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Malagasy ethnies : Malagasy

Malagasy ethnies : Central

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Antakay

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Betsileo

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Bezanozano

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Merina

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Merina : Ambaniandro

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Merina : Amboalambo

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Merina : Borizano

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Merina : Hova

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Sihanaka

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Vakinankaratra

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Andriambahoaka

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Anjoaty

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Betanimena

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Betsimisaraka

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Betsimisaraka : Zanamalata

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Betsimisaraka : Northern Betsimisaraka (Antavaratra, Tavaratra)

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Betsimisaraka : Southern Betsimisaraka (Antatsimo, Tatsimo)

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Sahafatra

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Sahavoay

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Saint Mariens

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Antambahoaka (Tambahoaka)

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Tanala (Antanala)

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Tanala (Antanala) : Zafindiamanana

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Tefasy (Antefasy, Antaifasy)

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Tefasy (Antefasy, Antaifasy) : Zafisoro

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro)

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Tesaka (Antesaka, Antaisaka)

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Zafimaniry

Malagasy ethnies : Northern

Malagasy ethnies : Northern : Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana)

Malagasy ethnies : Northern : Tsimihety

Malagasy ethnies : North-western

Malagasy ethnies : North-western : Antalaotra

Malagasy ethnies : Southern

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Imamono

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Manonga

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Marovola

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Masitoka

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Vilakatsy

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Zafimandomboka

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Zafimarozaha

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Zafindrendriko

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Tevondro (Antevondro)

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Tsienimbalala

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Zafimanely

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Zafimarozaha

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Zafindravola

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Karimbola (Karembola)

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Kimosy

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Mahafale (Mahafaly)

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy)

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy) : Afomarolahy

Malagasy ethnies : South-eastern

Malagasy ethnies : South-eastern : Tanosy (Antanosy)

Malagasy ethnies : South-eastern : Tanosy (Antanosy) : Fareze (Tefareze, Antanosy Tefareze, "Tambolo")

Malagasy ethnies : South-western

Malagasy ethnies : South-western : Korao

Malagasy ethnies : South-western : Masikoro

Malagasy ethnies : South-western : Masikoro : Andrevola

Malagasy ethnies : South-western : Mikea

Malagasy ethnies : South-western : Tañalaña

Malagasy ethnies : Western

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Beosy

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Makoa

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Menabe

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Sakalava

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Sakalava : Bemazava (Sakalava)

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Sakalava : Northern Sakalava

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Sakalava : Sakalava Analalava

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Sakalava : Sakalava Menabe

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Sakalava : Sambirano

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Sakalava : Southern Sakalava

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Sakalava : Sakalava Boeina

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Vazimba

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Vezo

Malagasy ethnies : Other

Malagasy ethnies : Other : Wakwak

Malagasy ethnies : Other : Kibushi (Shibushi)

alainjeanpaul 1993Alain, Jean-Paul. 1993. La religion des Sakalava, une étude du Pasteur Rajoharivelo, publiée dans la revue Fiainana (1931-1937). In Religions. Etudes Océan Indien 16, 125-143, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

Jean-Paul Alain discusses in this article the contribution to ethnological knowledge made by Rajoharivelo, a Lutheran pastor who worked among the Sakalava around Belo-sur-Tsiribihina towards the end of the twenties. He extensively documented his discoveries concerning Sakalava culture. Apart from direct observation, by attending different religious ceremonies at the 'hazomanga' and the phenomena of the 'tromba' and the 'bilo', Rajoharivelo also questioned particularly the elders concerning the origin and meaning of the different observances. His work was published in the revue Fiainana between 1931 and 1937. His contribution has value for ethnology as well as for historians of religion.
Alain further includes the original Malagasy text of part of Rajoharivelo's work, with a French translation thereof.
The part quoted contains information on particularly the 'hazomanga' (the sacrificial post).

Selected quotes:

  • Rabesihanaka serait le premier évangéliste malgache, élu par ses pairs, à partir annoncer l'évangile hors des frontières de l'Imerina (126).
  • 'Hazomanga' veut dire dans un premier sens l'autel des idoles mais il se traduit par 'bois sacré' ou 'bois sacralisé', ou encore lieu réservé pour apporter les offrandes aux ancêtres et aux idoles et à dieu, faits de bois de 'katrafay' ou d'un (autre) bois dur, le sommet taillé en pointe, ils vont par deux, plantés en ligne dans le sol. Ils mesurent à peu près un mètre ou un mètre et demi de haut; c'est à l'est de la maison du 'mpitana hazomanga' qu'ils sont plantés, et on y suspend la gorge du bouf (sacrifié) et on les enduit de sang (131).
  • Dans un deuxième sens 'hazomanga' signifie : la personne qui fait le service au pied du 'hazomanga', ou la personne consacrée pour faire le sacrifice; (137).

aubertjeanmarie 1984Aubert, Jean-Marie. 1984. Inculturation de l'eglise Catholique dans le nord de Madagascar. PhD dissertation. Université de Paris-Sorbonne.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana),
Northern,

aubertjeanmarie 1986Aubert, Jean-Marie. 1986. L'inculturation de l'eglise Catholique dans le nord de Madagascar. Recherches et Documents 1:1-43.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana),
Northern,

audeoud 1902Audeoud. 1902. La pacification de Madagascar. Territoire Sakalava (1901-1902). La Revue de Madagascar 1:481-506.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

aymard 1907Aymard. 1907. Le pays Sakalava. Bulletin de la Société de Géographie de Toulouse 26:90-125.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

barejeanfrancois 1971Baré, Jean-François. 1971. Traits des organisations sociales des Sakalava du nord: Les biens et le pouvoir. Taloha 4:184-194.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Northern Sakalava,
Sakalava,
Western,

barejeanfrancois 1973aBaré, Jean-François. 1973a. Conflits et résolutions des conflits dans les monarchies Sakalava du nord actuelles. Publication provisionnelle. Travaux et documents 12. Antananarivo: Musée d'Art et d'Archéologie de l'Université de Madagasar.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Northern Sakalava,
Sakalava,
Western,

