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Malagasy ethnies : Malagasy

Malagasy ethnies : Central

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Antakay

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Betsileo

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Bezanozano

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Merina

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Merina : Ambaniandro

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Merina : Amboalambo

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Merina : Borizano

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Merina : Hova

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Sihanaka

Malagasy ethnies : Central : Vakinankaratra

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Andriambahoaka

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Anjoaty

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Betanimena

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Betsimisaraka

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Betsimisaraka : Zanamalata

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Betsimisaraka : Northern Betsimisaraka (Antavaratra, Tavaratra)

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Betsimisaraka : Southern Betsimisaraka (Antatsimo, Tatsimo)

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Sahafatra

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Sahavoay

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Saint Mariens

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Antambahoaka (Tambahoaka)

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Tanala (Antanala)

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Tanala (Antanala) : Zafindiamanana

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Tefasy (Antefasy, Antaifasy)

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Tefasy (Antefasy, Antaifasy) : Zafisoro

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro)

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Tesaka (Antesaka, Antaisaka)

Malagasy ethnies : Eastern : Zafimaniry

Malagasy ethnies : Northern

Malagasy ethnies : Northern : Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana)

Malagasy ethnies : Northern : Tsimihety

Malagasy ethnies : North-western

Malagasy ethnies : North-western : Antalaotra

Malagasy ethnies : Southern

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Imamono

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Manonga

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Marovola

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Masitoka

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Vilakatsy

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Zafimandomboka

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Zafimarozaha

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Zafindrendriko

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Tevondro (Antevondro)

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Tsienimbalala

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Zafimanely

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Zafimarozaha

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Bara : Zafindravola

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Karimbola (Karembola)

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Kimosy

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Mahafale (Mahafaly)

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy)

Malagasy ethnies : Southern : Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy) : Afomarolahy

Malagasy ethnies : South-eastern

Malagasy ethnies : South-eastern : Tanosy (Antanosy)

Malagasy ethnies : South-eastern : Tanosy (Antanosy) : Fareze (Tefareze, Antanosy Tefareze, "Tambolo")

Malagasy ethnies : South-western

Malagasy ethnies : South-western : Korao

Malagasy ethnies : South-western : Masikoro

Malagasy ethnies : South-western : Masikoro : Andrevola

Malagasy ethnies : South-western : Mikea

Malagasy ethnies : South-western : Tañalaña

Malagasy ethnies : Western

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Beosy

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Makoa

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Menabe

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Sakalava

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Sakalava : Bemazava (Sakalava)

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Sakalava : Northern Sakalava

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Sakalava : Sakalava Analalava

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Sakalava : Sakalava Menabe

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Sakalava : Sambirano

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Sakalava : Southern Sakalava

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Sakalava : Sakalava Boeina

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Vazimba

Malagasy ethnies : Western : Vezo

Malagasy ethnies : Other

Malagasy ethnies : Other : Wakwak

Malagasy ethnies : Other : Kibushi (Shibushi)

anonymous 1901bAnonymous. 1901b. Ranavalona I (1828-1861). L'Iraka 89:718-720.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

ayachesimon 1976Ayache, Simon. 1976. Raombana l'historien (1809-1855). Introduction à l'édition critique de son ouvre. Collection "Gasikarako". Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

This biography and detailed study of the Malagasy historian, Raombana, contemporary of Ranavalona I, and of his work; reveals some very interesting facts about the first half of the nineteenth century and all the complicated relationships of the time-internationally, nationally, and local-personally.

ayachesimon 1979Ayache, Simon. 1979. Beyond oral tradition and into written history: The work of Raombana (1809-1855). In Madagascar in history. Essays from the 1970's, edited by Raymond Kent. Albany, California: Foundation for Malagasy Studies.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

ayachesimon 1995Ayache, Simon. 1995. Pouvoir central et provinces sous la monarchie au XIXe siècle. Talily 2:41-66.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

This article, which was first published in 1981, is reprinted in Talily because the subject material remains so relevant. The author tries to establish a historical foundation for Malagasy unity by purposing to give an "objective" and "honest" account of the regional conflicts of the past, by describing differences and aspirations among the people as political wars among kingdoms (not tribal wars), and the Merina expansion of the nineteenth century as "political expansion from within," (not as "imperialism" by one "tribe" at the cost of others), seen as the Colonial view of history. While challenging certain prejudices, it seems that the author prefers to uphold his own in defence of the doctrine of or desire for an underlying unity among all Malagasy.

berggeraldm 1977Berg, Gerald M. 1977. The myth of racial strife and Merina kinglists: The transformation of texts. History in Africa 4:1-29.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

The author warns against the European bias in early written histories of Merina history and points out inconsistencies among documents rendering the oral histories in a Europeanised form, in line with the scientific and missionary models of the time. Others perpetuated these documents by quoting from them.

berggeraldm 1986Berg, Gerald M. 1986. Royal authority and the protector system in nineteenth-century Imerina. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 175-192, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

blochmauriceef 1971aBloch, Maurice E. F. 1971a. Placing the dead. Tombs, ancestral villages, and kinship organization in Madagascar. Studies in anthropology. London: Seminar Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

blochmauriceef 1971bBloch, Maurice E. F. 1971b. The implications of marriage rules and descent: Categories for Merina social structures. American Anthropologist 73:164-178.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

blochmauriceef 1975bBloch, Maurice E. F. (ed.) 1975b. Political language and oratory in traditional society. London: Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

blochmauriceef 1978Bloch, Maurice E. F. 1978. Marriage among equals: An analysis of the marriage ceremony of the Merina of Madagascar. Man n.s. 13(1):21-33.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

blochmauriceef 1986aBloch, Maurice E. F. 1986a. From blessing to violence. History and ideology in the circumcision ritual of the Merina of Madagascar. Cambridge studies in social anthropology 61. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

Some very good insights to be had from this work by an author who knows the Merina people well, but particularly concerns the circumcision ritual.

blochmauriceef 1986bBloch, Maurice E. F. 1986b. Hierarchy and equality in Merina kinship. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 217-228, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

blochmauriceef 1989Bloch, Maurice E. F. 1989. Ritual, history and power: Selected papers in anthropology. London school of economics. Monographs on social anthropology 58. London: Athlone Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

burneydavida&ramilisonina 1999Burney, David A., and Ramilisonina. 1999. The kilopilopitsofy, kidoky and bokyboky: Accounts of strange animals from Belo-sur-mer, Madagascar, and the megafaunal "extinction window". American Anthropologist 100(4):957-966.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Vazimba,
Sakalava,
Masikoro,
South-western,
Betsileo,
Central,

cabanesr 1972Cabanes, R. 1972. Cultes de possession dans la plaine de Tananarive. Cahiers du Centre d'Etudes des Coutumes - Université de Madagascar 9:33-66.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

Some interesting etymological arguments.

