy. 1877. Ibara. Ny Isankerintaona 1877:35-43.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

rainitovo 1932Rainitovo. 1932. Tantaran'ny Malagasy manontolo, 3 vols. Antananarivo: Paoli.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

raisonfrancoise 1979Raison, Françoise. 1979. Temps de l'astrologie, temps de l'histoire. Le premier almanach de la LMS en Imerina: 1864. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 9.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

raisonfrancoise 1982Raison, Françoise. 1982. Le travail missionnaire sur les formes de la culture orale à Madagascar entre 1820 et 1886. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 15:33-52.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

raisonjeanpierre 1992Raison, Jean-Pierre. 1992. Le noir et le blanc dans l'agriculture ancienne de la côte orientale malgache. In Le scribe et la grande maison. Etudes Océan Indien 15, 199-216, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Eastern,

raisonjourdefrancoise 1983Raison-Jourde, Françoise (ed.) 1983. Les souverains de Madagascar. L'Histoire royale et ses résurgences contemporaines. Collection "hommes et sociétés". Paris: Editions Karthala.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

See under individual articles.

raisonjourdefrancoise 1991Raison-Jourde, Françoise. 1991. Bible et pouvoir à Madagascar au xixe siècle. Invention d'une identité Chrétienne et construction de l'etat (1780-1880). Collection "hommes et sociétés". Paris: Editions Karthala.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

The author takes on many complex issues relating to the introduction of Christianity to Madagascar and offers an analysis of relationships, attitudes in the light of history, pointing out the implications of history for what has become a Malagasy State.

raisonjourdefrancoise 1992Raison-Jourde, Françoise. 1992. Les évangélistes Merina et leur contribution à la première ethnographie des côtes malgaches. In Le scribe et la grande maison. Etudes Océan Indien 15, 121-136, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,
Malagasy,

When the missionaries came back to Madagascar in 1861, after the interruption caused by the reign of Ranavalona I, who tortured and killed many Christians and expelled the missionaries, a special project was launched with the founding of the Home Missionary Society in 1873, which consisted of training and sending young Merina men to evangelise the outlying areas of Madagascar. In this paper, the author discusses the ethnographic work these evangelists were instructed to do, in order to produce "a complete picture" of the peoples of Madagascar. It was to be done by Malagasy agents, who were trained to have a European frame of reference for this, and were unable to identify with any of their fellow citizens' customs, traditions, and way of life, and, highly judgmental of these. Underlying this work, was an ethic that the author shows to have contributed to the expansion of Merina supremacy over the island. This ethic is clear from a triumphant message by the Reverend Sibree, seeing the Merina evangelists taking the torch from the English missionaries to evangelise the pagan peoples of the island, in which he said (personal translation from the French quoted on page 125):
You know that Great Britain is today a great power and she was able to submit vast lands and a good number of countries under the domination of Queen Victoria. It is because she is the first of the Christian nations to love the Word of God (.). If the Hova dominate the other populations of the island, like the Sakalava, the Betsileo, the Bara, one wouldn't hesitate in saying that it is the Hova who serve God the best, hence their supremacy in relation to the other Malagasy populations (.). Who did God give the power to? To the Sakalava, to the Betsileo, to the Bara? No, to the Hova, because they possess the Gospel and because many of them love it.
Many incongruities are pointed out here: the Hova, who subdued other Malagasy in the first half of the nineteenth century, were pagan themselves and committed acts of violence that merited them the hatred and resentment of the vanquished. So, the Merina are to continue their conquest of the island, this time with the goal of winning the pagan souls of the unsubdued, following the noble example of Great Britain, best Christian nation, best colonial power, who according to a divine plan was uniting Christianity and Colonisation under the banner of providence.
Before leaving Madagascar, Sewell (LMS) addressed a large audience in Antananarivo (again a personal translation, p.125):
I am waiting with impatience for the day, when you my friends, the Hova, will become the conquerors of many nations. where the Bara, the Sakalava and all the tribes of Madagascar will be conquered by you and all gathered in the Kingdom of Christ. I am not asking you to arm yourselves with spears and guns and cannons in this war because I have no confidence in such weapons. Let only the Word be in your bags.
The author shows how the ethnographic work done by the Merina evangelists, who were agents of their government in furthering the subjugation of the then still independent Malagasy populations, thus, working according to a certain political ethic, was continued in the same vein by the French military and administrative personnel, who used the same ethnic classification, because they all operated in the same ethic of domination.

rajaonarimanananarivelo&feesarah 1996Rajaonarimanana, Narivelo, and Sarah Fee. 1996. Dictionnaire Malgache Dialectal-Français. Dialecte Tandroy. Dictionnaires des langues O' (langues de l'océan Indien occidental). Paris: Langues et Mondes / L'Asiathèque.

language(s):
Tandroy Malagasy, French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

