SIL International Home

Malagasy ethnies : Malagasy

Malagasy ethnies : Central

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Antakay

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Betsileo

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Bezanozano

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Merina

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Merina : Ambaniandro

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Merina : Amboalambo

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Merina : Borizano

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Merina : Hova

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Sihanaka

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Vakinankaratra

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Andriambahoaka

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Anjoaty

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Betanimena

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Betsimisaraka

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Betsimisaraka : Zanamalata

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Betsimisaraka : Northern Betsimisaraka (Antavaratra, Tavaratra)

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Betsimisaraka : Southern Betsimisaraka (Antatsimo, Tatsimo)

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Sahafatra

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Sahavoay

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Saint Mariens

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Antambahoaka (Tambahoaka)

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Tanala (Antanala)

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Tanala (Antanala) : Zafindiamanana

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Tefasy (Antefasy, Antaifasy)

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Tefasy (Antefasy, Antaifasy) : Zafisoro

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro)

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Tesaka (Antesaka, Antaisaka)

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Zafimaniry

Malagasy ethnies : Northern

Malagasy ethnies : Northern : Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana)

Malagasy ethnies : Northern : Tsimihety

Malagasy ethnies : North-western

Malagasy ethnies : North-western : Antalaotra

Malagasy ethnies : Southern

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Imamono

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Manonga

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Marovola

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Masitoka

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Vilakatsy

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Zafimandomboka

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Zafimarozaha

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Zafindrendriko

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Tevondro (Antevondro)

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Tsienimbalala

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Zafimanely

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Zafimarozaha

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Zafindravola

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Karimbola (Karembola)

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Kimosy

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Mahafale (Mahafaly)

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy)

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy) : Afomarolahy

Malagasy ethnies : South-eastern

Malagasy ethnies : South-eastern : Tanosy (Antanosy)

Malagasy ethnies : South-eastern : Tanosy (Antanosy) : Fareze (Tefareze, Antanosy Tefareze, "Tambolo")

Malagasy ethnies : South-western

Malagasy ethnies : South-western : Korao

Malagasy ethnies : South-western : Masikoro

Malagasy ethnies : South-western : Masikoro : Andrevola

Malagasy ethnies : South-western : Mikea

Malagasy ethnies : South-western : Tañalaña

Malagasy ethnies : Western

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Beosy

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Makoa

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Menabe

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Sakalava

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Sakalava : Bemazava (Sakalava)

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Sakalava : Northern Sakalava

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Sakalava : Sakalava Analalava

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Sakalava : Sakalava Menabe

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Sakalava : Sambirano

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Sakalava : Southern Sakalava

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Sakalava : Sakalava Boeina

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Vazimba

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Vezo

Malagasy ethnies : Other

Malagasy ethnies : Other : Wakwak

Malagasy ethnies : Other : Kibushi (Shibushi)

bastardej 1899Bastard, E.-J. 1899. Mission chez les Mahafaly. Colonie de Madagascar. Notes, Reconnaissances, Explorations 3(5):480.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

battistinirene 1964aBattistini, René. 1964a. Géographie Humaine de la plaine cotière Mahafaly. Etudes malgaches 12. Toulouse: Éditions Cujas.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

bernardalain 1978Bernard, Alain. 1978. Essai sur la transition de la société Mahafaly vers les rapports marchands. Travaux et documents de l'Orstom 90. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tañalaña,
South-western,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Karimbola (Karembola),

Selected quotes:

  • (.)'une langue mahafaly qui n'existe pas (.) (360). [Contradicts himself-e.g. p. 8]

boittinpatrick ndBoittin, Patrick. n.d. Etude monographique de Bezaha.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,
Bara,

charlesclementseverin 1985Charles, Clément Séverin. 1985. Les Mahafale de l'Onilahy: Des clans au royaume, du xvie siècle à la conquête coloniale. Thèse. Paris: Université de Paris 1.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

congregationdelamissionlazaristes 1996Congrégation de la mission (Lazaristes) (ed.) 1996. Le Christianisme dans le sud de Madagascar. Mélanges à l'occassion du centenaire de la reprise de l'évangélisation du sud de Madagascar par la congrégation de la mission (lazaristes) 1896-1996. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French, Malagasy
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Karimbola (Karembola),
Bara,
Tesaka (Antesaka, Antaisaka),
Eastern,
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),