barejeanfrancois 1973cBaré, Jean-François. 1973c. Successions politiques et légitimité. L'exemple Sakalava du nord (1700-1800). Asie du Sud-Est et Monde Insulindien 4(4):91-114.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Northern Sakalava,
Sakalava,
Western,

barejeanfrancois 1978Baré, Jean-François. 1978. Pouvoirs des vivants et langage des morts. Idéologiques Sakalava. Paris: Maspéro.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

barejeanfrancois 1982Baré, Jean-François. 1982. Histoire et présent dans les monarchies Sakalava du nord actuelles. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 16:173-176.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Northern Sakalava,
Sakalava,
Western,

barejeanfrancois 1986Baré, Jean-François. 1986. L'organisation sociale Sakalava du nord: Une récapitulation. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 353-392, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Northern Sakalava,
Sakalava,
Western,

benevent 1897Benevent. 1897. Etude sur le Bouéni, II. Colonie de Madagascar. Notes, Reconnaissances, Explorations 2:49-77.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

birkelye 1924Birkely, E. 1924. Folkore Sakalava recueilli dans la région de Morondava. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache 6:185-395.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

burneydavida&ramilisonina 1999Burney, David A., and Ramilisonina. 1999. The kilopilopitsofy, kidoky and bokyboky: Accounts of strange animals from Belo-sur-mer, Madagascar, and the megafaunal "extinction window". American Anthropologist 100(4):957-966.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Vazimba,
Sakalava,
Masikoro,
South-western,
Betsileo,
Central,

celliera 1971Cellier, A. 1971. Notes sur les populations de la rive droite du bas-Mangoky en 1906. Taloha 4:99-109.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Sakalava,
Makoa,
Bara,
Southern,
Betsileo,
Central,
Tesaka (Antesaka, Antaisaka),
Eastern,
Tanala (Antanala),

Captain Cellier gives in this article a summary of his reports to the authorities during the years 1904-1906. He gives a detailed description of the geographic area he deals with, as well as some interesting information on the origins of the people living to the right of the Bas-Mangoky, how they came to be there, according to oral history, and an analysis of why they stayed.

chazangilligsuzanne 1983Chazan-Gillig, Suzanne. 1983. Le fitampoha de 1968 ou l'efficacité du mythe de la royauté Sakalava dans l'actualité politique et économique malgache. In Les souverains de Madagascar. Collection "hommes et sociétés", 451-476, edited by Françoise Raison-Jourde. Paris: Editions Karthala.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Menabe,

chazangilligsuzanne 1991Chazan-Gillig, Suzanne. 1991. La société sakalave. Le Menabe dans la construction nationale malgache. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Menabe,

dahlottochr 1966Dahl, Otto Chr. 1966. Les débuts de l'orthographe malgache. Oslo-Bergen-Tromsö: Universitetsforlaget.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Merina,
Central,

Excellent paper for understanding the development of Malagasy orthography and related matters.
In this paper, Professor Dahl touches on issues like "one language is spoken all over Madagascar," saying that "les autochtones de Madagascar parlent tous la même langue, bien que divisée en un grand nombre de dialectes. C'est le parler de Tananarive, depuis un siècle et demi la capitale de l'Ile, qui est le malgache littéraire et, grâce à la littérature et à la circulation, on arrive partout à se faire comprendre en employant ce parler (le Merina)." It would be interesting to know how that conclusion was arrived at and how much weight Professor Dahl would himself assign to it now, forty years later. At the time of publication, in 1966, the Malagasy population counted just over 5 million people. In 2002, that number had more than tripled and infrastructures and education had deteriorated in most parts of the island over the almost four decades, perhaps felt least in the capital. Successive language policies and other government intervention, as well as misadministration over the last decades have further increased the deprivation of the Malagasy people, in terms of accessibility to education and general development.

Selected quotes:

  • Les autochtones de Madagascar parlent tous la même langue, bien que divisée en un grand nombre de dialectes. C'est le parler de Tananarive, depuis un siècle et demi la capitale de l'Ile, qui est le malgache littéraire et, grâce à la littérature et à la circulation, on arrive partout à se faire comprendre en employant ce parler (le Merina) (5).

dahlottochr 1968Dahl, Otto Chr. 1968. Contes malgaches en dialecte Sakalava. Texte, traduction, grammaire et lexique. Oslo-Bergen-Tromsö: Universitetsforlaget.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

dalmondpierre 1987Dalmond, Pierre. 1987. Exercices en langue Sakalava et Betsimisaraka (1841-1844). Recherches et Documents 3.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Betsimisaraka,
Eastern,

dandouauandrejean 1924Dandouau, André-Jean. 1924. Dialogues français-Sakalava (dialecte de Nossi-Be et du sambirano). Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache 6:91-157.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Northern Sakalava,
Sakalava,
Western,

delcroixfrancoise&faurouxemmanuel 1992Delcroix, Françoise, and Emmanuel Fauroux. 1992. Les racines cérémonielles du clientélisme et du pouvoir local dans les villages Sakalava du Menabe. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:213-222.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Menabe,

dezjacques 1978bDez, Jacques. 1978b. Les sources Européennes anciennes de la linguistique malgache. Paris: Université de Paris 7.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Merina,
Central,
Saint Mariens,
Eastern,
Betsimisaraka,

Dez gives an insightful overview and appreciation of older European sources on the Malagasy language, sorted under nationality of author; He situates each author in historical context.