In the introduction, much useful information concerning the language of the Tandroy people is given, as well as a discussion of some written material on Tandroy dialectology. This is done chronologically, according to date of publication. A number of recent ethnographic studies are mentioned, as well as other dialectal lexicographic studies. This work is another invaluable tool for anyone interested in the people of Androy.
A challenging quotation in the context of the present sociolinguistic survey is found in the introduction, p. 5, "Les variétés linguistiques utilisées par les quelque dix-huit groupes ethniques différents sont intelligibles par ces groupes avec une seule exception: celles utilisées par les Tandroy du Sud" (our italics). Challenging, because to our knowledge no comprehensive intelligibility studies have been done in Madagascar, and because the only study referred to in the context of this statement is a glottochronological study Vérin et al (100 word list), which could not with lexical data uphold the argument. In the course of our research, some intelligibility studies will be done. Until now ideas about intelligibility in Madagascar, seem largely based on subjective, experiential reports.

rajaonarimanananarivelo 1986Rajaonarimanana, Narivelo. 1986. Quelques traits de l'organisation sociale des Betsileo du Manandriana. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 245-262, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,

rajaonarimanananarivelo 1987Rajaonarimanana, Narivelo. 1987. Les parents à plaisanterie des Makoa. In Contes et mythes de Madagascar et des Comores. Etudes Océan Indien 8, 119-123, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Makoa,
Western,
Korao,
South-western,
Bara,
Southern,

rajaonarimanananarivelo 1995bRajaonarimanana, Narivelo. 1995b. Les documents médicaux de la tradition Arabico-malgache (sud-est de madagascar). In Diagnostiquer et guérir à Madagascar. Etudes Océan Indien 19, 11-44, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,
South-eastern,

rajaonarimanananarivelo 1996Rajaonarimanana, Narivelo. 1996. Les sept pilons de fer. Traditions orales du Manandriana (madagascar). Etudes Océan Indien 20. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,

rajaonarisonelie 1979Rajaonarison, Elie. 1979. Mythe sur l'origine des Mahafaly et de la dynastie Maroseranana (sud-ouest de madagascar). Taloha 8:83-110.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

rajaonarisonelie 1992Rajaonarison, Elie. 1992. "Mamandraka", "graver le livre": Ecrit, histoire et pouvoir chez les Antemoro. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:133-145.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,

rajaonarivelog 1981Rajaonarivelo, G. 1981. La lutte traditionnelle du sud ou le ringa. Madagascar Matin 24 July.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern,

rajaonasimeon 1959Rajaona, Siméon. 1959. Essai d'analyse de la structure de la pensée malgache. Examen de quelques notions. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 37:75-79.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rajaonasimeon 1963Rajaona, Siméon. 1963. Aspects de la psychologie malgache vus à travers certains traits des "kabary" et quelques faits de langue. Annales de l'Université de Madagascar, Série Lettres et Sciences Humaines 1:23-37.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rajaonasimeon 1969Rajaona, Siméon. 1969. Recueil de contes Tandroy. Antananarivo: Université de Madagascar.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

A collection of texts in Antandroy, recorded in 1967, representing the first attempt by a linguist to standardize the Tandroy language. His system of transcribing has since been adopted for use by many Tandroy researchers.

rajasperaraphael 1995Rajaspera, Raphaël. 1995. Taxinomies lexicales et structures sémantiques vues à travers la traduction du français en malgache: Les termes de parenté, la dénomination des couleurs. Meta 40(4):623-631.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rakoto 1929Rakoto. 1929. Un "ala fady" chez les Antevondro. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 12:21-24.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tevondro (Antevondro),
Bara,
Southern,

rakotoarimananamarcelle 1995Rakotoarimanana, Marcelle. 1995. Maladies, pratiques thérapeutiques et sorcellerie à Vinaninkarena (centre de madagascar). In Diagnostiquer et guérir à Madagascar. Etudes Océan Indien 19, 53-69, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Central,

rakotoarisoajeanaime 1981Rakotoarisoa, Jean-Aimé. 1981. Essai d'inventaire des sites d'intérêt historique et archéologique du sud et de l'ouest de Madagascar. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 13-14:79-87.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern,

A very sketchy presentation of archaeological sites, with the interesting remark that Sarodrano holds the most ancient traces of civilisation since the 6th century. The author deals with sites of subfossils, sites where subfossils can be associated with human industry and historical sites.

rakotoarisoajeanaime 1986Rakotoarisoa, Jean-Aimé. 1986. Principaux aspects des formes d'adaptation de la société traditionnelle malgache. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 89-106, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rakotoi 1971Rakoto, I. 1971. Parenté et mariage en droit traditionnel malgache. Travaux et recherches de la faculté de droit et des sciences économiques de Paris 5. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rakotojaonaj 1983Rakotojaona, J. 1983. Mahay mikabary. Antananarivo: Trano Printy FJKM.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rakotomalalamalanjaonamanoelina&razafimbelocelestin 1985Rakotomalala, Malanjaona Manoelina, and Célestin Razafimbelo. 1985. Le problème d'intégration sociale chez les Makoa de l'Antsihanaka. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 21-22:93-113.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Makoa,
Western,
Sihanaka,
Central,

Insightful article of the Makoa community in Antsihanaka. A short wordlist elicited in 1982 is given in annexe.

rakotomalalamalanjaonamanoelina 1995Rakotomalala, Malanjaona Manoelina. 1995. La lèpre vue à travers une esquisse comparative de trois jeux d'enfants malgaches. In Diagnostiquer et guérir à Madagascar. Etudes Océan Indien 19, 77-105, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rakotomalalayolandejv 1995Rakotomalala, Yolande J. V. 1995. Les pathologies prédominantes à Madagascar au dernier quart du xixe siècle, d'après les rapports des missionnaires britanniques. In Diagnostiquer et guérir à Madagascar. Etudes Océan Indien 19, 111-114, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rakotomanalisoab 1968Rakotomanalisoa, B. 1968. Opus scientificum sur "L'origine et la signification du bilo et du tromba dans le pays Bara".