This work gives an up-to-date review of the history of Christianity in the South of Madagascar. One chapter that is particularly relevant to a study of the Tandroy was written by P. Benolo François, entitled: La religion traditionnelle chez les Ntandroy. He describes in detail the content and meaning of Tandroy traditional religion.
There is also a chapter on the history of the Lutheran missions in the South, from 1887 till 1950, written by Rev. James B. Vigen., and many other chapters relating to the history of the different Catholic congregations working in Madagascar.
In the chapter entitled Le Diocèse d'Ihosy, P. Colombi Giovanni Luigi, and P. Razafimamonjy Etienne Emmanuel briefly discuss the evangelisation of the Bara. Areas of Ibara are included in the diocese of Morombe on which P. Rabemanantsoa Benjamin wrote the chapter Le Diocèse de Morombe: les Lazaristes et la première évangélisation d'Ankazoabo-Sud.
The last chapter, entitled Bilan du Christianisme dans le Sud de Madagascar, by Mgr Rakotondravahatra, Jean-Guy, places the current state of Christianity in the South of Madagascar in a challenging context.

dahlottochr 1971Dahl, Otto Chr. 1971. Un cockney parlant malgache vers 1710. Norsk tidsskrift for sprogvidenskap 24:83-153.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),

delormeandree 1936Delorme, Andrée. 1936. L'hazomanga-lava: Une grande fête chez les Mahafales. La Revue de Madagascar 16:79-96.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

Simple, but sensitively-written account of the institution ceremony of a new hazomanga (sacrificial post), symbol of the power of the new king.

druryrobert 1896Drury, Robert. 1896. Madagascar or Robert Drurys journal during fifteen years captivity on that island and further description of Madagascar by Abbé Rochon. Ed. S.P. Oliver. London: Seminar Press.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),

druryrobert 1897Drury, Robert. 1897. Madagascar, or, Robert Drury's journal, during fifteen years of captivity on that island. London: T. Fisher Unwin Paternoster Square.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),

eggertkarl 1979Eggert, Karl. 1979. Mahafaly as misnomer. Paper prepared in advance for participants in Burg Wartenstein symposium, no 83: human adjustment in time and space in Madagascar, August 18-27, 1979.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

In this paper Karl Eggert discusses eight kinds of social groups that the people living in the Mahafaly region identify with, namely traño, foko, tariha, karazana, ziva, then what he calls cultural groups: local and intra-regional, and gasy. He then discusses the name Mahafale in terms of the meaning and the value of the concept where the people themselves do not relate to it in the way "outsiders" view it. The following quotation sums up his thinking:
"The literature classifies the Mahafaly Region's predominant population as Mahafaly. However, the region's contemporary residents neither call themselves Mahafaly nor claim to be members of an all-encompassing Mahafaly group. They describe themselves, instead, as many different people with membership in many different groups." (20).
His paper provides interesting insights, but some of the main points, such as a group being given a name by outsiders, while the internal consciousness of the group is totally different, could be applied to many other populations of Madagascar.

eggertkarl 1981Eggert, Karl. 1981. Who are the Mahafaly? Cultural and social misidentifications in southwestern Madagascar. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 13-14:149-176.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