Selected quotes:

  • A ce jour, l'intérêt offert par l'étude des sources anciennes n'est nullement épuis. Il demeure, au contraire, d'une extrême actualité. (27)

dezjacques 1993Dez, Jacques. 1993. Une contribution anglaise à la connaissance de la langue malgache: L'enquête dialectale du révérend J. Richardson (1893). Atlas linguistique et ethnographique de Madagascar. Travaux préliminaires 2. Strasbourg: Université des Sciences Humaines.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sambirano,
Sakalava,
Western,
Zafisoro,
Tefasy (Antefasy, Antaifasy),
Eastern,
Hova,
Merina,
Central,
Tanala (Antanala),
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana),
Northern,
Betsileo,
Bezanozano,
Sihanaka,
Vakinankaratra,
Betsimisaraka,
Masikoro,
South-western,
Vezo,
Bara,
Southern,

domenichinijeanpierre 1974Domenichini, Jean-Pierre. 1974. Une contribution nouvelle à l'histoire du Menabe. Jacques Lombard. Taloha 6:177-182.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Menabe,

druryrobert 1896Drury, Robert. 1896. Madagascar or Robert Drurys journal during fifteen years captivity on that island and further description of Madagascar by Abbé Rochon. Ed. S.P. Oliver. London: Seminar Press.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),

druryrobert 1897Drury, Robert. 1897. Madagascar, or, Robert Drury's journal, during fifteen years of captivity on that island. London: T. Fisher Unwin Paternoster Square.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),

estradejeanmarie 1985Estrade, Jean-Marie. 1985. Un culte de possession à Madagascar: Le tromba. Paris: L'Harmattan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
South-western,

fagerengemile 1950aFagereng, Emile. 1950a. Dynastie Andrevola. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 28:136-159.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Masikoro,
South-western,
Bara,
Southern,

Fagereng combines different sources to compile a very insightful history of the Andrevola, complete with a genealogy of the Andrevola chiefs until the turn of the last century. In the process, he draws links with other relevant groups of the time and fills in an essential chronology in the development of the population of Southwest Madagascar. He ends this article with a paragraph that might have suited the audiences of his time, but which sounds grotesque now: "Ainsi se termine le règne, peu glorieux; de la dynastie Andrevola (.). Il était donc temps qu'une grande nation civilisée se substituât à cette dynastie décadente, permettant aux forces civilisatrices et morales de la vieille Europe de réparer les dommages causés jusqu'alors par des trafiquants sans scrupules, et ouvrant à cette contrée une ère nouvelle de prospérité et de progrès" (158).
Sadly, the Southwest of Madagascar is still waiting for this new era of prosperity and progress.

fagerengemile 1981Fagereng, Emile. 1981. Origine des dynasties ayant régné dans le sud et l'ouest de Madagascar. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 13-14:125-140.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Bara,
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

A very sketchy paper, difficult to follow, recounting the traditional origins of four Southern dynasties, all of whom claim "vazaha" ancestry.

faurouxemmanuel 1975Fauroux, Emmanuel. 1975. La formation Sakalava ou l'histoire d'une articulation ratée. PhD dissertation. Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

faurouxemmanuel 1987Fauroux, Emmanuel. 1987. Le bouf dans la vie économique et sociale de la vallée de la Maharivo (édition provisoire). Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

faurouxemmanuel 1989Fauroux, Emmanuel. 1989. Le bouf et le riz dans la vie économique et sociale de la vallée de la Maharivo. Aombe 2. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

faurouxemmanuel 1992Fauroux, Emmanuel. 1992. Les structures invisibles du pouvoir dans les villages Sakalava de la vallée de la Maharivo. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:61-74.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

feeleyharnikgillian 1978Feeley-Harnik, Gillian. 1978. Divine kinship and the meaning of history among the Sakalava of Madagascar. Man n.s. 13:402-417.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

feeleyharnikgillian 1986Feeley-Harnik, Gillian. 1986. Ritual and work in Madagascar. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 157-174, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

feeleyharnikgillian 1991Feeley-Harnik, Gillian. 1991. A green estate: Restoring independence in Madagascar. Smithsonian series in ethnographic enquiry. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava Analalava,
Sakalava,
Western,

Very insightful work on the Sakalava of the Analalava region.

Selected quotes:

  • The French conquered Madagascar in 1895, or more accurately, subdued diverse Malagasy polities over a period of several years beginning in 1895 (xix).
  • Monarchies flourished in several parts of Madagascar during the precolonial period, encompassing various groups of conquered peoples as well as slaves from Madagascar and Africa. The French abolished the highland monarchy when they conquered the island in 1895, while using members of other royal groups to govern some areas of the provinces through indirect rule. The Analalava region of the northwest coast was such an area. People there included migrants from all over the island who had come at different times for different purposes: the descendants of the Southern Bemihisatra branch of the Zafinimena (Grandchildren of Gold) or Maroserana dynasty, which had once dominated the west coast, as well as descendants of their former followers and slaves. The domains of the 'Sakalava', as they called themselves collectively, were founded in the course of migrations and conquests that lasted from the late 16th through the 19th century. By the early 20th century, Sakalava-the term for one of the eighteen officially recognized ethnies-were not known for moving about like Tsimihety, Merina, or Betsileo, ethnies identified with remnants of other pre-colonial polities. On the contrary, French ethnographers since the turn of the 20th century described the Sakalava as dying out in the face of more vigorous competitors for their land (2).
  • (.) the 'commotion' (rotaka) of 1972, widely seen as a second independence movement toward 'Malgachization' nationwide(2).
  • I conclude in this book that contemporary Malagasy preoccupations with ancestors, attributed to age-old tradition, are a reletavely recent development. The realm of the dead has expanded primarily because, in a complex way involving many different kinds of 'corpses', it has become the hidden abode of production. It is currently the principal place where still unresolved-perhaps unresolvable-struggles over labor and loyalty continue to be carried on, largely outside the law as any of the participants would define it (3).

fielouxmichele&lombardjacques 1987Fieloux, Michèle, and Jacques Lombard. 1987. Elevage et société. Etude des transformations socio-économiques dans le sud-ouest malgache: L'exemple du couloir Antseva. Aombe 1. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Sakalava,
Masikoro,
South-western,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Bara,

firingamichaelignace 1971Firinga, Michaël Ignace. 1971. La dynastie des Maroseranana. Taloha 4:87-97.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