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

rakotonaivofrancois 1997Rakotonaivo, François. 1997. Ny riba Malagasy eran'ny Nosy. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rakotondrabemodeste 1987Rakotondrabe, Modeste. 1987. L'inculturation du Christianisme à Madagascar: Histoire et perspectives. PhD dissertation. Université des Sciences Humaines.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

ralaimihoatraedouard 1966Ralaimihoatra, Edouard. 1966. La dépression d'Ivohibe dans l'histoire du sud. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 42(2):33-35.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

ralaimihoatraedouard 1981Ralaimihoatra, Edouard. 1981. Reflexions sur les Maroseranana du Menabe. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 13-14:141-147.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Menabe,

Brief discussion of some sources on the origins of the Maroseranana.

ralaivolaclovis 1976Ralaivola, Clovis. 1976. Contribution à l'étude historique et linguistique des noms et sobriquets donnés aux Merina. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 52(1-2):3-20.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Hova,
Merina,
Central,
Borizano,
Amboalambo,
Ambaniandro,

raliberar 1966Ralibera, R. 1966. Vazaha et malgaches en dialogue. Fianarantsoa: Imprimerie Catholique.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

ramamonjisoajanine 2002Ramamonjisoa, Janine. 2002. Les relations entre "ethnies" à Madagascar: Une problématique souvent mal posée. Afrique Contemporaine 202-203:55-71.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

One of the rare contemporary reflections on ethnic issues in Madagascar, an attempt to explain the Malagasy case. This paper links up well with Tsimilaza (1992).

ramamonjisoanirhylanto 1995Ramamonjisoa, Nirhy-Lanto. 1995. Une thèse de médecine sur le tanghin, soutenue en 1891 par Joseph Rasamimanana. In Diagnostiquer et guérir à Madagascar. Etudes Océan Indien 19, 105-110, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

ramamonjisoasuzyandree 1976Ramamonjisoa, Suzy Andrée. 1976. La femme malgache avant la colonisation. Antananarivo: Direction de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

Much information to be found on ancestral worship, the names of God, the sampy and ody, and social customs.

ramandraivononadenis 1959Ramandraivonona, Denis. 1959. Le malgache: Sa langue et sa religion. Paris: Présence Africaine.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

This work hasn't much to offer our study and seems to be highly marginal in any context. The author maintains that his goal has been to dissect the Malagasy language, to study its physiology, and in this way, to help lay a foundation for etymological research. He throws out various sweeping statements concerning the historical closeness between Malagasy and Sanskrit and argues for a closeness with Latin. He provides "substantiation" from comparative lists of Sanskrit and Malagasy; Latin and Malagasy; with references to French and English, etc., and further complicates his thesis by trying to demonstrate a direct relation between what constitutes a word form and its meaning; a primal significance in the very letters of the alphabet used to form words, which directly equal meanings, contained in the roots he isolated. This forcing of relationship between form and meaning has been less than convincing.

ramasindraibep 1975Ramasindraibe, P. 1975. Fokonolona, fototry ny firenena. Antananarivo: Nouvelle Imprimerie des Arts Graphiques.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

ramisiraygershon 1901Ramisiray, Gershon. 1901. Pratiques et croyances médicales des malgaches. Paris: A. Maloine.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

randriamamonjyfrederic 2001Randriamamonjy, Frédéric. 2001. Tantaran'i Madagasikara isam-paritra. Antananarivo: Trano Printy Loterana.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

Good record of generally accepted ideas on the different "sociétés" of Madagascar: clearly written with maps and interesting facts. Documents the usual views, without substantiating any: written with a Merina academic bias. Does not primarily take into account the people's own views of themselves and their history.

randriamarolazalouispaul 1986Randriamarolaza, Louis Paul. 1986. Elevage et vol de boufs en pays Bara: La dimension socio-culturelle. Recherches pour le Développement. Série Science de l'Homme et de la Société 1:87-104.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

This paper summarises the findings of a survey the author conducted in Bara-be, the Horombe plateau, and provides valuable insight into Bara culture, in general, particularly into the phenomenon of cattle-rustling. It is clear that the cattle-rustling in the traditional Bara context has an economic and traditional meaning that this author analyses in the light of other work done on the subject in the past century or so. He divides the latter into two categories: a first category of literature with views which he terms between ethnocentrism (e.g. "this blemish of the Malagasy nation, which the civilising France will remove by educating the barbarians") and reductionism (national authors who view the phenomenon as an illness or as a danger for cattle-breeding which they want to eradicate by law and by force). The second category tends towards a more globalising explanation of the phenomenon. Here he perceives a negative view of the problem (where the phenomenon is seen as social pathology) and a positive view (where the cattle-rustling is seen as an element of production). This author reveals important information concerning this controversial phenomenon and is in no way party to condescension. He mentions a proverb (p.94) that he has often heard during his fieldwork: "Ny halatsy tsindrokiny ny mahery", which means that the stealing of cattle is the only form of gathering worthy of the strong ("le vol de boufs est la seule forme de cueillette digne des forts"), which explains the view of cattle-rustling as an extension of a lifestyle of hunter-gathering.