This is certainly the best of the three papers by Eggert available on the subject of the cultural identity of the people who live in the Mahafaly region. He enlarged the bibliography and organised the contents of his paper in a more logical way. He restated the "Gasy" identity that he found to exist in the region, by situating it within the larger Malagasy context. This paper comes across as less sectarian than the other two.
On page 166, he says in a footnote by the phrase "Gasy, by their own definition, speak a different language than the rest of Madagascar's people."
"The people's claim stands in contrast to the common assumption that is made in the literature that all of Madagascar's people speak the same language, or at least regional dialects of it (e.g. Deschamps 1965:19, and Rajemsa-Raolison 1966:184). Yet, in an objective, linguistic sense there may be more to what the people say than at first meets the eye. Vérin, Kottak, and Gorlin (1969), using a one hundred item basic word list, found that four major Malagasy "dialects" spoken in the section of Madagascar that Gasy believe to be their homeland, have a shared cognate rate of only 60 to 70% with the Merina dialect of Malagasy, the island's official dialect. Since many linguists draw the line at which different dialects diverge enough to become different languages at a 70% rate of shared cognates (Dyen 1965:18), the language that Gasy speak may indeed be another language." (166).
This quote reflects on the purpose of our study, namely to try and assess degrees of intelligibility among Malagasy "ways of speaking."
However, Eggert's paper does seem a bit naïve in some ways and in particular concerning the issue of "Gasy" as a "cultural group." It is as though his study grant was used up before he could get to the bottom of things and then he was perhaps too quick to document his unverified findings.

eggertkarl 1986Eggert, Karl. 1986. Mahafaly as misnomer. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 321-335, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

This paper is the exact replica of the 1979 unpublished paper by the same author and has been slightly altered since the version published in "Omaly sy Anio" (1981).

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1986aEsoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1986a. L'elevage dit traditionnel, est-il un frein au développement? (L'exemple de l'élevage Mahafale dans le sud-ouest). Recherches pour le Développement. Série Science de l'Homme et de la Société 1:9-13.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

The author finds that the "élevage dit traditionnel" is the type of cattle husbandry that is the best adapted to the present ecological, social economical and political conditions of the region. He argues that rural development in general and that of Mahafale country in particular had been consistently neglected by the government.

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1989aEsoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1989a. Notes sur les espaces economiques du Mahafale occidental à la fin du XIXe siècle. Cahiers du Centre de Recherches Africaines 7:147-152.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

Manassé Esoavelomandroso is convinced of the homogeneity of the Tokobeitelo, a confederation of three clans in Western Mahafale, the Tevondrone, Temitongoa and Temilahehe, which he describes in this paper in terms of their mainly agrico-pastoral activities at the end of the nineteenth century. He also describes other resources tapped by these people, such as the sea and the forest and their interaction with slave traders which also shows their community spirit.
The author clarifies terminology which is important for understanding Tokobeitelo society:
raza: this term indicates the grand parents, the ancestors, the group that descends from a common ancestor which is the clan, the hazomanga (post for religious ceremonies) the vilo (earmark of the group's cattle).
famosora: different lineages within a raza or clan.

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1989bEsoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1989b. Territoires et troupeaux des Temitongoa. In Histoire et organisation de l' espace à Madagascar. Cahiers du Centre de Recherches Africaines 7, 47-56, edited by Jean Fremigacci. Paris: CRA.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

A very instructive paper on aspects of Mahafale culture, not referred to as such, but referred to as "Temitongoa," a traditional clannic subgroup among the inhabitants of the Mahafale region. The author gives insightful definitions of terminology used in clear footnotes. Even though the main focus here is on habitat and cattle herding traditions, one acquires a better understanding of human relations in the South.

Selected quotes:

  • Mais depuis quelques décennies, des communautés importantes de Mahafale, dont des Temitongoa, sont implantées hors de l'aire historique: le long de la nationale 7 entre Ankororoke et Andranovory, dans la région d'Ankazoabo, et sur la route de Morombe, entre Manja et Ankililoake. Dans ces enclaves, où elles se trouvent au contact des Tanôsy, des Bara et des Masikoro, elles ont réussi et réussissent encore à assurer la sécurité à leurs troupeaux. Elles ont résisté victorieusement aux voleurs et, dans les zones où les malaso (=cattle rustlers) font ou faisaient la loi, leurs troupeaux étaient préservés. Faut-il voir là un réflexe d'éleveurs ou le résultat d'une cohésion sociale vivante? J'opterai, pour ma part, pour la deuxième possibilité. En effet, les Bara et les Masikoro sont aussi des éleveurs et pourtant, ils n'ont pas eu la même réaction que ces Mahafale émigrés ou les Tandroy.
    Mahafale et Tandroy se sont pris en charge pour défendre leurs troupeaux. Pour cela ils ont puisé dans leur histoire, dans leur culture, les éléments pour renforcer leur cohésion, gage de leur réussite. Sauront-ils ou pourront-ils préserver, sauvegarder et utiliser cette cohésion pour en faire des fondements de leur stratégie, afin d'affronter le monde moderne qui ne semble pas vouloir les prendre comme des partenaires à part entière mais paraît les voir comme obstacles au développement? (56).