calletfrancois 18711883Callet, François. 1871-1883. Tantaran'ny andriana eto Madagascar. 5 vols. Antananarivo: Presy Katolika.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

campbellgwyn 1992Campbell, Gwyn. 1992. The history of nineteenth century Madagascar: 'Le royaume' or 'l'empire'. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:331-379.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

In this paper, the revisionist tendency in recording Malagasy history is set aside while the author looks at the evidence of history and concludes that in order to comprehend pre-colonial times in Madagascar, researchers should reject the concept of 'royaume' and replace it with the concept of 'empire'. The arguments raised are plausible if one is able to leave behind the post-colonial reactionary mindset and look at history for itself, with no other agenda but researching what can be known.

celliera 1971Cellier, A. 1971. Notes sur les populations de la rive droite du bas-Mangoky en 1906. Taloha 4:99-109.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Sakalava,
Makoa,
Bara,
Southern,
Betsileo,
Central,
Tesaka (Antesaka, Antaisaka),
Eastern,
Tanala (Antanala),

Captain Cellier gives in this article a summary of his reports to the authorities during the years 1904-1906. He gives a detailed description of the geographic area he deals with, as well as some interesting information on the origins of the people living to the right of the Bas-Mangoky, how they came to be there, according to oral history, and an analysis of why they stayed.

chapusgeorgessully 1925Chapus, Georges-Sully. 1925. Quatre-vingts années d'influences Européennes en Imerina. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 8.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

condominasgeorges 1960Condominas, Georges. 1960. Fokon'olona et collectivités rurales en Imerina. Paris: Berger-Levrault.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

coulauddaniel 1974Coulaud, Daniel. 1974. Reflexion sur la notion d'ethnie à Madagascar: L'exemple du nord des pays Tanala et Betsileo. Taloha 6:89-116.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,
Zafimaniry,
Eastern,
Tanala (Antanala),

This excellent article on the problem of ethnicity in Madagascar is done in three parts. Coulaud first describes the identities of the following groups, (often misunderstood by the colonial mindset and by a too facile application of the "19 peoples" of Madagascar), namely the groups of Northern Betsileo (Fandriana, Mahazoarivo, Imady); the groups of the forest escarpment (Arivoanala, Zafimaniry); and the groups below the eastern escarpment (Zafindiamanana, Mahasila, Manandriana, Antaiva).
Having briefly differentiated among these different groups, he discusses in part two different aspects concerning the formation of the ethnic group, the life of the ethnic group, and the idea of an ethnic identity. He ends his conclusion with a quotation of the oath of the VVS (= Vy, Vato, Sakélika-Nationalist movement) in 1913, which goals would be achieved for the benefit of Madagascar, "Je jure d'aimer tous les malgaches.Je ne tiendrai compte ni des diverses races ni des tribus: les Malgaches sont un indivisible et inséparable. Un Malgache, c'est un Malgache et c'est tout ce qui compte."

cousinswe&parrettj 1871Cousins, W. E., and J. Parrett. 1871. Ny ohabolan'ny Ntaolo. Antananarivo: London Missionary Society Press.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

dahlottochr 1966Dahl, Otto Chr. 1966. Les débuts de l'orthographe malgache. Oslo-Bergen-Tromsö: Universitetsforlaget.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Merina,
Central,

Excellent paper for understanding the development of Malagasy orthography and related matters.
In this paper, Professor Dahl touches on issues like "one language is spoken all over Madagascar," saying that "les autochtones de Madagascar parlent tous la même langue, bien que divisée en un grand nombre de dialectes. C'est le parler de Tananarive, depuis un siècle et demi la capitale de l'Ile, qui est le malgache littéraire et, grâce à la littérature et à la circulation, on arrive partout à se faire comprendre en employant ce parler (le Merina)." It would be interesting to know how that conclusion was arrived at and how much weight Professor Dahl would himself assign to it now, forty years later. At the time of publication, in 1966, the Malagasy population counted just over 5 million people. In 2002, that number had more than tripled and infrastructures and education had deteriorated in most parts of the island over the almost four decades, perhaps felt least in the capital. Successive language policies and other government intervention, as well as misadministration over the last decades have further increased the deprivation of the Malagasy people, in terms of accessibility to education and general development.

Selected quotes:

  • Les autochtones de Madagascar parlent tous la même langue, bien que divisée en un grand nombre de dialectes. C'est le parler de Tananarive, depuis un siècle et demi la capitale de l'Ile, qui est le malgache littéraire et, grâce à la littérature et à la circulation, on arrive partout à se faire comprendre en employant ce parler (le Merina) (5).

dahloeyvind 1993bDahl, Øyvind. 1993b. Malagasy meanings. PhD dissertation. Center for Intercultural Communication, School of Mission and Theology, Misjonshogskolens forlag.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vakinankaratra,
Central,
Merina,

This study has been the one of the greatest treasures found since we started learning about Malagasy history, culture, and language and should be read by everyone involved in cross-cultural work and particularly by those who endeavour to communicate with the Malagasy people. Working through this practical handbook took us on a journey of discovering ourselves and our own worldviews in relation to that of the Malagasy people; and in identifying with the many practical situations described, we could relate and learn to empathise and were alerted to the fact that we need to let go of our own cultural assumptions, if we wish to truly relate to our friends in Madagascar and not be yet another costly, but passing, irrelevance in the long history of cross-cultural interaction.

dahloeyvind 1999Dahl, Øyvind. 1999. Meanings in Madagascar. Cases of intercultural communication. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vakinankaratra,
Central,
Merina,

delivrealain 1974Delivre, Alain. 1974. Interprétation d'une tradition orale. L'Histoire des rois d'Imerina. Paris: Klincksieck.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

delordr 1960Delord, R. 1960. Un document inestimable sur la dynastie royale d'Ambositra. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 38:67-77.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,

delvalraymond 1972Delval, Raymond. 1972. Radama II, prince de la renaissance malgache, 1861-1863. Paris: Editions de l'Ecole.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

delvalraymond 1986Delval, Raymond. 1986. Le résident Besson, médecin, administrateur et humaniste. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 23-24:265-282.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,
Merina,
Central,
Betsileo,
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

delvalraymond 1992Delval, Raymond. 1992. Le pouvoir et les atteintes au pouvoir dans l'ancien droit. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:299-307.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

dezjacques 1978bDez, Jacques. 1978b. Les sources Européennes anciennes de la linguistique malgache. Paris: Université de Paris 7.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Austronesian linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Merina,
Central,
Saint Mariens,
Eastern,
Betsimisaraka,

Dez gives an insightful overview and appreciation of older European sources on the Malagasy language, sorted under nationality of author; He situates each author in historical context.