randrianarisoapierre 1959Randrianarisoa, Pierre. 1959. Madagascar et les croyances et coutumes malgaches. Paris: Association Nationale des Ecrivains de la Mer et de l'Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

randrianarisonj 1976Randrianarison, J. 1976. Le bouf dans l'économie rurale de Madagascar. Madagascar. Revue de Géographie 28-29:9-122, 9-81.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rasamuelm 1986Rasamuel, M. 1986. Kabary am-panambadiana sy amin'ny fanasana. Antananarivo: Trano Printy FJKM.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rasoamalalavaoclaire&raharinjanaharysolo 1992Rasoamalalavao, Claire, and Solo Raharinjanahary. 1992. Atlas linguistique et ethnographique de Madagascar. Communication aux journées des 3 au 10 juillet 1992, université de Toliara.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

This lecture informs about a project to do research towards a linguistic and ethnographic atlas of Madagascar. It explains the stages of research, describes procedures and frames the first area of research. Attached is found the wordlist that would be used.

ratrimoharinosyhelene 1986Ratrimoharinosy, Hélène. 1986. La société malgache vers 1800. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 193-211, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

ratsimamangaalbertrakoto 1940Ratsimamanga, Albert Rakoto. 1940. Tâche pigmentaire héréditaire et origine des malgaches (Thèse). Revue Anthropologique 1-3:6-140.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

ratsimbazafimahefap 1971Ratsimbazafimahefa, P. 1971. Le fisakana: Archéologie et couches cuturelles. Musée d'art et d'archéologie, travaux et documents 9. Antananarivo: Université de Madagascar.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

ravololomangabodo 1992Ravololomanga, Bodo. 1992. Etre femme et mère à Madagascar (Tanala d'ifanadiana). Connaissance des hommes. Paris: L'Harmattan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

razafindratovoramamonjisoajanine 1986Razafindratovo-Ramamonjisoa, Janine. 1986. Ilafy: Terre et parenté. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 229-243, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

razafintsalamaadolphe 1983Razafintsalama, Adolphe. 1983. Valeurs universelles du message chrétien et leur réalisation culturelle: Le cas du mariage à Madagascar. Telema 9(34):51-62.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

razafintsalamaadolphe 1985Razafintsalama, Adolphe. 1985. L'inculturation à Madagascar. Telema 11(42):45-47.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

razafintsalamaadolphe 1988bRazafintsalama, Adolphe. 1988b. Les ancêtres au cour de la vie et de la sagesse: Jalons pour une théologie en terre malgache. Telema 14(53):11-29.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

razafintsalamajoseph 1928Razafintsalama, Joseph. 1928. La langue malgache et les origines malgaches. 2 vols. Tananarive: G. Pitot.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

razanakolonaodonmariearsene 1987Razanakolona, Odon Marie Arsene. 1987. La loi de la gradualité et le mariage coutumier à Madagascar. PhD dissertation. Pontificia Universitas Urbaniana.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rbmnnj 1901R.b.m.n.n., J. 1901. Tantara nampitondrain'olona avy any amin'ny Bara. Vaovao frantsay-malagasy 5(244-246):977-978, 982, 985-986.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

realydaniel ndRealy, Daniel. n.d. Fomba Bara Zafindrendriko.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Zafindrendriko,
Bara,
Southern,

rehatsakyn ndRehatsaky, N. n.d. Atsa baran'lvohibe (Antaramena) natao tamin'ny kabôsy.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

rehatsakyn ndRehatsaky, N. n.d. Fomba fagnopagne fatodra.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

renelcharles 1923Renel, Charles. 1923. Ancêtres et dieux. Anciennes religions de Madagascar. Antananarivo: Pitot de la Beaujardière.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

rengokyzafitompo 1988Rengoky, Zafitompo. 1988. Les Mekea: Chasseurs et cueilleurs à Añalabo (sud-ouest de madagascar). Master's thesis. Université de Madagascar, Centre Universitaire Régional.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mikea,
South-western,

Very useful overview of Mikea culture and customs, told in a very simple way, so that even a complete stranger to Malagasy culture can catch here a worthwhile glimpse of one of the, hitherto, most unknown manifestations.