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1991aEsoavelomandroso, Manassé (ed.) 1991a. Cohésion sociale, modernité et pression démographique. L'exemple du Mahafale. Aombe 3. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

This edition of Aombe contains as the title indicates, a series of articles pertaining to Mahafale country and the people who live there. It covers the demographic situation, archaeology, rites, the ecology, religion, social organisation and other issues.

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1991bEsoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1991b. La cohésion sociale dans le Mahafale à la fin du xixè siècle. In Cohésion sociale, modernité et pression démographique. Aombe 3, 27-39, edited by Manassé Esoavelomandroso. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

The author describes Mahafale society at the end of the nineteenth century. There was then, according to him "considerable" social cohesion among them. He describes social entities like the raza, discusses the fact that the Mahafale are more like a mosaic of peoples than a united group and that such "unity" is a label made by others, by outsiders. He affirms that the Mahafale have never known a centralised organisation of state.

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1992Esoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1992. Les souverains du Menarandra dans la deuxième moitié du xixe siècle. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:287-298.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

Manassé Esoavelomandroso has cleared up many an assumption regarding the Mahafaly, and in this paper he discusses the history of the southern part of this territory and in particular the fact that European sources have often represented southern Mahafale as the kingdom of the Menarandra, submitting to the authority of one man. The author shows how there was one dominant raza, the Befira, whose cohesion is represented by the mpisoro, who played both a ritual and political role. This dominance did not signify a united kingdom, but rather a loose confederation of interrelated but autonomous entities.

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1995Esoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1995. Les formations politiques dans le Mahafale au xixe siècle. Talily 2:19-27.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

The author discusses the political structures that existed in Mahafale country in the nineteenth century, where there coexisted three or four different kingdoms with a number of autonomous lineage communities (clans), who had their own territories and related independently with these kingdoms, never submitting to any of them. Some alliances existed, but there was no central political cohesion among the inhabitants of Mahafale, perhaps as the author suggests, due to the strong cohesion of each separate lineage. Instead of a more or less harmonious cohabitation among different powers operating in equilibrium for the common good, one finds the affirmation of powers and counter-powers in conflict. This was then easily exploited by the French colonial power, who found the political structures of Mahafale weakened through division.

fagerengemile 1947Fagereng, Emile. 1947. Contribution à l'histoire de Madagascar. Histoire de la dynastie Zafindravola. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 26:49-54.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Andrevola,
Masikoro,
South-western,
Zafindravola,
Bara,
Southern,
Zafimanely,
Tsienimbalala,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),

Selected quotes:

  • On n'est pas au clair sur lequel de ces chefs conduisit une partie des Zafindravola, suivis de leurs sujets, les Tsienimbalala, vers leurs nouvelles habitations, mais il semble que les deux frères se soient d'abord établis à Lamatihy, au bord du Fiherena, à environ 120km de Tulear. Andrianomby est enterré à Bevato, au sud de Manera, dans cette même région. Tsimizetse poursuivit l'exode en remontant la rivière Manandone pour se fixer définitivement dans le Mikoboke, à l'ouest de la chaîne d'Analavelona. Il rencontra, à Trokomby, le chef Andrevola Faony. Un autre chef, Redrakake, était déjà partie pour Andakato, près de Manera, Tsimizetse occupa sa résidence vacante, près de Soatana.
    Tsimialo sétait d'abord tabli aux bords de Sakondry, non loin de Tongobory, et il y est enterré. Son fils, Manananto (ou Renanto) partit ensuite pour Mikoboke, il est reconnu comme roi des zafindravola émigrés(par qui-my question). Il occupe en même temps le poste de chef de canton.
    Les zqfindravola émigrés dans le Mikoboke ont toujours vécu en bons termes avec leurs voisins dans l'Ouest, les andrevola, et s'alliaient fréquemment avec eux pour se défendre contre les zafimanely, lorsque ces derniers envahirent le Bara-Imamono.
    Ils ont gardé leur indépendence jusqu'à l'arrivée des troupes françaises d'occupation. A ce moment, ils ont pris le parti de se sauver dans l'Analavelona, mais n'ont pas tardé à faire leur soumission.