Selected quotes:

  • A ce jour, l'intérêt offert par l'étude des sources anciennes n'est nullement épuis. Il demeure, au contraire, d'une extrême actualité. (27)

dezjacques 1993Dez, Jacques. 1993. Une contribution anglaise à la connaissance de la langue malgache: L'enquête dialectale du révérend J. Richardson (1893). Atlas linguistique et ethnographique de Madagascar. Travaux préliminaires 2. Strasbourg: Université des Sciences Humaines.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sambirano,
Sakalava,
Western,
Zafisoro,
Tefasy (Antefasy, Antaifasy),
Eastern,
Hova,
Merina,
Central,
Tanala (Antanala),
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana),
Northern,
Betsileo,
Bezanozano,
Sihanaka,
Vakinankaratra,
Betsimisaraka,
Masikoro,
South-western,
Vezo,
Bara,
Southern,

domenichinijeanpierre 1971Domenichini, Jean-Pierre. 1971. Histoire des Palladium d'Imerina d'après des manuscrits anciens. Texte bilingue. Antananarivo: Musée d'Art et d'Archéologie de l'Université de Madagasar.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Diachronic linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

domenichiniramiaramananabakoly 1968Domenichini-Ramiaramanana, Bakoly. 1968. Hainteny d'autrefois, poèmes traditionnels malgaches receuillis au début du règne de Ranavalona I (1828-1861). Haintenin'ny fahiny, voaangona tamin'ny voalohandohan'ny nanjakan-dranavalona I. Antananarivo: Librairie Mixte.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

duboishenrimarie 1938Dubois, Henri-Marie. 1938. Monographie des Betsileo (Madagascar). Travaux et mémoires de l'institut d'ethnologie 34. Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,

elleb 1928Elle, B. 1928. Notes sur les tribus de la province de Farafangana. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache 4:126-123.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Zafisoro,
Tefasy (Antefasy, Antaifasy),
Eastern,
Betsileo,
Central,
Tanala (Antanala),

esoavelomandrosofaranirinav 1980Esoavelomandroso, Faranirina V. 1980. De la peste maladie à la "peste politique". Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 11:49-95.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

esoavelomandrosomanasse 1986bEsoavelomandroso, Manassé. 1986b. L'insécurité dans la province Bara du 'royaume de Madagascar' (1888-1895). Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 23-24:229-237.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,
Merina,
Central,

In this short essay Esoavelomandroso describes the failure of the Merina contingent in Ihosy to "keep the peace" in Ibara (and in parts of Betsileo) between the years 1888-1895. "Sanctuaire pour ceux qui viennent désoler le Betsileo, la province bara est aussi le repaire de tous ceux qui ne reconnaissent pas l'ordre royal merina ou qui le contestent ouvertement" (233). This history may explain the presence of so many Betsileo, Tanala and others among the Bara, people who have been living there for a century or more and consider themselves to be Bara.

Selected quotes:

  • Cette province bara est une terre d'accueil pour des populations qui s'opposent à l'ordre royal. Les Ambiloina, par example, (.) constituent un regroupement instable de populations d'origine diverse. Pour l'essentiel ce sont des groupes de Mavorongo et de Tanala-populations du gradin forestier oriental-ayant quitté leur "pays" depuis longtemps, et établis à l'ouest de l'Isalo, à quinze journées de marche au sud-ouest de Tompoananandrariny pour un détachement de l'armée. Dans leur nouveau "pays," boisé et difficile d'accès, d'où ils partent pour attacker le Betsileo et où ils échappent au contrôle effectif des troupes royales, ces Mavorongo et Tanala, que rééunissent leur habitat commun et leurs activités, se donnent comme nom "Ambiloina." On voit là en gestation l'embryon d'une nouvelle population, prête à s'entendre avec tous ceux qui contestent et combattent le pouvoir royal (233-4).

faubleejacques 1954bFaublée, Jacques. 1954b. Les esprits de la vie à Madagascar. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Religion,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vezo,
Western,
Vazimba,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Bara,
Merina,
Central,
Betsileo,

fernandezmf 1970Fernandez, M. F. 1970. Contribution à l'étude du peuplement ancien du lac Alaotra. Taloha 3:3-55.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sihanaka,
Central,

freudenbergerkarenschoonmaker 1999bFreudenberger, Karen Schoonmaker. 1999b. Le corridor coincé: Une étude sur l'économie familiale et la gestion de ressources naturelles dans la commune d'Alatsinainy Ialamarina, Madagascar. Une étude de cas basée sur la recherche MARP, effectuée le 16 au 21 février 1999. Report, LDI. Fianarantsoa.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,

graeberdavid 1997Graeber, David. 1997. Painful memories. Journal of Religion in Africa 27(4):374-400.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

grandidierguillaume&decaryraymond 1958Grandidier, Guillaume, and Raymond Decary. 1958. Histoire politique et coloniale: Histoire des populations autres que les merina. Fascicule I: Betsileo, Betsimisaraka, AnTanôsy, Sihanaka, Tsimihety, Bezanozaro, Antanala, Antankarana, Bara, Mahafaly, Antandroy. Histoire physique, naturelle et politique de Madagascar 5. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,
Bara,
Sihanaka,
Central,
Bezanozano,
Betsileo,
Tsimihety,
Northern,
Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana),
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,
Betsimisaraka,

grandidierguillaume 1956Grandidier, Guillaume. 1956. Histoire politique et coloniale: Histoire des Merina (1861-1897). Histoire physique, naturelle et politique de Madagascar 5. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Officielle de la Colonie.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

houlderja 1881Houlder, J. A. 1881. Madagascar and its proverbs. The Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine 2:58-75.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

houlderja 1894Houlder, J. A. 1894. Ohabolana, or wit and wisdom of the Hova of Madagascar. The Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine 18:188-204.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

houlderja 1960Houlder, J. A. 1960. Ohabolana ou proverbes malgaches. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Luthérienne.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

An excellent collection of proverbs, with a very interesting introduction by this missionary of the LMS who holds the traditional prejudice that the Merina "are intellectually superior to the other peoples of Madagascar" (III).

huntingtonwilliamrichard 1986bHuntington, William Richard. 1986b. The transformation of the Bara rural economy. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 299-319, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,
Merina,
Central,
Betsileo,

Richard Huntington presents here an interesting case study of the area of his field work during 1970-1974, namely the village of Anosibe, consisting of 14 small Bara hamlets. He discusses social relationships and interaction, economic and cultural activities, and emphasises the changes he had perceived in the four years of close contact with this population, mainly change brought about by external governmental factors and controls, resulting in a self-sufficient and independent economy becoming reliant on outside control and becoming increasingly vulnerable to the evils of organised cattle-stealing.
The author describes the self-containedness of Bara society, the impermeability to Western thought and ideology, such as a total disinterest in the Christian faith. They had (to a measure) opened up to the idea of education during the years the author describes, after the opening of the first school in Anosibe in 1975. Another factor of change is in the main road between Ihosy and Ranotsara, which passes by Anosibe, facilitating contact with the "outside world."
Having discussed a number of adjustments that the author has observed over time among the population of Anosibe, he says in closing that "it may well be that the most important period of human adjustment for the Bara is now upon them" (318).