rengokyzafitompo 1997Rengoky, Zafitompo. 1997. La relation à l'étranger. Essai sur les jeux des enfants Masikoro. Master's thesis. Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mikea,
South-western,
Masikoro,

resondrov ndResondro, V. n.d. Fomba Bara Marovola.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Marovola,
Bara,
Southern,

rexjohn 1995Rex, John. 1995. Ethnic identity and the nation state: The political sociology of multi-cultural societies. Social identities 1(1):21-34.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Research,
Anthropology and ethnology,

reyalberto 1977Rey, Alberto. 1977. Accent and employability. Language Sciences 47:7-12.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

reyveronique&davennececillevanden 1998Rey, Véronique, and Cécille van den Davenne. 1998. Langage et identité en situation migratoire : À chacun son bambara. Clio en Afrique 4.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

ribardme 1924Ribard, M. E. 1924. Contribution à l'étude des aloalo malgaches. L'anthropologie 34(1-2):91-102.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

ribardme 1926Ribard, M. E. 1926. Le vol de boufs dans le sud-ouest de Madagascar. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache 9:29-48.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
South-western,

richardsonjames 1877Richardson, James. 1877. Lights and shadows or chequered experiences among some of the heathen tribes of Madagascar with notes geographical, political, social and religious, also on the Bara, Tanôsy and Vezo dialects and itinerary. Antananarivo: The London Missionary Society.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

richardsonjames 1878Richardson, James. 1878. Ny Bara sy ny Tanôsy. Tananarive: London Missionary Society Press.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Bara,
Southern,

rindlerschjerverosita 1991Rindler Schjerve, Rosita. 1991. Ethnolinguistic and interpretative concepts in explaining language shift. In Levels of linguistic adaptation. Pragmatics and Beyond New Series 6(2), 223-233, edited by Jef Verschueren. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

The author studied language shift in Sardinia and concludes that the explanatory value of the network-analysis method wasn't much better than that of the domain-analysis method, because both explain "language choice on the basis of social orientations and role demands on the individual" (230) but she did find the network procedure to come closer to a description of the shift within the micro-sphere of Sardinian-Italian communication" (230).

Selected quotes:

  • In recent years sociolinguistic studies of bilingualism have paid increased attention to phenomena of language shift (223).
  • J.J. Gumperz formulates the assumption that the social set-up of a language community is reflected in the variation of the linguistic repertoire of its members (1975:17). The alternant styles within the linguistic repertoire symbolize the different social identities of the members of the speech community and each stylistic variant is ascribed a social meaning according to certain rules. Empirical evidence of this interdependence between the usage of the stylistic variation (different languages or dialects) and their meaning can be provided by functional profiles of a language. These can be arrived at by retracing the interplay between the social system of a speech community, its value system and the situation of the individual speaker with ethnographic means (224).
  • Gumperz (1975:143) defines the "speech community" as an aggregate of individuals distinguished from others by the regularity of interactions. Thus, Gumperz's definition of the speech community implicitly presupposes the existence of a unified reference-frame for the interpretation of linguistic symbols (224).
  • The interdependence of speech and action is a basic assumption of the ethnolinguistic approach (225).
  • (.)the use of Sardinian was more frequent the stronger individuals were rooted in this network of traditional activities and neighborhood relations. The number and frequency of relations within this network acted as a kind of control in favor of Sardinian. In spite of the fact that everyday interaction was in Sardinian, certain indications of a beginning language shift could not be overlooked: They could be detected in the language use of parents who brought up their preschool children in Italian, as well as in young adult speakers who switched to Italian more often when talking to perons who did not belong to the Sas Koltese network. This suggested that particularly the language use of younger speakers would vary according to their degree of integration into the local network. In order to get a clearer picture of the mechanisms governing their speech behavior it was necessary to take a closer look at the way in which the network acted as a linguistic norm-reinforcement. For that purpose contact profiles were developed, which included the social identity of those persons with whom the family members had interacted within a given period. These social profiles were supplemented by certain socio-anthropological indicators of lifestyle, such as sheep-rearing, farming, baking bread, which gave insight into the extent to which the subjects were rooted in rural traditions (.).
    The contact profiles made it possible to analyse the amount oof language control experienced by the members of the two sample families in their everyday interactions. Thus predictions made about the speech behavior of individuals were more exact than if they had been based on the usual status correlations. Furthermore it became possible to draw conclusions on the correlation between conformity pressures of the social milieu, the identity of the speaker, and language use (.) (228-9).
  • (.) young mothers instigated language shift (230).
  • As a consequence of my social and psychological integration into the Sardinian environment, I learned to understand the use of the two languages as referents of different social meanings. The impression I gained from my questions and observations was that the native language, the medium of contacts within the local network, was gaining importance as the language of solidarity, while Italian, the language of the "others" was associated with the distant and alien life on the continent (230).
  • Language shift within a bilingual community is a complex, supra-individual process (.). Therefore it seems appropriate to analyze the process of alternating language use and language shift from both a macro-and micro-structural point of view (231).
  • Hymes (1979) defines ethnography as a method of systematic observation, questioning and comparison; Gumperz (1984:4) defines it as "an act of translation in which localized native categories are translated into the more generally accessible categories of the investigator and his discipline" (231).