fagerengemile 1981Fagereng, Emile. 1981. Origine des dynasties ayant régné dans le sud et l'ouest de Madagascar. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 13-14:125-140.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Bara,
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

A very sketchy paper, difficult to follow, recounting the traditional origins of four Southern dynasties, all of whom claim "vazaha" ancestry.

fielouxmichele&lombardjacques 1987Fieloux, Michèle, and Jacques Lombard. 1987. Elevage et société. Etude des transformations socio-économiques dans le sud-ouest malgache: L'exemple du couloir Antseva. Aombe 1. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Sakalava,
Masikoro,
South-western,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Bara,

firingamichaelignace 1971Firinga, Michaël Ignace. 1971. La dynastie des Maroseranana. Taloha 4:87-97.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

Very interesting observations on the origins of the Sakalava people. This article is a reprinted version of a study that first appeared in the "Revue de Madagascar," Sept 1901, pp. 658-672.

gernboecklotte 1961aGernböck, Lotte. 1961a. Bericht Über Eine Studienreise nach Madagaskar von März bis Oktober 1961. Wiener Völkerkundliche Mitteilungen 9(1-4):69-71.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

gernboecklotte 1962bGernböck, Lotte. 1962b. Mohair aus Madagaskar. Confrontation. Afrika-Asien-Europa 2(2):16-18.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

gernboecklotte 1966bGernböck, Lotte. 1966b. Quelques observations dans un village Mahafaly-Karimbola. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 42(2):25-28.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,
Karimbola (Karembola),

grandidierguillaume&decaryraymond 1958Grandidier, Guillaume, and Raymond Decary. 1958. Histoire politique et coloniale: Histoire des populations autres que les merina. Fascicule I: Betsileo, Betsimisaraka, AnTanôsy, Sihanaka, Tsimihety, Bezanozaro, Antanala, Antankarana, Bara, Mahafaly, Antandroy. Histoire physique, naturelle et politique de Madagascar 5. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,
Bara,
Sihanaka,
Central,
Bezanozano,
Betsileo,
Tsimihety,
Northern,
Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana),
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,
Betsimisaraka,

grandidierguillaume 1899Grandidier, Guillaume. 1899. Mours des Mahafaly. La Revue de Madagascar 1(3):175-185.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

hoernerjeanmichel 1988Hoerner, Jean-Michel. 1988. L'espace migratoire des Mahafale, facteur de cohésion et de développement. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 28:113-121.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

The Mahafaly people have a remarkable faculty to adapt and although they were traditionally herdsmen and farmers, are now becoming craftsmen and traders. This, argues Hoerner, does not destroy the social cohesion they have known, but shows cohesion in the transition they experience.

jullyantony 1901Jully, Antony. 1901. Manuel des dialectes malgaches. Comprenant sept dialectes: Hova, Betsileo, Tankarana, Betsimisaraka, Taimorona, Tanôsy, Sakalava (mahafaly) et le Soahély. Paris: Librairie Africaine et Coloniale.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Swahili,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Hova,
Merina,
Central,
Sakalava,
Western,
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,
Betsileo,
Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana),
Northern,
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,
Betsimisaraka,

lebigrejeanmichel 1997Lebigre, Jean-Michel (ed.) 1997. Milieux et sociétés dans le sud-ouest de Madagascar. Iles et archipels 23. Bordeaux: CRET.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Sakalava,
Menabe,
Masikoro,
South-western,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,
Bara,

Very good source for more than geography and environment!

leblondmariusary 1935Leblond, Marius-Ary. 1935. Première impression du sud Malgache. La Revue de Madagascar 11:69-78.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),

Very flowery description of the "deep south" of Madagascar from the triumphalistic heart of a true colonialist, a man of his times - some interesting facts mentioned in passing, but probably it is most valuable for the grotesquely theatrical closing paragraph singing odes to the virtues of France.

