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Fr    monème, morphème2


Synonym(s): moneme

Antonym(s): lexeme

Related term(s): allomorph, formative1, gram, grammatical morpheme, lexical morpheme, minimal grammatical unit, minimal meaningful unit, minimal segment, minimal unit, morph

Domain: Morphology


Akmajian etal. 1984: 58
AKMAJIAN, Adrian, DEMERS, Richard A., & HARNISH, Robert M. (1984) Linguistics: An Introduction to Language and Communication, 2nd Ed. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Beaugrande & Dressler 1981: 20
BEAUGRANDE, Robert de & DRESSLER, Wolfgang. (1981) Introduction to Text Linguistics. London: Longman. (PR)

Clark & Clark 1977: 22-23
CLARK, Herbert H. & Eve V. (1977) Psychology and Language: An Introduction to Psycholinguistics. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Jovanovich. (PL)

Collinge 1990: 75
COLLINGE, N. E. (1990) An Encyclopaedia of Language. London: Routledge.

Cook 1969: 180
COOK, Walter C. (1969) Introduction to Tagmemic Analysis. Washington: Georgetown University Press. (TA)

Crystal 2003: 300-301 (also "submorpheme")
CRYSTAL, David. (2003) A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics, 5th Ed Oxford: Blackwell.

Dell 1980[trans.]: 15
DELL, François. (1980 [trans.]) Generative Phonology. Trans. By Catherine Cullen.  Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.  (GG/PH)

Dineen 1967: 50-51
DINEEN, Francis P. (1967) An Introduction to General Linguistics. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Ducrot & Todorov 1979[trans.]: 201
DUCROT, Oswald and TODOROV, Tzvetan. (1979 [trans.]) Encyclopedic Dictionary of the  Sciences of Language. Trans. by Catherine Porter. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 

Eggins 1994: 127
EGGINS, Suzanne. (1994) An Introduction to Systemic Functional Linguistics. London: Pinter Publishers. (FG)

ELL: 2546
The Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics. (1994) Oxford: Pergamon Press.

ERC: 387
Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition. (1996) New York: Garland Publishing, Inc. (RH)

Finch 2000: 104f. (also "root morpheme")
FINCH, Geoffrey. (2000) Linguistic Terms and Concepts. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Greimas 1983[trans.]: 119-120
GREIMAS, A.J. (1983 [trans.]) Structural Semantics: An Attempt at a Method. Trans. by Daniele McDowell, Ronald Schleifer & Alan Velie.  Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.  (SN)

Halliday 1994: 18
HALLIDAY, M.A.K. (1994) An Introduction to Functional Grammar (Second Edition). London: Edward Arnold.  (FG)

Hamp 1963: 38-39, 65
HAMP, Eric P. (1963) A Glossary of American Technical Linguistic Usage 1925-1950. Utrecht: Spectrum Publishers. 

Hartmann & Stork 1972: 145
HARTMANN, R.R.K. & STORK, F.C. (1972) Dictionary of Language and Linguistics. London: Applied Science Publishers.

Hock 1986: 29
HOCK, Hans Henrich. (1986) Principles of Historical Linguistics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. (HL)

Kess 1992: 73
KESS, Joseph F. (1992) Psycholinguistics: Psychology, Linguistics and the Study of Natural Language. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. (PL)

Kroeger 2005: 12-13
KROEGER, Paul R. (2005) Analyzing Grammar: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lyons 1971: 170, 180f.
LYONS, John. (1971) Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics. Cambridge: University Press. 

Lyons 1977: 72-73
LYONS, John. (1977) Semantics. Vols. 1 & 2. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. (SM)

MacKay 1989: 193
MACKAY, Ian. (1989) Phonetics and Speech Science. A Bilingual Dictionary. Dictionnaire Bilingue de la Phonétique et des Sciences de la Parole. New York/Bern: Peter Lang. (PH)

Martin & Ringham 2006: 127-128
MARTIN, Bronwen & RINGHAM, Felizitas. (2006) Key Terms in Semiotics. London: Continuum. (SN)

Martinet 1962: 22 (= moneme)
MARTINET, André. (1962) A Functional View of Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (FM)

Matthews 1974: 11-12
MATTHEWS, P.H. (1974) Morphology: An introduction to the theory of word-study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (MO)

Matthews 1981: 52
MATTHEWS, P.H. (1981) Syntax. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (SY)

Matthews 1997: 232 (#2, #3)
MATTHEWS, P.H. (1997) The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Nash 1968: 145
NASH, Rose. (1968) Multilingual Lexicon of Linguistics and Philology: English, Russian, German, French. Coral Gables, FL: University of Miami Press. 

Nöth 1990: 183, 193
NÖTH, Winfried. (1990) Handbook of Semiotics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.  (SM)

Palmatier 1972: 96-97
PALMATIER, Robert A. (1972) A Glossary for English Transformational Grammar. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. (GG)

Pei & Gaynor 1954: 140
PEI, Mario A. & GAYNOR, Frank. (1954) A Dictionary of Linguistics. New York : Philosophical Library.

Pike & Pike 1982: 4, 23-25, 83
PIKE, Kenneth L. & PIKE, Evelyn G. (1982) Grammatical Analysis. Dallas: SIL & UTA. (TA)

Pike, K. 1967: 179
PIKE, Kenneth L. (1967) Language in Relation to a Unified Theory of the Structure of Human Behavior, 2nd Ed. The Hague: Mouton. (TA)

Quirk etal. 1985: 43
QUIRK, Randolph, GREENBAUM, Sidney, LEECH, Geoffrey, & SVARTNIK, Jan. (1985) A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman.

Richards etal. 1992: 236
RICHARDS, Jack, PLATT,  J. & WEBER,  H.  (1992) Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching & Applied Linguistics. London: Longman.

Ruwet 1973[trans.]: 67-68
RUWET, Nicholas. (1973 [trans.]) An Introduction to Generative Grammar. Trans. by Norval S.H. Smith. Amsterdam : North-Holland Publishing Co. (GG)

Trask 1993: 175-176 (= formative)
TRASK, R. L. (1993) A Dictionary of Grammatical Terms in Linguistics. New York: Routledge.

Trask 1996: 227
TRASK, R. L. (1996) A Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology. London: Routledge.  (PH)

Wales 1989: 308
WALES, Katie. (1989) A Dictionary of Stylistics. London: Longman. 

Weinreich 1980: 211
WEINREICH, Uriel. (1980) On Semantics. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. (SM)



English word list


  monotransitive verb
  morpheme variant
  morpheme-structure rule
  morphological conditioning


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