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Doing linguistics
 
by International Linguistics Department
 

Complete Table of Contents

Summary

This book contains how to instructions for setting up a field language project and doing language analysis based upon methodologies developed by the Summer Institute of Linguistics. It provides specific information about collecting data, analyzing phonological, grammatical and semantic features, and describing the results of one's research. This information will help you get started, solve problems in your research, and help you gain linguistic insights for use in research projects or in applications such as literacy development.

Doing field work in linguistics

Collecting language data
How to collect data from everyday conversations
Eliciting data in a language learning session
Recording information about a person providing language data
Building a text collection
Eliciting texts
Eliciting an expository text
Eliciting a descriptive text
Eliciting a hortatory text
Eliciting a procedural text
Eliciting narrative text
Eliciting words by lexical relation
How to elicit specific kinds of 'dogs'
How to elicit the generic word 'dog'
How to elicit parts of a 'house'
How to elicit 'house' from its parts
How to elicit the collective term for 'sheep'
How to elicit the complement of 'true'
How to elicit the antonym of 'long'
How to elicit the directional converse of 'east'
How to elicit the relational converse of 'teacher'
How to elicit a scalar property set for 'size'
Asking questions
Eliciting synonyms
Eliciting words by semantic role
Eliciting patients
Eliciting agents
Eliciting pronouns
Eliciting words for particular conceptual categories
Eliciting words for events, processes, and states
Eliciting words for natural inanimate things
Eliciting words for man-made things
Eliciting words related to animate things
How to select a research site
Recording and storing data
Making a sound recording of language data
How to use a tape recorder for sound recording
Recording short utterances
Choosing a tape recorder
Maintaining a tape recorder
Storing disks and tapes
How to prepare for sound recording
Labeling a recording
How to use a computer for sound recording
Using a field notebook
Preparing a field notebook for data entry
Creating a referencing system for data in a field notebook
Recording data in a field notebook
Making annotations in a field notebook
Setting up an archive system
Setting up filing systems
Getting help from research assistants
Training a research team
Training language associates
How to train language associates to collect language data
How to train language associates to check language data
Collecting and glossing texts using research assistants
Training team members to keyboard text
How to do phonemic analysis with a research team
Agreeing on a tentative orthography
Involving research group members in psycholinguistic orthography testing
Finding research assistants
Evaluating potential language associates
Compensating research assistants

Analyzing language data

Analyzing semantics
Working with senses of lexical entries
Analyzing the senses of a lexeme
Discovering the senses of a lexeme
Identifying the primary sense of a lexeme
How to discover primary senses based on speaker intuition
How to differentiate senses on the basis of a lexeme's collocates
Example: How to differentiate senses on the basis of a lexeme's collocates
Eliciting sentences that illustrate different usages of a lexeme
How to use a matrix
Example: How to analyze verbs and affixes using a matrix
Eliciting specialized figurative texts
How to use lexical relations to determine senses
Example: How to use lexical relations to determine senses
How to examine sense analyses for uniform usage of a lexeme
Defining a sense
Identify the range of reference of a sense
How to substitute potential collocates to determine range of reference
Example: How to substitute potential collocates
How to contrast lexically related senses to determine the range of reference
Example: How to contrast lexically related senses
Writing a definition
Example: Writing definitions for nouns and verbs
Example: Writing definitions with obligatory antecedents
Comparing the senses of a single lexeme
How to examine existing senses of a lexeme for conceptual extendedness
Example: How to examine existing senses of a lexeme for conceptual extendedness
How to differentiate senses belonging to different lexemes
Example: How to differentiate senses belonging to different lexemes
Testing the validity of proposed senses
Testing for definitions that cover more than one sense or lexeme
Exploring the semantic roles of a verb
Doing language research
Building a personal linguistic library
Managing language data and analysis
How to analyze data
Publishing language data and analysis
Writing a technical paper
Selecting a topic for a technical paper
Making an outline for a technical paper
Writing the body of a technical paper
Using visual aids
Giving examples in a technical paper
Improving your technical writing
Writing footnotes
Formatting the paper correctly
Formatting linguistic examples
Making a bibliography
Formatting a bibliographic entry
Formatting a bibliographic entry for a book-like publication
Formatting a bibliographic entry for a re-publication
Formatting a bibliographic entry with an edition number
Formatting a bibliographic entry for a set of volumes
Formatting a bibliographic entry for a translated work
Formatting a bibliographic entry for an anthology
Formatting a bibliographic entry for a book
Formatting a bibliographic entry for a dissertation or thesis
Formatting an entry for a journal-like publication
Formatting a bibliographic entry for an article in an anthology
Formatting a bibliographic entry for an article in a journal
Formatting a bibliographic entry for a reprinted article in a publication
Formatting a bibliographic entry for an offprint
Formatting a bibliographic entry for an unpublished manuscript
Formatting a bibliographic entry for a review
Arranging bibliographic entries in a bibliography
Formatting footnotes and endnotes
Formatting bibliographic citations in endnotes
Formatting quoted material
Formatting a brief citation in text
Formatting quoted material (in general)
Doing text linguistics
Scowling at a text
Analyzing phonology
Determining the phonemic inventory and syllable structure
How to identify syllable structure
Applying the universal principles of syllable interpretation
Doing a phonemic analysis of segments
Interpreting ambiguous segments and sequences
Interpreting long segments
Interpreting consonant ambiguities
Interpreting glide and transition ambiguities
Identifying gaps in the phoneme inventory
Identifying contrastive phonemes
Comparing the occurrences of phonetically similar segments
Finding contrast through minimal pairs
Finding contrast through similar pairs
Writing a phoneme statement
How to identify allophones
How to interpret phones in free variation
Analyzing discourse
Charting a text
How to chart by columns or by indentation
How to make a Thurman chart
How to make a matrix chart
How to make a concordance display
How to make a tree chart
How to make a propostional tree chart
Studying thematic groupings
Determining the schema of a text
Doing syntactic and morphological analysis
How to analyze a verb phrase
Analyzing syntax and focus structure
Writing a reference grammar
How to test a reference grammar for information accessibility
Writing an introduction
Writing the main body of text in a reference grammar
Writing the morphology section of a reference grammar
Organizing the body of text in a reference grammar
Analyzing morphology
How to identify morphemes
How to distinguish between head-marking and dependent-marking languages
Analyzing lexical categories
Determining what lexical categories occur in a language
How to analyze features of lexical categories using componential analysis
Analyzing nouns
Analyzing verbs
Analyzing adjectives
Analyzing adverbs
How to determine the morphological type of a language

Doing linguistics as a secondary task

Appendix

Idiom "eat one's words"
Idiom "kick the bucket"
Idiom "pull one's leg"
Idiom "bee in one's bonnet"
Idiom "let the cat out of the bag"
Lexeme "feather"
Lexeme "hold"
Lexeme "run"
Lexeme "soft"
The prerequisites to writing a reference grammar
The production of speech
Universal principles for syllable interpretation

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Go to SIL home page This page is an extract from the LinguaLinks Library, Version 4.0, published on CD-ROM by SIL International, 1999. [Ordering information.]

Page content last modified: 15 October 1999

© 1999 SIL International