robinsonclintondw 1992Robinson, Clinton D. W. 1992. Language use in rural development. International museum of cultures publication 26. Dallas: International Museum of Cultures.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Qualitative research,
Research,
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

robinsonwp 1995Robinson, W. P. (ed.) 1995. Social groups and identities. Oxford: Butterworth-Heineman.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

rombakajacquesphilippe 1970Rombaka, Jacques Philippe. 1970. Fomban-drazana Antemoro. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,

rombimariefrancoise 1979Rombi, Marie-Françoise. 1979. Trois pauvres, deux tyrans, deux princesses. Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines 19:549-578.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

roosense 1989Roosens, E. 1989. Creating ethnicity. London: Sage Publications.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Anthropology and ethnology,

ruudjoergen 1955Ruud, Jørgen. 1955. Etude grammaticale du dialecte Betsimisaraka du sud. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 33:33-55.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern Betsimisaraka (Antatsimo, Tatsimo),
Betsimisaraka,
Eastern,

ruudjoergen 1970Ruud, Jørgen. 1970. Taboo. A Study of Malagasy customs and beliefs. Oslo: Oslo University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

This study of Malagasy culture is essential reading for anyone interested in the worldview of the people of Madagascar. It is the fruit of research done during the twenty years between 1934 and 1954. Some of the information has become antiquated and some was based on some rather shallow and glib theoretical assumptions of the time regarding "tribes" and ethnology, long since replaced by a different mindset, so that the value of this work lies in its thorough recording of the phenomenon of taboos.

sachscurt 1938Sachs, Curt. 1938. Les instruments de musique de Madagascar. Travaux et mémoires de l'Institut d'Ethnologie 28. Paris: Institut d'ethnologie, Universite de Paris.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

salle 1907Salle. 1907. Baras (région de Midongy: Clans Zafimandomboka et Zafimarozaha). Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société d'Anthropologie de Paris 8:393-399.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Zafimarozaha,
Bara,
Southern,
Zafimandomboka,

sambo 1999Sambo. 1999. Contes et légendes Tandroy. Paris: L'Harmattan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,

samboclement 1993Sambo, Clément. 1993. Destins astrologiques et liberté Humaine. In Religions. Etudes Océan Indien 16, 1-29, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,

In this article, the author restates and summarises elements of ritual astrological practice among the Tanôsy people, previously discussed in his master's paper, accepted in 1983 at the University of Tulear. His study is the fruit of research in the area of Fort Dauphin (southeast Madagascar) entitled, "Aspects philosophiques du Fanandroana anTanôsy." The practice of astrology came to Madagascar with Islam and has become part of the Malagasy view of life. At birth, a destiny is assigned to the person, expressed as a name chosen by the ombiasa according to an astrological calendar. There are twelve names for boys and twelve names for girls. Other names are given to each person to ensure identification, as more than one person in the family could be born under the same sign.
The author mentions some interesting facts on the world view of the Tanôsy people.

Selected quotes:

  • Ce qui importe chez les Tanôsy ce n'est pas la pratique astrologique en tant que science pure mais en tant que pratique rituelle. C'est un rite par lequel le Tanôsy se manifeste comme étant en un sens maître des destins astrologiques mais non victime (1).
  • Lorsqu'un enfant est grondé par ses parents, la coutume veut qu'il garde silence. Le silence est alors une attitude de réception et de disponibilité.
    Sur le plan humain, la parole est signe de vie. L'abcense de la parole équivaut à la mort (3).
  • Dans la société Tanôsy, les femmes sont comptées parmi les enfants. Lorsqu'on dit 'apela amin-jaza', 'femmes et enfants', on place la femme au bas de la hiérarchie du groupe. Elle n'est même pas digne de participer ni d'assister à certaines cérémonies rituelles, surtout si elle a ses règles, car les règles symbolisent l'infécondité, la mort (3).
  • Le bouf est l'animal de sacrifice par excellence. A défaut, on sacrifice un mouton ou un poulet, mais jamais un chèvre ou une oie. Le bouf est aussi le signe visible de la richesse (5).
  • Le bouf tué équivaut à l'argent rituel (.) (5).
  • Un bouc doit mourir car c'est un ennemi.
    Les Tanôsy ne mangent pas de la viande de chèvre, cet animal constitut pour eux le tabou alimentaire. En tant que tel, elle symbolise le mal. Le mal suprême c'est celui qui porte atteinte à notre vie: la mort. L'ennemi représente une mort suspendue. Tuer l'ennemi, c'est éliminer le mal. C'est en quelque sorte le bouc émissaire que les juifs lâchaient dans le désert (.) (5).
  • Le moteur qui pousse les Tanôsy à accomplir tout acte rituel c'est la crainte de la mort (6).
  • L'oie symbolise la pureté, la noblesse. Les Tanôsy pensent que les oies ne se nourissent pas d'excrments humains, même si par hasard elles mettaient leurs pattes dessus, elles boiteraient, à la différence des poules qui, elles s'en régalent. De ce fait, l'oie est considérée comme l'oiseau noble (9).
  • Dans les rites funéraires, le bouf remplace le défunt. Selon certaines traditions, il paraît qu'autrefois quand une personne était morte, on ne l'enterrait pas, on la mangeait. De ce fait, on croyait que la vie n'est pas dissoute mais transmise à ceux qui l'ont mangée, à ses parents. Plus tard, au lieu de manger le défunt, on tua un bouf à sa place. Et puisqu'il ne faut pas manger la personne morte elle-même, pourquoi encore manger son substitut? C'est pourquoi, bon nombre de clans Tanôsy ne mangent pas les boufs tués à l'occasion des funérailles (9).
  • (.) tout le monde est assis sauf l'officiant, (.) La position assise est signe d'humilité, d'abaissement. Les Malgaches ne parlent jamais debout devant quelqu'un de respectable. La position debout signifie la domination, le mépris, c'est le cas de l'officiant car il a le pouvoir de chasser le mauvais sort et de dialoguer avec les puissances surnaturelles (14).
  • L'astrologie tanôsy est plutôt une voie religieuse qu'une science exacte comme les mathématiques (.). Néanmoins le Tanôsy n'est pas fataliste. Si tout va bien, comme cela est prévu par le devin, on croit à l'efficacité des influences du destin. Si rien ne va, les déterminations se limitent seulement à une prédisposition naturelle (16).
  • Malgré le destin, l'homme reste libre et responsable de ses actes. Les qualités du destin restent toujours dans la personne et non dans le destin lui-même. C'est pourquoi, le destin ne suffit pas à expliquer les actes humains, et les influences déterminantes du destin n'apaisent pas la conscience quand la personne a commis un acte déplorable. L'homme reste, quel que soit le cas, maiître de son destin, il suffit d'en prendre conscience. Le destinest flexible à volonté, la liberté humaine triomphe sur les prétendues déterminations extérieures comme les influences astrologiques (17).