Selected quotes:

  • Mais le français est venu. De sa foreuse il a fouillé aux profondeurs des pelouses, fait jaillir les puits aussi fameux dans ces déserts que les Puits de Moïse parmi les sables d'Orient, puis installé les éoliennes. Le climat est si pur que les phtisiques y guérissent rapidement. La terre est libre et riche. Les femmes viennent qurir dans des calebasses la vie des potagers et des vergers. Par reconnaissance elles enguirlandent de fleurs les constructions de notre science. Des espaces immenses attendent la colonisation, l'organisation, ce merveilleux humain d'où jailliront le salut et la fécondité (78).

luporaveloarimananamonique 1996bLupo-Raveloarimanana, Monique. 1996b. Tranoroa: Sur les bords de la Menarandra. Talily 3-4:127-129.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),

Tranoroa is a border town, between Mahafale and Androy on the route between Ampanihy and Tsihombe. In this article, the author briefly describes aspects of life in Tranoroa.

middletonkaren 1999Middleton, Karen. 1999. Who killed 'Malagasy cactus'? science, environment and colonialism in southern Madagascar (1924-1930). Journal of Southern African Studies 25(2):215-249.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Karimbola (Karembola),

poiriercharles 1950aPoirier, Charles. 1950a. Ethnographie malgache. 2 Vol: 1. Sorcellerie médicale-magie-art, 2. aperçu sur la représentation de la femme et du bouf. Mémoires de l'Académie malgache 38. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Sakalava,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Bara,

Mixed with valuable information, almost unbearable colonialist propaganda, and opinionatedness which make this hard to read.

poiriercharles 1950bPoirier, Charles. 1950b. Généalogie des rois Maroseranana du sud de l'Onilahy. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 28:28-39.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,
Western,

rajaonarisonelie 1979Rajaonarison, Elie. 1979. Mythe sur l'origine des Mahafaly et de la dynastie Maroseranana (sud-ouest de madagascar). Taloha 8:83-110.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

schomerusgernboecklotte 1968aSchomerus-Gernböck, Lotte. 1968a. Quelques observations sur le mariage Mahafaly-Karimbola. In Civilisation malgache. Série sciences humaines 2, 295-300, edited by Jean Poirier, and Siméon Rajaona. Antananarivo: Université de Madagascar, Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

schomerusgernboecklotte 1970aSchomerus-Gernböck, Lotte. 1970a. Quelques observations sur les fiancailles, le mariage et le divorce chez les Mahafaly. Bulletin de Madagascar 20(293-294):859-866.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

schomerusgernboecklotte 1970bSchomerus-Gernböck, Lotte. 1970b. Sprachaufnahmen bei den Mahafaly. Bulletin of the International Committee on Urgent Anthropological and Ethnological Research 12:95-115.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

schomerusgernboecklotte 1971aSchomerus-Gernböck, Lotte. 1971a. Enquête socio-économique en pays Mahafaly. Report, Mission d'Aide et de Cooperation. Antananarivo.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

schomerusgernboecklotte 1971bSchomerus-Gernböck, Lotte. 1971b. Les Mahafaly. Introduction à leur culture matérielle. Taloha 4:81-86.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

This brief description of Mahafale culture touches on aspects of history, customs, utensils, funerals, agriculture and cattle raising.

schomerusgernboecklotte 1981Schomerus-Gernböck, Lotte. 1981. Die Mahafaly. Eine ethnische Gruppe Im Süd-Westen Madagaskars. Beiträge Zur Kulturanthropologie. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag.