Selected quotes:

  • European-derived attitudes and institutions have had a minimal influence on customs, perceptions and aspirations (314).
  • As one example, consider Christianity. Not one person at Anosibe is even nominally Christian or has ever attended a Christian worship service. In a country where it is often claimed that a large majority of its people are Christian, the Bara stand as a firm exception. There are Protestant and Catholic churches in Ranotsara, Ivohibe, and Ihosy, but they are filled with people of other ethnic groups. The Bara are simply not interested. The contrast between this Bara situation and the rapid and early conversion of the Betsileo is striking and would provide an interesting subject for further investigation (314-5).

jacobguy 1992Jacob, Guy. 1992. L'armée et le pouvoir dans le royaume de Madagascar au temps du premier ministre Rainilaiaravony (1864-1895). Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:381-402.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

jullyantony 1901Jully, Antony. 1901. Manuel des dialectes malgaches. Comprenant sept dialectes: Hova, Betsileo, Tankarana, Betsimisaraka, Taimorona, Tanôsy, Sakalava (mahafaly) et le Soahély. Paris: Librairie Africaine et Coloniale.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Swahili,
Indian Ocean region,
Madagascar,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Hova,
Merina,
Central,
Sakalava,
Western,
Tanosy (Antanosy),
South-eastern,
Mahafale (Mahafaly),
Southern,
Betsileo,
Tankarana (Antankarana, Tekarana, Antekarana),
Northern,
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,
Betsimisaraka,

keenanelinorochs 1973Keenan, Elinor Ochs. 1973. A sliding sense of obligatoriness: The poly-structure of Malagasy oratory. Language in Society 2:225-243.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vakinankaratra,
Central,
Merina,

keenanelinorochs 1976Keenan, Elinor Ochs. 1976. The universality of conversational postulates. Language in Society 5:67-80.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vakinankaratra,
Central,
Merina,

Keenan deals in this paper with cross-cultural issues of communication, with a Malagasy speech community as ethnographic case study. The handling of information by the Malagasy of the Vakinankaritra shows that information is an important commodity to them and underlines the need to be aware of potential misunderstandings due to differences in conversation ethics.

keenanelinorochs 1989Keenan, Elinor Ochs. 1989. Norm-makers, norm-breakers: Uses of speech by men and women in a Malagasy community. In Explorations in the ethnography of speaking, 125-143, edited by Richard Bauman, and Joel Sherzer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vakinankaratra,
Central,
Merina,

An excellent article on Malagasy speech culture, written from experiences in the village of Namoizamanga in the Vakinankaratra. A learning experience for a vazaha (foreigner) to read this article-du savoir-vivre.

kottakconradphillip 1971Kottak, Conrad Phillip. 1971. Social groups and kinship calculation among the southern Betsileo. American Anthropologist 73:178-193.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,

kottakconradphillip 1977Kottak, Conrad Phillip. 1977. The process of state formation in Madagascar. American Ethnologist 4(1):136-155.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Bara,
Southern,
Merina,
Central,
Betsileo,
Temoro (Antemoro, Antaimoro),
Eastern,

kottakconradphillip 1980Kottak, Conrad Phillip. 1980. The past in the present. History, ecology, and cultural variation in highland Madagascar. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,
Merina,
Central,
Betsileo,
Tesaka (Antesaka, Antaisaka),
Eastern,

kottakconradphillip 1986Kottak, Conrad Phillip. 1986. Kinship modeling: Adaptation, fosterage, and fictive kinship among the Betsileo. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 277-298, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,

larsonpierm 1996Larson, Pier M. 1996. Desperately seeking 'the Merina' (central Madagascar): Reading ethnonyms and their semantic fields in African identity histories. Journal of Southern African Studies 22(4):541-560.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

In this paper the building blocks of ethnic identity are discussed against a background of ethnological theory. The clear argument of the author lends itself to application to many ethnic identity-related situations.

Selected quotes:

  • Ethnic identities rarely come full-blown, they are made, often from the building blocks of named, pre-existing identities. The nature of named identities shifts over time (.).Shallowly read, then, identity names are empty vessels designating bounded and classified sets of people in local cultural taxonomies yet offering few immediate clues to the nature of the collective consciousness they contain. The signifier is of less social and historical significance than the signified (.).
    'Ethnonyms', therefore, are not always ethnonyms. They may designate full-blown identities, nascent ones or even point to identities of an altogether different nature (.) (558).
  • The fact that the meaning of identity signifiers constantly shifts raises the simple but all too often ignored question of what ethnic identity actually is and when a shifting identity crosses the border into a consciousness that we can confidently label as ethnic. Historians are unlikely to come to agreement on this issue, not least because borders of identity are never neatly drawn and ethnicity is an elusive abstraction to define with precision or in a universally applicable manner (.). What, for example, really differentiates Merina political consciousness from Merina ethnic consciousness?(559).
  • Consciousness itself derives from the cognitive capacity of humans to reflect on themselves, their behaviour, and their relationship to other humans and their environment. Collective consciousness therefore becomes a sort of corporate self-concept as the group's reflection is moulded and articulated from within and without, ever in an interested fashion.The content and character of consciousness within what Bill Bravman calls 'communities of belonging' (1994) are neither unproblematically ascertained nor neatly differentiated along political, ethnic, religious, social, clan or national lines. Ethnic belonging (ethnicity), however, normally entails a purposeful, interested collective consciousness of common descent and kinship, a claim to 'natural' belonging on the basis of certain linguistic, cultural or physical characteristics, or even on a set of attitudes and behaviours. A political consciousness (i.e. that which designates the sense of belonging to a polity) may express itself through a similar set of articulating institutions-such as through collective ritual, versions of corporate history, visual and verbal imagery, or clothing-and is similarly imagined and moralized, but its referent identity should not be analytically equated with ethnicity. Political identities channel loyalty toward administrative communities; ethnic identities toward communities of imagined kinship that assume a certain independence from formal structures of power and politics. When political identities successfully draw diverse peoples into a synthesized cultural/symbolic system they tend to generate an emergent ethnic or national consciousness(559).
  • While communities of belonging are relevant to the everyday lives of their members, whether scholars characterize that 'belonging' as ethnic or political might seem of little import. Yet the attempt to discern differences and shifts in the nature of belonging change as the type of belonging itself shifts, hence influencing the social relationships people entertain, expect or can mobilize (559).
  • Investigating the semantic fields of 'names of belonging' is the single most effective tool for determining such qualitative identity shifts (560).
  • Finally, the Merina case demonstrates that ethnic identity can be created and transformed outside of a colonial context. Ethnogenesis is not simply a function of colonial rule (560).