samboclement 1995Sambo, Clément. 1995. Tradition malgache et écologie. Recherches et Documents 19:50-64.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

sanonat&luneaur 1982Sanon, A. T., and R. Luneau. 1982. Enraciner l'Evangile. Initiations Africaines et pédagogie de la foi. Rites et symboles 14. Paris: Cerf.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,

sauttergilles&bourdiecfle&dandoyg&faurouxemmanuel&raisonjeanpierre&schlemmerbernard&waastroland 1980Sautter, Gilles, F. le Bourdiec, G. Dandoy, Emmanuel Fauroux, Jean-Pierre Raison, Bernard Schlemmer, and Roland Waast. 1980. Changements sociaux dans l'ouest malgache. Mémoires 90. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

sayerssean 1999Sayers, Sean. 1999. Identity and community. Journal of Social Philosophy 30(1):147-160.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Sociolinguistics,
Linguistics,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

scheuerj 1985Scheuer, J. 1985. A propos de l'inculturation. Telema 11(42):21-44.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Anthropology and ethnology,

schomerusgernboecklotte 1968aSchomerus-Gernböck, Lotte. 1968a. Quelques observations sur le mariage Mahafaly-Karimbola. In Civilisation malgache. Série sciences humaines 2, 295-300, edited by Jean Poirier, and Siméon Rajaona. Antananarivo: Université de Madagascar, Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

schomerusgernboecklotte 1968bSchomerus-Gernböck, Lotte. 1968b. Rapport sur mes recherches à Madagascar. In Civilisation malgache. Série sciences humaines 2, 317-321, edited by Jean Poirier, and Siméon Rajaona. Antananarivo: Université de Madagascar, Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

schomerusgernboecklotte 1970aSchomerus-Gernböck, Lotte. 1970a. Quelques observations sur les fiancailles, le mariage et le divorce chez les Mahafaly. Bulletin de Madagascar 20(293-294):859-866.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

schomerusgernboecklotte 1970bSchomerus-Gernböck, Lotte. 1970b. Sprachaufnahmen bei den Mahafaly. Bulletin of the International Committee on Urgent Anthropological and Ethnological Research 12:95-115.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

schomerusgernboecklotte 1971bSchomerus-Gernböck, Lotte. 1971b. Les Mahafaly. Introduction à leur culture matérielle. Taloha 4:81-86.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

This brief description of Mahafale culture touches on aspects of history, customs, utensils, funerals, agriculture and cattle raising.

schomerusgernboecklotte 1975Schomerus-Gernböck, Lotte. 1975. Madagascar. In Die Völker Afrikas und ihre traditionellen Kulturen. Studien Zur Kulturkunde 34, 785-815, edited by Hermann Baumann. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

schomerusgernboecklotte 1981Schomerus-Gernböck, Lotte. 1981. Die Mahafaly. Eine ethnische Gruppe Im Süd-Westen Madagaskars. Beiträge Zur Kulturanthropologie. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