language(s):
German
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,

From 1961 until 1972, the author undertook four long fieldtrips to Madagascar, where she spent a total of eight years doing research. In this account, she deals with all topics relating to the lifestyle and environment of the Mahafaly, their worldview, and their political and social organisation, covering everything in much detail. This must be one of the most thorough accounts of Mahafaly life in the 70's, although it is important to understand that the focus of her research was not general anthropology, but traditional medicine. In doing her research, she documented the material contained in this publication. If there isn't much reference made to her work by other authors, it could be due to the language factor, as she wrote in German.
Many insights are to be gained from this publication on the Mahafaly. Unfortunately, the research already dates a bit and some facts may be different now, to the time of research, namely 1961-1972. Of interest to our study in sociolinguistics are her remarks on the language of the Mahafaly, who are neighbours to the Bara, Vezo and Antandroy. And perhaps, also, to some AnTanôsy.
On the Vazimba, who have traditionally been seen as the first inhabitants of Madagascar, she says that they were definitely of Indonesian ancestry like all other Malagasy and not of African descent, as can be seen in their language and culture. She mentions that the Hova may have been a group of late settlers, having arrived, as their lore would indicate, in the 15th and 16th centuries.
She mentions that although the people of Madagascar were officially divided into eighteen ethnic groups by the French colonial Government, one cannot see the Malagasy people as racial or linguistic units. In her time, they were called foko, e.g. foko-Mahafaly.
With the 1970 census, the Mahafaly were numbered as 90,573.
She states that the Mahafaly speak as all inhabitants of Madagascar, a dialect of Malagasy and gives the division of these dialects according to Dahl as three large groups, namely a Western Group with Sakalava, Vezo, Tanalana, Antandroy and Mahafaly; an Eastern Group with Tanôsy, Taimanambondro, Taisaka, Sahafatra, Taifasy, Tambahoaka and Betsimisaraka; and the dialects of the Highlands, namely, Betsileo, Bara, Tsimihety, and Merina.
According to the author, Dez and Dahl assumed that the Proto-Malagasy spoke one language when the island was populated and that any divergence in speech forms must date since after the Arabic influence of the 11th and 12th centuries, because of the spread of Arabic loanwords that appear together with the Indonesian vocabulary in the different dialects. The Hova language that was spoken at the court of Radama I was written in Latin script and declared State Language in 1823. This language only became known in Mahafaly land after 1905, because the Merina could not subject them until then. According to the author, there remain only very few Mahafaly who still know their own dialect.
She closes her monograph with the récit of an old woman, who tells the story of her life. It is a priceless experience, well worth reading.

Selected quotes:

  • Die Mahafaly bezeichnen wie alle übrigen Madegassen ZANAHARY als den Erschaffer der Erde, des Himmels und des Meeres. Alles (.) gehören ebenfalls ZANAHARY. Wenn man von ihm spricht, sagt man Zanahary. Wenn man ihn anruft (.) nennt man ihn Andrianahary (196).
  • Die meisten Mahaffaly haben keine genauen Vorstellungen vom Wesen Gottes. Sie sind so oft von Missionaren danach gefragt worden, dass sie sagen, sie wüssten nicht ob er männlich oder zeiblich, ob er verheiratet sei oder Kinder habe. Meistens sagen sie, sie hätten über Gott noch nie nachgedacht. Für sie ist Gott überall, er hat kein Gesicht und keinen Körper, er hat auch keine Sprache, er ist nicht böse und kann deshalb auch nicht zornig werden. Die Madegassen vom Hochland sehen im Blitz und Donner Ausdruck eines Gotteszornes. Für die Mahafaly ist es die Ehrfurcht vor Zanahary oder Andrianahary, die sie alle fady, Gebote oder Verbote einhalten lässt. Gott straft auch nicht, wenn man durch ein Opfer um Vergebung bittet. Viele Mahafaly meinen, dass es einfacher sei, an den christlichen Gott zu glauben (.) (197).

trousselle 1899Trousselle. 1899. Renseignements généraux sur le secteur de Mahafaly. Colonie de Madagascar. Notes, Reconnaissances, Explorations 3(5):507-518.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,