Very interesting observations on the origins of the Sakalava people. This article is a reprinted version of a study that first appeared in the "Revue de Madagascar," Sept 1901, pp. 658-672.

gardenierwilliamjg 1986Gardenier, William J. G. 1986. Divination and kinship among the Sakalava of west Madagascar. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 337-351, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

goedefroitsophie 1992Goedefroit, Sophie. 1992. Analyse des coutumes d'ensevelissement des corps chez les Sakalava du Menabe: Manifestations d'ordre lignager et affirmation d'une hierarchie sociale. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:223-234.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Menabe,

goedefroitsophie 1998Goedefroit, Sophie. 1998. A l'ouest de Madagascar: Les Sakalava du Menabe. Collection "hommes et sociétés". Paris: Editions Karthala.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Southern Sakalava,
Sakalava,
Western,
Sakalava Menabe,
Vezo,
Masikoro,
South-western,

gueuniernoeljacques 1992bGueunier, Noël Jacques. 1992b. Une copie de la lettre de Tsiomeko, reine des Sakalava, à Louis-Philippe, roi des français (1840). Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:513-524.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

gueuniernoeljacques 1993aGueunier, Noël Jacques. 1993a. "Aucune langue n'est indigne de louer Dieu". Poèmes Musulmans malgaches en dialecte Sakalava (deuxième recueil). Transcrits et traduits par NJ Gueunier. In Religions. Etudes Océan Indien 16, 87-103, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

Some interesting remarks in the introduction to the poems.

Selected quotes:

  • D'ailleurs on se moque de ceux dont la conversion n'est que superficielle en les appelant des "Silamo kofia, " des "Musulmans seulement par le bonnet" (.) (88).
  • A Madagascar comme dans bien d'autres contrées, l'islam populaire est mêlée de pratiques magiques diverses: astrologie, divination, commerce des amulettes, etc. Les Musulmans partout qu'une toute petite minorité, se voient attribuer par la superstition populaires des pouvoirs extraordinaires de guérisseurs et de magiciens (88).
  • L'emploi du malgache pour des chants religieux a besoin d'une justification. Il se heurte en effet à une vive opposition des musulmans traditionalistes: toute traduction en langue vulgaire est dès l'abord ressentie comme un risque de trahison du message divin, exprimé de manière parfaite et inimitable dans le Coran, révélé "en claire langue arabe. " (89).
  • Les Malgaches musulmans zanatany, les "enfants de la terre," ou "enfants du pays" forment aujourd'hui une communauté qui a ses institutions-précisément la confrérie shadhuli, implantée en terre malgache depuis les dernières années du XIXe siècle par le sheikh Ahmad al-Kabir. Quant à la langue, elle n'a rien d'indigne en elle-même (.). On peut et on doit en user pour "mikosifo Ndranahary" "faire la louange de Dieu. " (89).

gueuniernoeljacques 1994Gueunier, Noël Jacques. 1994. Les chemins de l'Islam à Madagascar. Paris: L'Harmattan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana),
Northern,
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,
Anjoaty,

jaovelodzaorobert 1987Jaovelo-Dzao, Robert. 1987. Anthropologie religieuse Sakalava. Essai sur l'inculturation du Christianisme. Antsiranana: Institut Supérieur de Théologie et de Philosophie de Madagascar.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

jaovelodzaorobert 1990Jaovelo-Dzao, Robert. 1990. La conception de la mort chez les Sakalava du nord-ouest de Madagascar. Recherches et Documents 8:1-32.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

jaovelodzaorobert 1996Jaovelo-Dzao, Robert. 1996. Mythes, rites et transes à Madagascar. Angano, Joro, et tromba Sakalava. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

joleaudl 1924Joleaud, L. 1924. Le bouf de Madagascar. Son origine. Son rôle dans les coutumes Sakalaves. L'anthropologie 34(1-2):103-107.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

jullyantony 1901Jully, Antony. 1901. Manuel des dialectes malgaches. Comprenant sept dialectes: Hova, Betsileo, Tankarana, Betsimisaraka, Taimorona, Tanôsy, Sakalava (mahafaly) et le Soahély. Paris: Librairie Africaine et Coloniale.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Swahili,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Hova,
Merina,
Central,
Sakalava,
Western,
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,
Betsileo,
Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana),
Northern,
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,
Betsimisaraka,

jullyantony 1974Jully, Antony. 1974. Les immigrations Arabes à Madagascar. Taloha 6:143-149.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Antalaotra,
North-western,
Tsimihety,
Northern,

Interesting information on the Antalaotra, a group of immigrants of Arabic origin to Madagascar, who settled on the West Coast. "Antalaotra" means "people from over-seas." According to popular history recorded by the author, the town of Boina was founded by the Antalaotra, Arabs who came from an island near the Comores. Their settlement was destroyed by the Sakalava in the first half of the eighteenth century.

kentraymond 1968aKent, Raymond. 1968a. Madagascar: 2. Journal of African History 9(4):517-546.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

The author mentions five features that define the Sakalava: dialect, the cult of the Dady, the fitampoha (royal bath) and tromba, the dynastic family of the Maroserana and the traditional history of the Sakalava. The author describes briefly the history of this group.

kottakconradphillip 1977Kottak, Conrad Phillip. 1977. The process of state formation in Madagascar. American Ethnologist 4(1):136-155.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Bara,
Southern,
Merina,
Central,
Betsileo,
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,

lambekmichael&walshandrew 1997Lambek, Michael, and Andrew Walsh. 1997. The imagined community of the Antankaraña: Identity, history, and ritual in northern Madagascar. Journal of Religion in Africa 27(3):308-333.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tsimihety,
Northern,
Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana),

Excellent for insight into Antankarana group identity.

lebigrejeanmichel 1997Lebigre, Jean-Michel (ed.) 1997. Milieux et sociétés dans le sud-ouest de Madagascar. Iles et archipels 23. Bordeaux: CRET.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Sakalava,
Menabe,
Masikoro,
South-western,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,
Bara,

Very good source for more than geography and environment!

leblondmariusary 1935Leblond, Marius-Ary. 1935. Première impression du sud Malgache. La Revue de Madagascar 11:69-78.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),

Very flowery description of the "deep south" of Madagascar from the triumphalistic heart of a true colonialist, a man of his times - some interesting facts mentioned in passing, but probably it is most valuable for the grotesquely theatrical closing paragraph singing odes to the virtues of France.