lombardjacques 1988Lombard, Jacques. 1988. Le royaume Sakalava du Menabe. Essai d'analyse d'un système politique à Madagascar. 17È-20è. Travaux et documents: Institut français de recherche scientifique pour le développement en coopération 214. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vazimba,
Western,
Sakalava,
Mikea,
South-western,
Bara,
Southern,
Merina,
Central,

For more than four years, Jacques Lombard worked among the Sakalava people in Western Madagascar. He presents here an analysis of Sakalava society from the perspective of Sakalava political and economic systems. To achieve this, he did a field study collecting oral material on how the Sakalava people themselves explain their society. The analysis of this material constitutes the bulk of his contribution, with which he also integrates a wide reading of related literature. He explains the Maroseraña-Zafimbolamena dynasties and presents the history and development of Sakalava political units in the Boeny and Menabe during the 16th and 17th centuries until their decline in the 19th century.
Contrary to the opinion of some authors, Lombard holds that the Sakalava kingdoms of Menabe and Boeny were formed independently and in spite of the arrival of the first Europeans on the coast, but in interaction with their input-the Sakalava kings merely used the outsiders to affirm their position of power. He points out the economic importance of this interaction. It was, however, only with the French conquest of Madagascar that an external (European) power became a direct agent in the destiny of these dynasties.
The author deals with many related issues in working through the main parts of this study, which are 1. the historical stages of the constitution of the Sakalava kingdoms; 2. Sakalava economy, and 3. Sakalava royalty. These include general Malagasy history, interaction among the different peoples of Madagascar, anthropological and geographical details, and an analysis of the basic Sakalava worldview in the Boeny and Menabe.
His work analyses the factors leading to the establishment of Sakalava kingdoms, and shows how the decline of these occurred. To conclude, the author describes the present state of Sakalava royalty since its collapse with French colonialism. He mentions the interesting fact that the rise and establishment of Sakalava royalty coincided with the Mercantile period of European Nations, whereas, the Industrial period of these economies and the abolition of slavery sounded its decline. In comparison the ideologies of the Industrial period can be seen as advantageous for the rise of the Merina Kingdom, finally leading to total political control by a European power.
Jacques Lombard describes with clarity the ideological elements of Sakalava society, the underlying philosophy or worldview that determines their interpretation of life and death, the interaction of the natural world and the world of spirits, their view of God and mankind, and the two-way intervention possible between them.
He also describes, with insight, the rites of bilo and tromba and the fitampoha and fanompoha ceremonies.

mahajobom 1992aMahajobo, M. 1992a. Jean Paulhan: Hain-teny Merina. Poésies populaires malgaches, recueillies et traduites par J. Paulhan. Antananarivo: Foi et justice, 1992, 239p. In Le scribe et la grande maison. Etudes Océan Indien 15, 287, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Ethnography,
Anthropology and ethnology,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

malzacvictorin 1930Malzac, Victorin. 1930. Histoire du royaume Hova depuis ses origines jusqu'à sa fin. Tananarive: Imprimerie Catholique.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

marchaljeanyves 1974Marchal, Jean-Yves. 1974. La colonisation agricole au moyen-ouest malgache: La petite région d'Ambohimanambola (sous-préfecture de betafo). Atlas des structures agraires à Madagascar. Paris-La Haye: Mouton & Co.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vazimba,
Western,
Bara,
Southern,
Vakinankaratra,
Central,
Betsileo,

Some historical information on the people movements in the area of Betafo during the previous centuries.

michelandrianarahinjakalucienx 1986Michel-Andrianarahinjaka, Lucien X. 1986. Le système littéraire Betsileo. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,

moletlouis 1956Molet, Louis. 1956. Le bain royal à Madagascar. Explication de la fête malgache du fandroana par la coutume disparue de la manducation des morts. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Luthérienne.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

moletlouis 1979Molet, Louis. 1979. La conception malgache du monde, du surnaturel et de l'homme en Imerina. 2 Vol. Paris: L'Harmattan.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

mondaingustave 1925Mondain, Gustave. 1925. Rôle religieux de la femme malgache. Paris: Société des Missions Evangéliques.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,
Merina,
Central,
Betsileo,

ndemajean 1973Ndema, Jean. 1973. Fomba Antakay. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bezanozano,
Central,
Antakay,

noiretfrancois 1993Noiret, François. 1993. Le mythe d'Iboina. Angano Malagasy. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

oberlep 1976Oberlé, P. 1976. Tananarive et l'Imerina. Paris: Présence Africaine.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

poirierjean 1992aPoirier, Jean. 1992a. Le fato-dra: Aspects de la fraternité par le sang chez les Bezanozano. In Le scribe et la grande maison. Etudes Océan Indien 15, 217-226, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bezanozano,
Central,

poirierjean 1992bPoirier, Jean. 1992b. Pouvoir politique, pouvoirs traditionnels et ordre villageois. Les fondements du contrôle social en pays Bezanozano. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:75-85.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bezanozano,
Central,

pourcetguy 1993Pourcet, Guy. 1993. Antananarivo, la "ville des mille". Afrique Contemporaine 168:23-40.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

profitappietro 2000Profita, P. Piétro. 2000. Malgaches et malgachitude. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,
Sihanaka,
Central,
Merina,
Betsileo,

rabary 1957Rabary. 1957. Ny maritiora Malagasy. Tantaran'ny fanenjehana mangidy niaretan' ny kristiana teto Madagasikara tamin'ny "tany maizinia". Antananarivo: Imprimerie Luthérienne.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

raharijaonas 1957Raharijaona, S. 1957. Les populations de la haute vallée de l'Imady (district d'Ambositra, province de Fianarantsoa). ORSTOM.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,
South-eastern,

raharilalaohilaireaurelienmarie 1991Raharilalao, Hilaire Aurélien-Marie. 1991. Eglise et fihavanana à Madagascar. Une herméneutique malgache de la réconciliation Chrétienne selon Saint Paul, 2 co 5, 17-21. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,

Raharilalao reports on his research of the Malagasy ethic of fihavanana and its meaning in the context of Malagasy society, in particular in Betsileo, as well as how this concept finds theological meaning in the light of the Gospel of Reconciliation in Christ. This is a study on aspects of inculturation in the context of Madagascar.
The author presents this study in two parts: First, a "Malagasy reading of Reconciliation according to Saint Paul," and secondly, a "Malagasy interpretation of Christian Reconciliation."

raisonjourdefrancoise 1992Raison-Jourde, Françoise. 1992. Les évangélistes Merina et leur contribution à la première ethnographie des côtes malgaches. In Le scribe et la grande maison. Etudes Océan Indien 15, 121-136, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,
Malagasy,

