Point of View

Mitla Ruina In many languages of Mexico, especially those of the Uto-Aztecan stock, the verb must indicate the speaker’s point of view in relation to an object or event. Cora, spoken in the State of Nayarit, is one of those languages. In the sketch below, two men say, “it (water) is pouring down.” One man faces the falling water; the other stands above it. The first must use ii ‘facing’ in the verb; the second must use n ‘above’.
ankásuuna “it is pouring down”
it is pouring down
  aiikásuuna “it is pouring down”  
To say “the dog’s tail is short” the speaker uses a ‘sideways’ if the dog is seen from the side, but uses u ‘away from’ if the dog is facing away from him.
dog sideways         Dog facing away
ahkïtyapu'u                 uhkïtyapu'u