Selected quotes:

  • Mais le français est venu. De sa foreuse il a fouillé aux profondeurs des pelouses, fait jaillir les puits aussi fameux dans ces déserts que les Puits de Moïse parmi les sables d'Orient, puis installé les éoliennes. Le climat est si pur que les phtisiques y guérissent rapidement. La terre est libre et riche. Les femmes viennent qurir dans des calebasses la vie des potagers et des vergers. Par reconnaissance elles enguirlandent de fleurs les constructions de notre science. Des espaces immenses attendent la colonisation, l'organisation, ce merveilleux humain d'où jailliront le salut et la fécondité (78).

lintonralph 1928Linton, Ralph. 1928. Culture areas in Madagascar. American Anthropologist 30(3):363-390.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Tsimihety,
Northern,
Betsimisaraka,
Eastern,

There has been much back-and-forth about uniformity in Madagascar, and as can be seen from this article, from the earliest times. Linton points out that there are "three fairly well-marked culture areas in Madagascar, with the usual marginal tribes of mixed culture (.) which agree in a general way with the main geographic and climatic divisions of the island" (363).
He draws comparisons among three main areas of Madagascar, namely 1. the East Coast, which to the North includes the Betsimisaraka and to the South a "number of small tribes commonly, but incorrectly, grouped under the term Antaimorona" (363); 2. the "Plateaux, occupied by the Betsileo, Imerina (commonly called Hova) and Sihanaka," and 3. the "West Coast and Extreme South, occupied by the Sakalava, Mahafaly, Antandroy, and Bara."
The Tanala and Bezanozano tribes are intermediate in culture between areas 1 and 2, while the Tsimahety and Antankarana in the extreme north and the Tanôsy in the southeast seem to be intermediary between areas 1 and 3" (365).
The most interesting phenomenon of this article is the division into three areas, later taken up by linguists in connection with language. Linton makes no mention of language in this article, nor does he indicate his sources for postulating the three areas or the anthropological data he proposes. Other notable points are his sorting of a number of groups under the term "Sakalava" without specifying which, as well as the spelling of Tsimahety and the omission of the Tanôsy migration towards the Onilahy.
His argument is for cultural diversity in Madagascar, uniformity seemingly an assumption of his time, but he argues the point using terms like "tribe," "gens" and "gentes," indicative of the longstanding confusion concerning Malagasy cultures.
The main fault of this historical work is the lack of references: one does not know where the author got his information from. Researchers in Madagascar often present their specific area of research as representative of Malagasy culture as a whole. Linton was aware of this problem.

lombardjacques 1985Lombard, Jacques. 1985. Le fitampoha. Cahiers Ethnologiques 1(6):51-58.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

lombardjacques 1986Lombard, Jacques. 1986. Le temps et l'espace dans l'idéologie politique de la royauté Sakalava-Menabe. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 143-156, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Menabe,

lombardjacques 1988Lombard, Jacques. 1988. Le royaume Sakalava du Menabe. Essai d'analyse d'un système politique à Madagascar. 17È-20è. Travaux et documents: Institut français de recherche scientifique pour le développement en coopération 214. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vazimba,
Western,
Sakalava,
Mikea,
South-western,
Bara,
Southern,
Merina,
Central,

For more than four years, Jacques Lombard worked among the Sakalava people in Western Madagascar. He presents here an analysis of Sakalava society from the perspective of Sakalava political and economic systems. To achieve this, he did a field study collecting oral material on how the Sakalava people themselves explain their society. The analysis of this material constitutes the bulk of his contribution, with which he also integrates a wide reading of related literature. He explains the Maroseraña-Zafimbolamena dynasties and presents the history and development of Sakalava political units in the Boeny and Menabe during the 16th and 17th centuries until their decline in the 19th century.
Contrary to the opinion of some authors, Lombard holds that the Sakalava kingdoms of Menabe and Boeny were formed independently and in spite of the arrival of the first Europeans on the coast, but in interaction with their input-the Sakalava kings merely used the outsiders to affirm their position of power. He points out the economic importance of this interaction. It was, however, only with the French conquest of Madagascar that an external (European) power became a direct agent in the destiny of these dynasties.
The author deals with many related issues in working through the main parts of this study, which are 1. the historical stages of the constitution of the Sakalava kingdoms; 2. Sakalava economy, and 3. Sakalava royalty. These include general Malagasy history, interaction among the different peoples of Madagascar, anthropological and geographical details, and an analysis of the basic Sakalava worldview in the Boeny and Menabe.
His work analyses the factors leading to the establishment of Sakalava kingdoms, and shows how the decline of these occurred. To conclude, the author describes the present state of Sakalava royalty since its collapse with French colonialism. He mentions the interesting fact that the rise and establishment of Sakalava royalty coincided with the Mercantile period of European Nations, whereas, the Industrial period of these economies and the abolition of slavery sounded its decline. In comparison the ideologies of the Industrial period can be seen as advantageous for the rise of the Merina Kingdom, finally leading to total political control by a European power.
Jacques Lombard describes with clarity the ideological elements of Sakalava society, the underlying philosophy or worldview that determines their interpretation of life and death, the interaction of the natural world and the world of spirits, their view of God and mankind, and the two-way intervention possible between them.
He also describes, with insight, the rites of bilo and tromba and the fitampoha and fanompoha ceremonies.