When the missionaries came back to Madagascar in 1861, after the interruption caused by the reign of Ranavalona I, who tortured and killed many Christians and expelled the missionaries, a special project was launched with the founding of the Home Missionary Society in 1873, which consisted of training and sending young Merina men to evangelise the outlying areas of Madagascar. In this paper, the author discusses the ethnographic work these evangelists were instructed to do, in order to produce "a complete picture" of the peoples of Madagascar. It was to be done by Malagasy agents, who were trained to have a European frame of reference for this, and were unable to identify with any of their fellow citizens' customs, traditions, and way of life, and, highly judgmental of these. Underlying this work, was an ethic that the author shows to have contributed to the expansion of Merina supremacy over the island. This ethic is clear from a triumphant message by the Reverend Sibree, seeing the Merina evangelists taking the torch from the English missionaries to evangelise the pagan peoples of the island, in which he said (personal translation from the French quoted on page 125):
You know that Great Britain is today a great power and she was able to submit vast lands and a good number of countries under the domination of Queen Victoria. It is because she is the first of the Christian nations to love the Word of God (.). If the Hova dominate the other populations of the island, like the Sakalava, the Betsileo, the Bara, one wouldn't hesitate in saying that it is the Hova who serve God the best, hence their supremacy in relation to the other Malagasy populations (.). Who did God give the power to? To the Sakalava, to the Betsileo, to the Bara? No, to the Hova, because they possess the Gospel and because many of them love it.
Many incongruities are pointed out here: the Hova, who subdued other Malagasy in the first half of the nineteenth century, were pagan themselves and committed acts of violence that merited them the hatred and resentment of the vanquished. So, the Merina are to continue their conquest of the island, this time with the goal of winning the pagan souls of the unsubdued, following the noble example of Great Britain, best Christian nation, best colonial power, who according to a divine plan was uniting Christianity and Colonisation under the banner of providence.
Before leaving Madagascar, Sewell (LMS) addressed a large audience in Antananarivo (again a personal translation, p.125):
I am waiting with impatience for the day, when you my friends, the Hova, will become the conquerors of many nations. where the Bara, the Sakalava and all the tribes of Madagascar will be conquered by you and all gathered in the Kingdom of Christ. I am not asking you to arm yourselves with spears and guns and cannons in this war because I have no confidence in such weapons. Let only the Word be in your bags.
The author shows how the ethnographic work done by the Merina evangelists, who were agents of their government in furthering the subjugation of the then still independent Malagasy populations, thus, working according to a certain political ethic, was continued in the same vein by the French military and administrative personnel, who used the same ethnic classification, because they all operated in the same ethic of domination.

rajaonarimanananarivelo 1986Rajaonarimanana, Narivelo. 1986. Quelques traits de l'organisation sociale des Betsileo du Manandriana. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 245-262, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,

rajaonarimanananarivelo 1996Rajaonarimanana, Narivelo. 1996. Les sept pilons de fer. Traditions orales du Manandriana (madagascar). Etudes Océan Indien 20. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,

rajemisaraolisonregis 1971Rajemisa-Raolison, Régis. 1971. Grammaire malgache. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

rakotoarimananamarcelle 1995Rakotoarimanana, Marcelle. 1995. Maladies, pratiques thérapeutiques et sorcellerie à Vinaninkarena (centre de madagascar). In Diagnostiquer et guérir à Madagascar. Etudes Océan Indien 19, 53-69, edited by Pierre Vérin. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Central,

rakotomalalamalanjaonamanoelina&razafimbelocelestin 1985Rakotomalala, Malanjaona Manoelina, and Célestin Razafimbelo. 1985. Le problème d'intégration sociale chez les Makoa de l'Antsihanaka. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 21-22:93-113.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Dialectology,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Makoa,
Western,
Sihanaka,
Central,

Insightful article of the Makoa community in Antsihanaka. A short wordlist elicited in 1982 is given in annexe.

ralaivolaclovis 1976Ralaivola, Clovis. 1976. Contribution à l'étude historique et linguistique des noms et sobriquets donnés aux Merina. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 52(1-2):3-20.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Hova,
Merina,
Central,
Borizano,
Amboalambo,
Ambaniandro,

ramamonjisoasuzyandree 1976Ramamonjisoa, Suzy Andrée. 1976. La femme malgache avant la colonisation. Antananarivo: Direction de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

Much information to be found on ancestral worship, the names of God, the sampy and ody, and social customs.

ramilisone 1951Ramilison, E. 1951. Ny loharanon'ny Andriana nanjaka teto Imerina. 2 Tomes. Antananarivo: Imprimerie Ankehitrini.

language(s):
Malagasy
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

raoelinaandriambololona&ramiandrasoafred 1976Raoelina, Andriambololona, and Fred Ramiandrasoa. 1976. Comment forger une langue scientifique malgache? Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 52(1-2):109-115.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

raoelinaandriambololona 1976Raoelina, Andriambololona. 1976. Remarques sur la malgachisation des termes scientifiques. Bulletin de l'Académie Malgache n.s. 52(1-2):100-107.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Applied linguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

ravololonirinahajasoa 1985Ravololonirina, Hajasoa. 1985. De l'instrumentalisation des dialectes oraux. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 21-22:115-129.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Language planning,
Linguistics,
Dialectology,
Malagasy language,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Bara,
Southern,
Merina,
Central,
Tsimihety,
Northern,

Very intelligent article, worthy of the best in sociolinguistics!
This is a key article for our study of Malagasy linguistics, in that it confirms many of the sensitive conclusions we have come to through field studies and other readings. It is also one of the most "sociolinguistically inclined" I have found on the Malagasy linguistic situation. The author gives a short overview of the history of Malagasy, with particular reference to the standardisation of Merina as the politically dominant dialect. He discusses certain prejudices concerning Malagasy dialects, some of which found continuation in the unifying nature of the structural description of Malagasy, which proclaims a far-fetched unity (=similarity), denying the reality of variation and difference.
We have found that the idea of dialect similarity in Madagascar has been ideologised and popularised to such an extent that it is difficult to convince people of the need for studying this assumption.
This study is a great encouragement in confirming the need.