From 1961 until 1972, the author undertook four long fieldtrips to Madagascar, where she spent a total of eight years doing research. In this account, she deals with all topics relating to the lifestyle and environment of the Mahafaly, their worldview, and their political and social organisation, covering everything in much detail. This must be one of the most thorough accounts of Mahafaly life in the 70's, although it is important to understand that the focus of her research was not general anthropology, but traditional medicine. In doing her research, she documented the material contained in this publication. If there isn't much reference made to her work by other authors, it could be due to the language factor, as she wrote in German.
Many insights are to be gained from this publication on the Mahafaly. Unfortunately, the research already dates a bit and some facts may be different now, to the time of research, namely 1961-1972. Of interest to our study in sociolinguistics are her remarks on the language of the Mahafaly, who are neighbours to the Bara, Vezo and Antandroy. And perhaps, also, to some AnTanôsy.
On the Vazimba, who have traditionally been seen as the first inhabitants of Madagascar, she says that they were definitely of Indonesian ancestry like all other Malagasy and not of African descent, as can be seen in their language and culture. She mentions that the Hova may have been a group of late settlers, having arrived, as their lore would indicate, in the 15th and 16th centuries.
She mentions that although the people of Madagascar were officially divided into eighteen ethnic groups by the French colonial Government, one cannot see the Malagasy people as racial or linguistic units. In her time, they were called foko, e.g. foko-Mahafaly.
With the 1970 census, the Mahafaly were numbered as 90,573.
She states that the Mahafaly speak as all inhabitants of Madagascar, a dialect of Malagasy and gives the division of these dialects according to Dahl as three large groups, namely a Western Group with Sakalava, Vezo, Tanalana, Antandroy and Mahafaly; an Eastern Group with Tanôsy, Taimanambondro, Taisaka, Sahafatra, Taifasy, Tambahoaka and Betsimisaraka; and the dialects of the Highlands, namely, Betsileo, Bara, Tsimihety, and Merina.
According to the author, Dez and Dahl assumed that the Proto-Malagasy spoke one language when the island was populated and that any divergence in speech forms must date since after the Arabic influence of the 11th and 12th centuries, because of the spread of Arabic loanwords that appear together with the Indonesian vocabulary in the different dialects. The Hova language that was spoken at the court of Radama I was written in Latin script and declared State Language in 1823. This language only became known in Mahafaly land after 1905, because the Merina could not subject them until then. According to the author, there remain only very few Mahafaly who still know their own dialect.
She closes her monograph with the récit of an old woman, who tells the story of her life. It is a priceless experience, well worth reading.

Selected quotes:

  • Die Mahafaly bezeichnen wie alle übrigen Madegassen ZANAHARY als den Erschaffer der Erde, des Himmels und des Meeres. Alles (.) gehören ebenfalls ZANAHARY. Wenn man von ihm spricht, sagt man Zanahary. Wenn man ihn anruft (.) nennt man ihn Andrianahary (196).
  • Die meisten Mahaffaly haben keine genauen Vorstellungen vom Wesen Gottes. Sie sind so oft von Missionaren danach gefragt worden, dass sie sagen, sie wüssten nicht ob er männlich oder zeiblich, ob er verheiratet sei oder Kinder habe. Meistens sagen sie, sie hätten über Gott noch nie nachgedacht. Für sie ist Gott überall, er hat kein Gesicht und keinen Körper, er hat auch keine Sprache, er ist nicht böse und kann deshalb auch nicht zornig werden. Die Madegassen vom Hochland sehen im Blitz und Donner Ausdruck eines Gotteszornes. Für die Mahafaly ist es die Ehrfurcht vor Zanahary oder Andrianahary, die sie alle fady, Gebote oder Verbote einhalten lässt. Gott straft auch nicht, wenn man durch ein Opfer um Vergebung bittet. Viele Mahafaly meinen, dass es einfacher sei, an den christlichen Gott zu glauben (.) (197).

schrivemaurice&gueuniernoeljacques 1992Schrive, Maurice, and Noël Jacques Gueunier. 1992. "Histoire du peuple": Souvenirs sur l'esclavage des Makoa du nord de Madagascar. In Le scribe et la grande maison. Etudes Océan Indien 15, 177-216, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Makoa,
Western,

sharplesley 2000Sharp, Lesley. 2000. Royal affairs and the power of (fictive) kin: Mediumship, maternity, and the contemporary politics of Belazava identity. Taloha 13:111-134.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Northern Sakalava,
Sakalava,
Western,
Bemazava (Sakalava),

Clearly written, valuable insights into Sakalava Bemazava life and identity.

shawgeorgea 1885Shaw, George. A. 1885. Rough sketches of a journey to the Ibara. The Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine 2:227-237.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

shopentimothy 1979Shopen, Timothy (ed.) 1979. Languages and their speakers. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Winthrop.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,

shwederricharda&levineroberta 1984Shweder, Richard A., and Robert A. LeVine (eds.) 1984. Culture theory: Essays on mind, self, and emotion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,

sibreejames 1870Sibree, James. 1870. Madagascar and its people: notes of a four years' residence; with a sketch of the history, position and prospects of mission work amongst the Malagasy. London: Religious Tract Society.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

sibreejames 1873Sibree, James. 1873. Madagascar et ses habitants. Journal d'un séjour de quatre ans dans l'île. Toulouse: Société des Livres Religieux.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Malagasy,

sibreejames 1896Sibree, James. 1896. The western Ibara and their customs. The Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine 2(5):173-178.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,

siegelbernardj&bealsalanr&tylerstephena 1983Siegel, Bernard J., Alan R. Beals, and Stephen A. Tyler (eds.) 1983. Annual review of anthropology. Pala Alto: Annual Reviews.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Anthropology and ethnology,

siegeljeff 1992Siegel, Jeff. 1992. Language change and culture change among Fiji Indians. In Culture change, language change. Case studies from Melanasia. Pacific linguistics. Series C: Books 120, 91-113, edited by Tom Dutton. Canb