lupopietro 1987Lupo, Pietro. 1987. Témoignage sur la religion malgache de Nosy Be au XIXe siècle. Une lettre du Rév. Père Finaz. Communication au colloque internationale d'histoire de Madagascar (Diego suarez). In Colloque International d'Histoire. Antsiranana.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

lupopietro 1993Lupo, Pietro. 1993. Un culte dynastique à Madagascar, le fitampoha (bain des reliques royales). In Religions. Etudes Océan Indien 16, 31-59, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

The author gives here an eye-witness account of his personal experience with, rather than a scientific analysis of, the Fitampoha, written during his attendance of the ceremony with a group of colleagues and students of the University of Tulear, between 18-27 August 1988. The celebration takes place every ten years in the little village of Belo, 550 Km north of Tulear. He relates his experience under the following headings:
Les ancêtres de l'eau. Mythe fondateur.
Fitampoha et histoire.
Tromba.
Moments de densité religieuse.
- La joie.
- La communion.
- La rupture de l'ordre.
Espace, lumière, pureté.
The author draws several interesting parallels with Christianity and other religions.

mangalazaeugeneregis 1981Mangalaza, Eugène-Régis. 1981. Un aspect du fitampoha, le valabe (essai d'interprétation). Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 13-14:307-318.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

moletlouis 1972Molet, Louis. 1972. Origine et sens du nom des Sakalava de Madagascar. In Etudes de géographie tropicale offertes à Pierre Gourou, 341-355, edited by Marc Michel. Paris-La Haye: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

nerinebotokekyeleonore 1983Nerine Botokeky, Eleonore. 1983. Le fitampoha en royaume Sakalava. Bains des reliques royales. In Les souverains de Madagascar. Collection "hommes et sociétés", 211-222, edited by Françoise Raison-Jourde. Paris: Editions Karthala.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

poiriercharles 1939Poirier, Charles. 1939. Notes d'ethnographie et d'histoire malgaches. Mémoires de l'Académie malgache 28. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

poiriercharles 1950aPoirier, Charles. 1950a. Ethnographie malgache. 2 Vol: 1. Sorcellerie médicale-magie-art, 2. aperçu sur la représentation de la femme et du bouf. Mémoires de l'Académie malgache 38. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Sakalava,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Bara,

Mixed with valuable information, almost unbearable colonialist propaganda, and opinionatedness which make this hard to read.

poiriercharles 1950cPoirier, Charles. 1950c. Le damier ethnique du pays côtier Sakalava. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 28:23-28.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

The name "Sakalava" has been and still is used to classify many different clans and identities, as well as ways of speaking and customs practised across Western Madagascar. This paper provides some insight into who all are thrown into the Sakalava basket-forty-nine different principal clans are inventoried here, representing North and North-West Sakalava.

Selected quotes:

  • Tableau des quarante-neuf principaux clans aborigènes ou allogènes englobés sous la dénomination de Sakalava, tels qu'ils ponctuaient en 1916, la région côtière du nord de Madagascar, plus particulièrement celle de l'ancienne province d'Analalava (.).
  • A l'homogénéité de la population sakalava pure qui peuple la côte centre-ouest, du Fiherenana à la Betsiboka, s'oppose la composition clanique hétérogène des habitants de la côte Nord-Ouest (.).

ralaimihoatraedouard 1981Ralaimihoatra, Edouard. 1981. Reflexions sur les Maroseranana du Menabe. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 13-14:141-147.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Menabe,

Brief discussion of some sources on the origins of the Maroseranana.

sauttergilles&bourdiecfle&dandoyg&faurouxemmanuel&raisonjeanpierre&schlemmerbernard&waastroland 1980Sautter, Gilles, F. le Bourdiec, G. Dandoy, Emmanuel Fauroux, Jean-Pierre Raison, Bernard Schlemmer, and Roland Waast. 1980. Changements sociaux dans l'ouest malgache. Mémoires 90. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

schlemmerbernard 1983Schlemmer, Bernard. 1983. Le Menabe. Histoire d'une colonisation. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Menabe,

sharplesley 2000Sharp, Lesley. 2000. Royal affairs and the power of (fictive) kin: Mediumship, maternity, and the contemporary politics of Belazava identity. Taloha 13:111-134.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Northern Sakalava,
Sakalava,
Western,
Bemazava (Sakalava),

Clearly written, valuable insights into Sakalava Bemazava life and identity.

verinpierre&gorlinpeter&kottakconradphillip 1969Vérin, Pierre, Peter Gorlin, and Conrad Phillip Kottak. 1969. The glottochronology of Malagasy speech communities. Oceanic Linguistics 8(1):26-83.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Bara,
Merina,
Central,
Betsileo,
Tsimihety,
Northern,
Betsimisaraka,
Eastern,

This study has yielded some interesting results and has opened the way for a variety of subjects to be researched further. More word studies have been added from the list of Malagasy speech forms not treated in this present study. Anyone interested in Historical, Comparative and Sociolinguistics of Malagasy, needs to take note of this article.

Selected quotes:

  • (.)in contrast to the wide range of phenotypes encountered throughout the island, the languages spoken in Madagascar are relatively homogeneous (26).
  • In the present article, we shall not attempt to deny a certain obvious homogeneity of dialects spoken in Madagascar. However, we shall be concerned primarily with demonstrating a considerable linguistic diversity which has hitherto received little attention (27-8).
  • The contributions anticipated by the present study are three: (1) a reassessment of existing studies of Malagasy dialectology with the aid of comparisons in basic vocabulary; (2) a clarification of the culture history of Madagascar. When viewed in combination with the findings of archaeology and ethnology, a sub-grouping of Malagasy speech communities will be of significant aid to the scholar and layman interested in the origins and sociocultural diversification of the Malagasy population; (3) a presentation of material which will assist in placing Malagasy dialects within the framework of the Indonesian subgroup (28).
  • (.) this paper is an application of glottochronology to problems of linguistic and cultural unity and diversity within Madagascar (28).
  • Speech communities in Madagascar are assumed here to coincide in large measure with cultural groups. However, there is no agreement about the number of distinct cultural groups in Madagascar. The official census classification of the Malagasy government recognizes the existence of twenty 'ethnies' ('cultures') (28-9).
  • Basic vocabulary lists were not collected for all of the hitherto recognized 'ethnies' or cultures of Madagascar (29).
  • The authors deliberately decided to obtain data from informants and to avoid the use of dictionaries (29).
  • Merina dialect, now the official language of the Malagasy Republic, has been written since 1820 (32).
  • In collecting basic vocabulary for Malagasy speech communities, we have used Swadesh's 100-item test list of diagnostic terms (reproduced in Hymes 1960:6) (34).
  • The one hundred meanings have been collected for sixteen Malagasy speech communities (.). Two additional lists were constructed taking into account the existence of dual vocabularies in the Sakalava and Tandroy dialects. Dual vocabularies are commonly encountered in western and southern Madagascar (.) Special terms are particularly numerous when reference is being made to body parts and functions. While the use of these terms seems to be diminishing, some special vocabulary words have entered everyday parlance, now devoid of much of its former hierarchical framework. In all cases where there are special terms correlated with high status, there are alternatives for reference to commoners (34).
  • A second avenue for the introduction of special terms into Malagasy vocabulary in certain speech communities has to do with taboo and replacement (34).
  • Taboo is more difficult to control than dual vocabulary, and we are unable to say to what extent it has affected the results of our study (.). Like other culture elements, taboos on words spread from centers. Like other ideological struts to state systems, taboos are most forceful at the center or capital of the state administration. Some areas, which were under only the nominal political control of the Sakalava sovereigns, never adopted taboos to the same extent as communities nearer the geographical locus of kingly power (35).
  • (Insofar as possible, we have registered) as noncognate the forms which are similar because one language has borrowed them from the other or because both have borrowed from a common source. In many instances, it is impossible to say whether cognates have been borrowed by one Malagasy dialect from another. In an environment in which contacts beween different communities took place through trade and warfare, there must have been word borrowing. One can only assume, if there is no discordant phonological evidence to the contrary, that basic cognates are shared because of common inheritance rather than as loan words (35).
  • Because of the relative homogeneity of speech patterns throughout Madagascar, we could not be sure that all internal borrowings have been eliminated. It was possible, however, for us to discard those terms which can be demonstrated to have been borrowed from Swahili, for example, certain words for 'fish', 'dog', and 'louse' (35).
  • This study is concerned with speech communities with a high degree of linguistic similarity and in which the number of cognates shared is in all cases higher than 50% and in some cases as high as 92% (54).
  • The primary problem of lexicostatistical analysis of dialects lies in the assumption of independence. The retention rate is supposed to operate separately on each word list. Hymes (1960:19) cites three principal factors that would prevent independent dialect divergence. These are: contact, which increases the likelihood that words retained and dropped will be the same; drift, or the similarity of change resulting from similar internal structure of the language; and dregs, which refers to heterogeneity in a word list with respect to the probability of retention. If one were to use the standard formula to calculate divergence time given the percentage of shared cognates, each of the above factors would operate to produce an underestimate in time depth (55).
  • (.) by using a theoretical genetic tree the linguist has a basis against which to compare his purely historical information (55).
  • In our analysis of dialects, we are interested in the relationships of three variables. The first is time depth, a purely chronological factor indicating the total time that two populations speaking the languages in question have been separate. Separateness in this case may be defined simply as geographical discreteness, with the border between the linguistic areas to be determined empirically in each case. The second figure is the given figure for linguistic similarity measured for our purposes by the number of shared cognates for the word list as specified by Swadesh. The third variable would be some estimate for the kind of interaction between the two populations. This variable would presumably try to take into account the alteration in rate of change of the number of shared cognates that would be brought about by the fact that the two populations speak to one another. Traditional glottochronology is a method of estimating time depth only for populations that cannot communicate (.). What we are interested in doing is introducing a third variable to account for those situations in which the members of the two populations share enough similar cognates to understand one another, but in which dialect divergence is taking place and would presumably proceed up to the point where the two-variable analysis would suffice (56).
  • The smallest percentage of shared cognates for any two Malagasy speech communities is that of Sakalava 2 (west coast) and Tambahoaka (east coast). These two groups share 52% cognates (59).
  • (But this involves Sakalava's special vocabulary) (.). In view of these considerations, we have chosen to base our calculation on the smallest percentage of shared cognates of two Malagasy dialects neither of which is the special vocabulary list from a group with dual vocabularies. In this case the Tsimihety dialect of the northern interior of the island shares only 61% of its basic words as cognate with one other Malagasy speech community-Vezo, a group of marine fishermen located on the southwest coast near the city of Tulear (.). There is, however, no evidence which would suggest that these geographically separated populations have been in direct contact. On the other hand, were the populations in contact, communication would still be possible with 61% cognate sharing (.). In accordance with the above statements we thus conclude that the actual time of the first occupation of the island took place at some time in the first century A.D. and, with less probability, as early as the fourth century B.C. or as late as the fourth century A.D. (61)
  • Based on (our) analysis, we have come to the following conclusions:
    1. Tkr is quite isolated from the other languages of the Malagasy Republic. Its closest collateral is Tsi.
    2. Tsi is also distinct, but somewhat less so than Tkr.
    3. An additional language found to be relatively apart from the rest of the dialects is Tbk.
    4. Me, Si, BtsA, BtsF, Tm, Tsk, and Zfs are all speech communities descended from languages which have undergone considerable linguistic diversification.
    5. Associated with the languages listed under (4), but somewhat less certainly related to the highly diversifying protolanguages, are Mf and Td1.
    6. Similar to the languages listed in (5), but more remotely associated, are Bsk, Vz and Ba.
    7. Still further removed from the group of languages we consider as 'recently diversified', are Sak1, Sak2 and of course Tsi and Tbk (see (2) and (3)).
    8. Our languages that appear descended from highly diversifying ancestors do not all constitute one group. In fact, they are divided into two groups that are evident on all the genealogical trees. These are Me-Si-BtsA-(BtsF?) and Tm-Tsk-Zfs.
    9 (Our) Chart 1 also defines an additional protolanguage that diverged from the Me-Si-BtsF-Bsk-Tm-Tsk-Zfs group before this latter group began splintering. This is the Vz-Mf-Td1-(Td2)-Ba dialect family (67).
    For reasons presented earlier, we conclude that the first occupation of the island took place sometime around the first century A.D. The population moved out over the uninhabited island and almost immediately diverged into three parts: ancestral-Tkr, ancestral-Tsi, and the protolanguage for the remaining languages of the Malagasy Republic. Slightly later ancestral-Tbk may have become evident. Perhaps during the middle of the first millenium the protolanguage divided itself into at least two groups, ancestral Me-Si-BtsA-BtsF-Bsk-Tm-Tsk-Zfs and ancestral-Vz-Mf-Td1-(Td2)-Ba. This latter group began dividing during the second half of the first millenium A.D. Ancestral Sak may also have become identifiable at this time. While ancestral Vz-Mf-Td1 (Td2-Ba was splitting into many parts, ancestral-Me-Si-BtsA-Bsk-Tm-Tsk-Zfs was dividing into two parts. Further divisions in both of these later two parts took place during the first half of the second millenium A.D (68).
  • Dez (1963) has classified Malagasy speech communities into subgroups on the basis of phonology and morphology. His subgroups differ from those isolated through our glottochronological analysis, and we suggest, therefore, that Dez's conclusions be reconsidered. Dez found two significant subdivisions among the Malagasy languages. The first includes the dialects of the west and south, and the second, those of the east coast and central highlands (.).
    Our findings show that the northern dialects are indeed to be distinguished from both western-southern and eastern-central subgroups. However, not only are Tkr and Tsi sufficiently divergent to be placed apart from the western group, they are also sufficiently distinctive from one another in basic vocabulary to warrant placement in two subgroups rather than in a single subgroup. The findings of glottochronology reveal that the original diversification of Proto-Malagasy into subgroups involved three divisions, Proto-Tsi, Proto-Tkr, and proto-all the rest of the languages spoken in Madagascar today. It was later in Malagasy history that what Dez considers to be the principal division, that between eastern-central and western-southern, took place (.) (69).
  • Madagascar was colonized by three groups. One of them became the Tsimihety of the northern interior(.). A second became the Tankarana, isolated from their nearest neighbours, the Tsimihety, and from all other Malagasy groups (.). A third group which has subsequently diversified to form all the rest of the contemporary Malagasy populations established itself along the eastern and the western coasts (.) (74).