Selected quotes:

  • Il est certain que les dialectes malgaches présentent d'importantes similitudes soulignées dès la colonisation dans des observations partielles et souvent emiriques, justifiant maintes extrapolations hâtives, comme celle-ci de Julien et Gerbinis:
    -Les diversités dialectales ne reflètent que des nuances et non des différences. Elles tiennent surtout à des changements plus apparents que réels, dans l'émission de certaines syllabes finales, l'alternance de certaines consonnes entre elles. La grammaire et la syntaxe enfin, sont partout, à quelques insignifiantes variantes près, les mêmes.-
    A l'à peu près de ces approximations linguistiques, souvent subordonnées aux normes occidentales, s'est substituée cinquante ans plus tard l'option structuraliste inaugurée en linguistique malgache par S. Rajaona sous les traits du fonctionnalisme. On ne saurait nier l'impulsion donnée par la linguistique structurale à la recherche en linguistique fondamentale. Le fonctionnalisme a orienté deux grandes thèses en dialectologie: 'La syntaxe du Bara' de BR Rabenilaina, et 'le parler Sakalava du Nord-Ouest' de D. Baré-Thomas, pour ne parler que des travaux mis à la disposition du public. La description structurale a permis de mettre en évidence un aspect isomorphe des dialectes de l'île qui présentent "à quelques variantes près" un système phonologique, des normes morphologiques et des normes syntaxiques communs.
    La linguistique structurale est résolument unifiante, mais l'unité qu'elle décrit est l'expression d'un choix opéré dans les faits de langue sur le refus de prendre en considération la variante ou la différence. Forte de ses convictions, elle franchit le pas entre une unité structurale de fait et une unification linguistique de droit (119).

razafindratovoramamonjisoajanine 1986Razafindratovo-Ramamonjisoa, Janine. 1986. Ilafy: Terre et parenté. In Madagascar: Society and history 38, 229-243, edited by Conrad Phillip Kottak, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Aidan Southall, and Pierre Vérin. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

schlemmerbernard 1985Schlemmer, Bernard. 1985. Des Hautes Terres de Madagascar et des réformes qu'il conviendrait d'y mettre en ouvre. Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines 25:433-441.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Central,

skeiekh 1994Skeie, K. H. 1994. Religious and cultural identity in times of change. Beliefs and rituals around death among the Merina of Madagascar 1866-1895. Oslo: University of Oslo. Dept of History of Religions.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

smithfg 1988Smith, F. G. 1988. Vélona! Le triomphe des martyrs malgaches. Chalon sur Saône: Europresse.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Missiology,
Religion,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,

This overview of the history of the Malagasy martyrs would perhaps read easier in the original English, as the French translation seems stilted. The author places the story of the three waves of persecution of Christians under Ranavalona I in the context of the birth of the Malagasy church and the political trends of the time. He establishes a chronology for the reader, which facilitates an understanding of that time in Malagasy church history.

Selected quotes:

  • None

solondraibethomas 1992Solondraibe, Thomas. 1992. Communautés de base et pouvoirs politique dans le Lalangina et le Vohibato (sud-betsileo) du xvie au début du xxe siècle. Omaly sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui) 33-36:15-46.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,

southallaidan 1971Southall, Aidan. 1971. Kinship, descent and residence in Madagascar. American Anthropologist 73:144-164.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Masikoro,
South-western,
Bara,
Southern,
Merina,
Central,
Betsileo,
Tsimihety,
Northern,
Tanala (Antanala),
Eastern,

valettejean 1966Valette, Jean. 1966. Note sur l'origine du mot Betsileo. Bulletin de Madagascar 1966:1006-1009.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
History,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Betsileo,
Central,

veaj 1991Vea, J. 1991. The development of milk production in Vakinankaratra, the Malagasy highlands. Stavanger: School of Mission and Theology.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Social sciences - other,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Vakinankaratra,
Central,

verinpierre&gorlinpeter&kottakconradphillip 1969Vérin, Pierre, Peter Gorlin, and Conrad Phillip Kottak. 1969. The glottochronology of Malagasy speech communities. Oceanic Linguistics 8(1):26-83.

language(s):
English
topic(s):
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Sakalava,
Western,
Tandroy (Antandroy, Ntandroy),
Southern,
Bara,
Merina,
Central,
Betsileo,
Tsimihety,
Northern,
Betsimisaraka,
Eastern,

This study has yielded some interesting results and has opened the way for a variety of subjects to be researched further. More word studies have been added from the list of Malagasy speech forms not treated in this present study. Anyone interested in Historical, Comparative and Sociolinguistics of Malagasy, needs to take note of this article.

Selected quotes:

  • (.)in contrast to the wide range of phenotypes encountered throughout the island, the languages spoken in Madagascar are relatively homogeneous (26).
  • In the present article, we shall not attempt to deny a certain obvious homogeneity of dialects spoken in Madagascar. However, we shall be concerned primarily with demonstrating a considerable linguistic diversity which has hitherto received little attention (27-8).
  • The contributions anticipated by the present study are three: (1) a reassessment of existing studies of Malagasy dialectology with the aid of comparisons in basic vocabulary; (2) a clarification of the culture history of Madagascar. When viewed in combination with the findings of archaeology and ethnology, a sub-grouping of Malagasy speech communities will be of significant aid to the scholar and layman interested in the origins and sociocultural diversification of the Malagasy population; (3) a presentation of material which will assist in placing Malagasy dialects within the framework of the Indonesian subgroup (28).
  • (.) this paper is an application of glottochronology to problems of linguistic and cultural unity and diversity within Madagascar (28).
  • Speech communities in Madagascar are assumed here to coincide in large measure with cultural groups. However, there is no agreement about the number of distinct cultural groups in Madagascar. The official census classification of the Malagasy government recognizes the existence of twenty 'ethnies' ('cultures') (28-9).
  • Basic vocabulary lists were not collected for all of the hitherto recognized 'ethnies' or cultures of Madagascar (29).
  • The authors deliberately decided to obtain data from informants and to avoid the use of dictionaries (29).
  • Merina dialect, now the official language of the Malagasy Republic, has been written since 1820 (32).
  • In collecting basic vocabulary for Malagasy speech communities, we have used Swadesh's 100-item test list of diagnostic terms (reproduced in Hymes 1960:6) (34).
  • The one hundred meanings have been collected for sixteen Malagasy speech communities (.). Two additional lists were constructed taking into account the existence of dual vocabularies in the Sakalava and Tandroy dialects. Dual vocabularies are commonly encountered in western and southern Madagascar (.) Special terms are particularly numerous when reference is being made to body parts and functions. While the use of these terms seems to be diminishing, some special vocabulary words have entered everyday parlance, now devoid of much of its former hierarchical framework. In all cases where there are special terms correlated with high status, there are alternatives for reference to commoners (34).
  • A second avenue for the introduction of special terms into Malagasy vocabulary in certain speech communities has to do with taboo and replacement (34).
  • Taboo is more difficult to control than dual vocabulary, and we are unable to say to what extent it has affected the results of our study (.). Like other culture elements, taboos on words spread from centers. Like other ideological struts to state systems, taboos are most forceful at the center or capital of the state administration. Some areas, which were under only the nominal political control of the Sakalava sovereigns, never adopted taboos to the same extent as communities nearer the geographical locus of kingly power (35).
  • (Insofar as possible, we have registered) as noncognate the forms which are similar because one language has borrowed them from the other or because both have borrowed from a common source. In many instances, it is impossible to say whether cognates have been borrowed by one Malagasy dialect from another. In an environment in which contacts beween different communities took place through trade and warfare, there must have been word borrowing. One can only assume, if there is no discordant phonological evidence to the contrary, that basic cognates are shared because of common inheritance rather than as loan words (35).
  • Because of the relative homogeneity of speech patterns throughout Madagascar, we could not be sure that all internal borrowings have been eliminated. It was possible, however, for us to discard those terms which can be demonstrated to have been borrowed from Swahili, for example, certain words for 'fish', 'dog', and 'louse' (35).
  • This study is concerned with speech communities with a high degree of linguistic similarity and in which the number of cognates shared is in all cases higher than 50% and in some cases as high as 92% (54).
  • The primary problem of lexicostatistical analysis of dialects lies in the assumption of independence. The retention rate is supposed to operate separately on each word list. Hymes (1960:19) cites three principal factors that would prevent independent dialect divergence. These are: contact, which increases the likelihood that words retained and dropped will be the same; drift, or the similarity of change resulting from similar internal structure of the language; and dregs, which refers to heterogeneity in a word list with respect to the probability of retention. If one were to use the standard formula to calculate divergence time given the percentage of shared cognates, each of the above factors would operate to produce an underestimate in time depth (55).
  • (.) by using a theoretical genetic tree the linguist has a basis against which to compare his purely historical information (55).
  • In our analysis of dialects, we are interested in the relationships of three variables. The first is time depth, a purely chronological factor indicating the total time that two populations speaking the languages in question have been separate. Separateness in this case may be defined simply as geographical discreteness, with the border between the linguistic areas to be determined empirically in each case. The second figure is the given figure for linguistic similarity measured for our purposes by the number of shared cognates for the word list as specified by Swadesh. The third variable would be some estimate for the kind of interaction between the two populations. This variable would presumably try to take into account the alteration in rate of change of the number of shared cognates that would be brought about by the fact that the two populations speak to one another. Traditional glottochronology is a method of estimating time depth only for populations that cannot communicate (.). What we are interested in doing is introducing a third variable to account for those situations in which the members of the two populations share enough similar cognates to understand one another, but in which dialect divergence is taking place and would presumably proceed up to the point where the two-variable analysis would suffice (56).
  • The smallest percentage of shared cognates for any two Malagasy speech communities is that of Sakalava 2 (west coast) and Tambahoaka (east coast). These two groups share 52% cognates (59).
  • (But this involves Sakalava's special vocabulary) (.). In view of these considerations, we have chosen to base our calculation on the smallest percentage of shared cognates of two Malagasy dialects neither of which is the special vocabulary list from a group with dual vocabularies. In this case the Tsimihety dialect of the northern interior of the island shares only 61% of its basic words as cognate with one other Malagasy speech community-Vezo, a group of marine fishermen located on the southwest coast near the city of Tulear (.). There is, however, no evidence which would suggest that these geographically separated populations have been in direct contact. On the other hand, were the populations in contact, communication would still be possible with 61% cognate sharing (.). In accordance with the above statements we thus conclude that the actual time of the first occupation of the island took place at some time in the first century A.D. and, with less probability, as early as the fourth century B.C. or as late as the fourth century A.D. (61)
  • Based on (our) analysis, we have come to the following conclusions:
    1. Tkr is quite isolated from the other languages of the Malagasy Republic. Its closest collateral is Tsi.
    2. Tsi is also distinct, but somewhat less so than Tkr.
    3. An additional language found to be relatively apart from the rest of the dialects is Tbk.
    4. Me, Si, BtsA, BtsF, Tm, Tsk, and Zfs are all speech communities descended from languages which have undergone considerable linguistic diversification.
    5. Associated with the languages listed under (4), but somewhat less certainly related to the highly diversifying protolanguages, are Mf and Td1.
    6. Similar to the languages listed in (5), but more remotely associated, are Bsk, Vz and Ba.
    7. Still further removed from the group of languages we consider as 'recently diversified', are Sak1, Sak2 and of course Tsi and Tbk (see (2) and (3)).
    8. Our languages that appear descended from highly diversifying ancestors do not all constitute one group. In fact, they are divided into two groups that are evident on all the genealogical trees. These are Me-Si-BtsA-(BtsF?) and Tm-Tsk-Zfs.
    9 (Our) Chart 1 also defines an additional protolanguage that diverged from the Me-Si-BtsF-Bsk-Tm-Tsk-Zfs group before this latter group began splintering. This is the Vz-Mf-Td1-(Td2)-Ba dialect family (67).
    For reasons presented earlier, we conclude that the first occupation of the island took place sometime around the first century A.D. The population moved out over the uninhabited island and almost immediately diverged into three parts: ancestral-Tkr, ancestral-Tsi, and the protolanguage for the remaining languages of the Malagasy Republic. Slightly later ancestral-Tbk may have become evident. Perhaps during the middle of the first millenium the protolanguage divided itself into at least two groups, ancestral Me-Si-BtsA-BtsF-Bsk-Tm-Tsk-Zfs and ancestral-Vz-Mf-Td1-(Td2)-Ba. This latter group began dividing during the second half of the first millenium A.D. Ancestral Sak may also have become identifiable at this time. While ancestral Vz-Mf-Td1 (Td2-Ba was splitting into many parts, ancestral-Me-Si-BtsA-Bsk-Tm-Tsk-Zfs was dividing into two parts. Further divisions in both of these later two parts took place during the first half of the second millenium A.D (68).
  • Dez (1963) has classified Malagasy speech communities into subgroups on the basis of phonology and morphology. His subgroups differ from those isolated through our glottochronological analysis, and we suggest, therefore, that Dez's conclusions be reconsidered. Dez found two significant subdivisions among the Malagasy languages. The first includes the dialects of the west and south, and the second, those of the east coast and central highlands (.).
    Our findings show that the northern dialects are indeed to be distinguished from both western-southern and eastern-central subgroups. However, not only are Tkr and Tsi sufficiently divergent to be placed apart from the western group, they are also sufficiently distinctive from one another in basic vocabulary to warrant placement in two subgroups rather than in a single subgroup. The findings of glottochronology reveal that the original diversification of Proto-Malagasy into subgroups involved three divisions, Proto-Tsi, Proto-Tkr, and proto-all the rest of the languages spoken in Madagascar today. It was later in Malagasy history that what Dez considers to be the principal division, that between eastern-central and western-southern, took place (.) (69).
  • Madagascar was colonized by three groups. One of them became the Tsimihety of the northern interior(.). A second became the Tankarana, isolated from their nearest neighbours, the Tsimihety, and from all other Malagasy groups (.). A third group which has subsequently diversified to form all the rest of the contemporary Malagasy populations established itself along the eastern and the western coasts (.) (74).

verinpierre&raharijaonasuzanne 1964Vérin, Pierre, and Suzanne Raharijaona. 1964. Le système de parenté Merina. Annales de l'Université de Madagascar, Série Lettres et Sciences Humaines 2:101-113.

language(s):
French
topic(s):
Malagasy language,
Linguistics,
Sociolinguistics,
Madagascar,
Indian Ocean region,
Austronesian,
Anthropology and ethnology,
Malagasy ethnie(s):
Merina,
Central,