verinpierre&smithdavid 1986Vérin, Pierre, and David Smith. 1986. The history of civilisation in north Madagascar. Rotterdam, Boston: A.A. Balkema.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Makoa,
Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana),
Northern,

Some very original etymological insights into the language of the North are offered in this work and these deserve to be followed up. See pp 48-49.

Selected quotes:

  • In all the dialects of Madagascar, there are words that date back to the early period of Afro-Indonesian symbiosis. Exemples of such words are omby (ox), ondry (sheep), akanga (guinea fowl), akoho (chicken), etc. This implies that there was an important Bantu influence when the breeding of livestock was introduced into Madagascar. On the other hand, there are many Bantu borrowings which do not belong to the north-west. These include, for example, the word mahogo (cassava), which is mangahazo in the center of the island and balahazo in the south, as well as many terms used in seafaring.
    Place names also follow this general rule. There are few such names with a Bantu origin in Malagasy, or perhaps it would be more correct to say that these are either barely recognizable or even rare (Kaday, Kasijy, Mazy). On the northwest coast, however, there are several place names which have been introduced more recently by the Swahilis of the échelles. These include, among others, Kivinja (the encampments), Kandrany (in the shape of cape, Kanda), Ankomany (where there are sea plants), Langany, Karakajoro (like a raised finger), Sangajira (way of the sands), Kongony (where there are bugs), Kisimany (where there is a well), Bandany (where there are houses), Djangoa (tidal creek) (46-7).
  • It is as yet hardly possible for us to disentangle the different contributions that were made in successive stages, but many authors felt that the population of the west and the north of Madagascar was very heterogeneous. Throughout the whole of his book on the north-west, Mellis stressed the contrast between 'the people of the sea' (Antandrano) and 'those of the interior' (olo boka antety). He also pointed out that this contrast is marked by certain funeral rites. According to Mellis, 'the Antankara in the strict sense of the word are, above all, "Antandrano" (those of the water). They occupy the coastline of the island and live from the products of the sea. Some scholars say that they are the Vahizo (=Vezo) of the North' (Mellis 1938:15).
    Mellis also noted that this right to the coastline meant that the Antankara kings were Tompondjia, that is, masters of the sand, and in charge of turtle hunting (47).
  • Vezo-Antavelo (48).
  • Throughout the history of the Sakalava kingdom, the political movements of the Boina had repercussions in the extreme North. It is even possible to say that, despite their relative autonomy, the Ankarana and the mountainous interior of the Androna were submitted-and indeed had been submitted since the beginning of history-to a process of 'Sakalavization'. The Sakalava influence has led some scholars to believe that, at the linguistic and ethnographic levels, the people of the north were connected to the Western Madagascan province, even though they were in fact very close to the Betsimisaraka of the north (113).

verinpierre 1969Vérin, Pierre. 1969. Aspects du peuplement de la région de Malaimbandy. Annales de l'Université de Madagascar, Série Lettres et Sciences Humaines 10:91-105.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,

verinpierre 1993bVérin, Pierre (ed.) 1993b. Religions. Etudes Océan Indien 16. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Comores, Comorien,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

This edition of Etudes Océan Indien contains eight articles and one book review. The latter and five of the articles have bearing on our field of interest and have been annotated where applicable. The articles in question deal with the Tanôsy people around Fort Dauphin, the Sakalava people of Menabe, the Islamic Sakalava people of the North, Grande Comore and the Tañala of Ikongo. Two of these articles report on historical facts and the others on current issues.